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i V — 

T ir E E D Jl E E 



GENERAL VIEW 

OF THE 

AGRICULTURE 

OF THE 

Cminty of Peebles, 

WITH 

VARIOUS SUGGESTIONS AS TO THE MEANS 

BOTH OF • 

The Local and General Improvement 

OF 

AGRICULTCBE* 



BY 

THE REVEREND MR CHARLES FINDLATER, 

Minister of the Parish of Newlands, in the County cf Peebles. 



With a MAP of the COUNTY, and other ENGRAVINGS. 

These are Thy blessings, INDUSTRY ! rough Power ! 

Whom labour still attends, and sweat, and pain ; 

Yet the kind source of every gentle art, 

And all the soft civility of life : 

Raiser of human kind', by Nature cast, 

Naked, and helpless, out amidst the woods 

And wilds, to rude inclement elements; 

With various seeds of Art deep in the mind 

Implanted, and profusely pour'd around 

Materials infinite ; but idle all. 

Thomson's Automn 



Left to themselves, all find their level price, 
Potatoes, verses, turnips, Greek, and rice. 

Pubs, or Lit. a. Diad. 



tfEDintmrgfi s 



PRINTED BY D. WII.I.I50N, 

t'OR ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE, EDINBURGH, 
AND T. N. LONGMAN & O. REES, LONDON. 

l802. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of British Columbia Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/generalviewofa1802grea 



TO 

SIR JAMES MONTGOMERY Bar t 

OF STANHOPE, 

LATE LORD CHIEF BARON OF HIS MAJESTY'S 

COURT OF EXCHEQUER 

IN SCOTLAND. 



SI R, 

BEING about to publiih an Agricul- 
tural Survey of the County of Tweeddale, 
I can think of no perfon to whom it falls fo properly 
to be dedicated, as to You. 

Tweeddale claims you as a native, and as one of 
her moil ancient refidentiaries. Your long continued 
attention to the management of her public concerns j 
your readinefs to amft, with falutary advice and coun- 
fel, every individual of her fons ; together with your 
conciliatory urbanity of manners, originating in huma- 
nity, not in artificial politenefs — have long fince ftamp- 
ed you with the chara&er, as they have gained you 
the appellation, of the Father of the County. 

Agriculture has, to you, Sir, been particularly in- 
debted, not only in the countenance given to the pro- 
fefnon of it by your example ; but alfo through your 

fenatorial 



IV DEDICATION. 

fenatorial labours, when Parliamentary Reprefentative 
for this county ; in procuring for Agricultural Induftry, 
through Legiflative interpontion, a relaxation of the 
cramping influence of the reftrictive fpirit of Entail. 
The fame liberality led you to affume an active ma- 
nagement in the Parliamentary Abolition of the laft 
remains of Perfonal Slavery which continued to dif- 
grace your native country of Scotland. 

May your Son, who has fucceeded you in the ho- 
nourable ftation of Reprefentative in Parliament for this 
county, follow out his father's public-fpirited line of 
conduct, in directing his attention to thofe great ob- 
jects of extenfive utility, which are fo congenial to 
every liberal and comprehenfive mind. Your example 
has impofed upon him a high degree of refponfibility 
to public expectation, which our knowledge of his 
character makes us confident he will amply fulfil. 

Be pleafed, Sir, to accept of this Dedication, as a 
public teftimony to your public defert ; as, alfo, of that 
fenfe of private obligation, and of private efteem, in 
which I have the honour to remain, 

SIR, 

Your moft obedient humble Servant, 

CHAs- FINDLATER. 

Mar.s? of Ne<wlanJs f "\. 

1 6. Oct. 1802. J 



CONTENTS, or INDEX. 



S^ The Divifion into Chapters and SeSiions, marks the prefcribed Farm of the 
Board of AGRicuLTUREyer County Reports. 



INTRODUCTION— Small advance towards a theory of a- 
griculture — What is eftablifhed in practice, as to tillage ; 
as to alternation of crops ; as to recruiting the fertility of 
the foil — Moral excitements. 

THE REPORT. 

Chap. I. Geographical State and Circumftances. 

Page 

Sect. I. Situation and Extent - I 

II. Divifisns ----■«. 2 

III. Climate - - - 3 

IV. Soil and Surface - - - - - 12 

Different kinds of foil - - - 13 

Old crofts and outfield - - - i£ 

Theories of the formation of foils - ib. 

Surface - - - . 18 

V. Minerals - - - - - - 20 

Mineral fprings - 23 

VI. Water 24 

Machinery going by water 25 

Chap. II. State of Property. 

Sect. I. Ejhtes, and their Management - - 28 

II. Tenures - - - - 33 

Chap. III. Buildings. 

Sect. I. Hottfes of Proprietors - - - 34 

II. Farmhoufes, offices, and repairs 36 



VI CONTENTS, OR INDEX. 

(Chap. III.— Continued.) 

Pag« 
SECT. III. Cottages - -- - - -41 

Furniture, victuals, and other accommoda- 
tion of the labouring claffes - - ib» 
No cottage mania inTweeddale — Goldfmith's 
Deferted Village — Separation of profef- 
fions, &c ----- 47 

Chap. IV. Mode of Occupation, 

Sect. I. Size of Farms — Actual fize - - 51 

(For principles leading to proper fize, fee 

Notes C & D.) 
Character of Farmers, and introduction of 

improved hufbandry - - 54 

Character of the labouring poor - 59 

Management of farms — 
I. Management of fheep farms. 

1. Do. of fheep in do. 61 
Tables, explanatory of management 6c 
Defignations of fheep 6g 

2. Do. of arable land attached to fheep 

farms — 

Do. of croft 70 

Do. of outfield 73 
Enclofure of the arable part of fheep 

farms 76 

II. Management of arable farms - - 80 

Do. of butter and cheefe making - 81 

SECT. II. Rent, in money, in kind, in perfonal fervices - 86 

Money and victual rents compared - ib. 

Kind and fervice rents confidered - 87 

Unfpecified fervices abolifhed in Scotland - 88 
Adftriclion to mills retained — obfervations 

on adftriction - 89 

Actual rent in Tweeddale - - 04 



CONTENTS, OR INDEX. Vll 

(Chap. IV.— Continued.) 

Page 

Sect.III. Tithes - 96 

Table of the provifionof Tweeddale Clergy 103 
IV. Poors rates (See Chap. XV. Sett. VII.) 
V. Leafes. 

Effe&s of their duration as to the tenant's 

induftry - - - - - 104 

Effects of fifty-feven years leafes, in the e- 

ftate of Neidpath - 105 

Small effect of the act of Parliament, grant- 
ing a latitude, as to duration, upon en- 
tailed eftates - - - - no 
VI. Expence and Profit - - - - 112 

Chap. V. Implements - 117 

Ghap. VI. Enclofing. 

Divifion of commons in Scotland, does not 

imply an obligation to enclofure - 126* 

Enclofure provided for per fe - - 128 

Stone dikes, alone, fit to confine fheep - 129 
Expediency confidered of total enclofure of 

fheep farms - - - - 133 

Gates - - - - - - 13? 

Chap. VII. Arable Lands. 

Sect. I. Tillage (fee alfo Introduction) - - 136 

II. Fallowing - - - — - '1 - ib. 

III. Rotation of crops (fee alfo principles of, in In- 

troduction ; and practice of, pages 70, 71, 
85O - - - - - - 137 

IV. Crops commonly cultivated — 

Green crops, for fallow - - - 139 
White do , 44 



Via CONTENTS, OR INDEX. 

(Chap. VII. Sect. IV.— Continued.) 

Page 
Crops not commonly cultivated — 

Green do. - 146 

White do. - 147 

Chap. VIII. Grafs. 

Sect. I. Natural Meadows and Pajlures (for flooded 

meadow, fee Chap. XII. Seel. V.) - 149 

II. Artificial grajfes - ib. 

III. Hay harvefi - - - - - 150 

IV. Feeding - - - - - . 151 

Chap. IX. Gardens and Orchards - 153 

Chap. X. Woods and Plantations. 

Experiments on pruning, by Mr Loch - 154 

Larix [alfo as fit for hedges y page 13 1.) - 156 

Chap. XI. Waftes or Commons (See p. 126.) 157 
Chap. XII. Improvements. 

Sect. I. Draining — 

Elkington's modes - - - 157 

EfTex mode, as adopted at Magbiehill 158 

This mode defcribed - - 159 

II. Paring and Burning - - 1 63 

III. Manuring - ib. 

Lord Meadowbank's mofs compoft - 167 

IV. Weeding - - - - 1 7° 

V. Watering. 

Water-meadow, with a plate - - ib- 

Produce of ditto, and expence of formation i8t 



CONTENTS, OR INDEX. \Z 

Chap. XIII. Live Stock. 

Page 

Sect. I. Cattle - - - - 184 

II. Sheep— 

Table of numbers of, {See page 201.) 
Different breeds of (for defignations of flieep, 

fee page 69.) - - - 185 

Inxexpediency of dividing the high from the 

low paftures, for different breeds - 188 

Period of geftation - - - 189 

Caftration; cafting off old breeders ; fmearing ; 
time of weaning ; artificial marks, and na- 
tural characterise of identity ; milking ; 
fummering lambs » - - ib. 

Food of fheep ; hog fence ; various plants ; 

heath and muirburn - - 192 

Shelters, natural and artificial ; fnow ftorms 193 

Hirfeling and herding - - 195 

Depofitions of fat, depending on the ground, 

not the breed - 197 

III. Horfes compared to oxen - - ib. 

IV. Hogs - 198 
V. Rabbits - ib. 

VI. Poultry - 199 

VII. Pigeons - ib. 

VIII. Bees - ib. 
Caufes of bees, pigeons, and game animals, 

not thriving - - 20O 
Table of fheep, cows, and horfes, in Tweed- 
dale - - - - 201 

Chap. XIV. Rural Economy. 

Sect. I. Labour — 

Reafons why power of regulation of, is never 
exercifed by the Juftices of Peace - 202 
b 



X CONTENTS, OR INDEX. 

(Chap. XIV. Sect. I. Continued. 

Fall of wages, in late dearths, reafon of - 204 

A&ual rate of wages in Tweeddale - ib. 

II. Provifions. (See alfo page 41.) - 208 
III. Fuel— 

Mode of making peat - - ib. 

Chap. XV. Political Economy, as connected with, 
or affecting Agriculture. 

Sect. I. Roads — 

Syftem of management of - 210 

Probable propriety of their being placed un- 
der the management of Government - 212 
II. Canals - - - - 213 

III."} 

& y Fairs — weekly markets — almanack of - 214 

1V.J 

V. Commerce - - - 218 

VI. Manufactures - ib. 

VII. Poor— 

Laws protecting property, can alone create 

a provifion for the poor * - 219 

Monks, and their charity - - 221 

Scots poor's laws — inexpediency of legal reli- 
ance — ditto of laws of refidence, &c. &c. 225 
Tables fliewing general expence, and rate of 

fupply - 234 

Filiation of baftards - - 237 

VIII. Population — 

Tables of ditto - - - 238 

. Observations on the tables - * 24a 

General population of the Britifh Empire 243 
IX. Com Laws - 244 

Colonel Dirom's publication on ditto - 245 
Howlett's ditto on ditto - - 246 



CONTENTS, OR INDEX. 



XI 



(Chap. XV.— Continued.) Pagc 

Sect. X. Game Laws 

Cafe of fheep worried by dogs 



2?i 



Chap. XVI. Obftacles to Improvement - 252 
Chap. XVII. Mifcellaneous Obfervations. 

SECT. I. Agricultural Societies - 2 ? 

II. Weights and Meafures - - tb ' 

Fads added - - 258 

Conclufion - - 261 



NOTES. 

Note A.-Explanatory of the reference of the divifion 
into counties and parilhes, to Civil and Ecclefiaftical 
jurifdiaions and duties - 2 5 

Of the jurifdidion of the Sheriff-of the Court of Jufti- 

ciary-and of the Public Accufer - - - *■ 

Of the Court of the Commiflary-J uftices of Peace, and 

their Small Debt court - 2 7 

Of Ecclefiaftical matters-qualification of clergymen, and 

mode of indudion to benefices ' ~ >' 

Ecclefiaftical Courts-Kirk Seffion-their cenfonal power 

—adminiftration of poor's funds - - - 2 73 

Prefbytery-its Civil jurifdiaion as to glebes and manfes 

—over ichools and fchoolmafters 
Synod— fingularity as to powers of appeal - - 276 
General Affcmbly-its powers as to caufes-to laws - 27 7 



XII CONTENTS, OR INDEX. 

Page 

Note B. — Explanatory of the various Scotifh tenures 
of property - - T - 279 

General view of feudal tenure - ib. 

Difficulty of reconciling the feudal maxims of Scotifh law 
to any other mode of tenure, for perpetuity, than the 
feudal - - - 287 

Difficulty from regifter of fafines — of which an account 
is given ----- 292 

Hiftory of the tack or leafe — with the caufes which have 
led to the fuppofition of the jus deleBus perfona being 
of confequence - 294 

Security of Scotifh tenants tenure, from ads 1449 and 
1469 ------ 298 

Agricultural credit hurt, through feudal notions - 301 

Note C. — Explanatory of the origin of fmall farms 304 

Abfurdity of Agrarian laws, and neceffity of feparation 
of profeffions - 306 

Note D. — Containing general obfervations upon the 
generic character of the farmer — leafe s—fize of farms 308 

Generic diflindtions of character, in the enjoyers and ac- 
quirers of a fortune - 3^9 
Farming of independent proprietors of land - 311 
Do. of profeffional farmers - - - 314 

Leafes — 

Confidered as to their duration - - - 316 

The indefinite or perpetual leafe of Lord Karnes - 321 
Leafes confidered, as to the alienable or unalienable property 

the tenant ought to have in them - - 322 

Difcouragement of the tenant's fixing his own capital in 
the foil — of his obtaining other capitals to borrow 
for that purpofe — and general banifhment of capital 
from agriculture, through the deleBus perfona - 323 



327 



CONTENTS, OR INDEX. Xlll 

Page 
Arguments in favour of the retention of the jus deleclus 

confidered — tenant's political principles — deterioration 

of the farm by worfe farmer — chance of forfeiture — 

manners of the tenant — beggarly cultivators under 

middle tackfman - - 

Leafes confidered as to the extent of the ufe of the foil in re 
ftri£ted or unreftricled management - - 332 

Reftrictions in Tweeddale — and proper for it - 335 

Size of Farms — 

General confiderations of the conftitution of the farm 337 
Principles which dilate it to its proper fize - 341 

Do. — which circumfcribe it within proper limits 342 

Note E. — Confideration of the extenfion of the right 
of franchife in England, in fuperfeding the fecurity 
of the leafe - - - - 345 

Note F. — Upon ufury - - - 347 

Note G. — Upon the unproductive claffes, and the ab- 
furdity of levelling principles - - 350 

Note H. — Confideration of the effects of large and 
fmall capitals upon the market of grain - 353 

Of Dearth - - - - 358 

■ — Monopoly - - - - - 360 

— Foref ailing, &C. - 362 

> — Government interference, by internal regulation — 
and of the maximum and the minimum — and 
individual interference for relief of the poor 369 

Appendix, No. I. 
Account of Whim, and of mofs culture - 377 

Appendix, No. II. 
Pifeafis of fheep, an eflay, with notes referring to 
Tweeddale experience 



The Author's inexperience in revifing Proof Sheets, 
and the difadvantages refulting, in confequence of 
his difbnce from the Prefs, will, it is hoped, plead 
his apology for the following 

ERRATA. 

19. line 5. for are, read is. 
34. fecond paragraph, line 9. for he, read-Cat. 
S3- lines ia. and 13. for difunion, /-^disjunction. 
59. line 9. for county, read country. 

85. fecond paragraph, there is a reference to Note D. inflead of Note C 
96. Though the rent of the county, in the ftatifHcal account, is given per pa- 
rifhes, the author, in his calculation, has excluded the 3S00 fheep of the 
Selkirk part of Inverlcithan parifh ; when corrected, his general inference 
will be found ftrengthened. 
309. foot note, line 7. for enclofure, read enclofures. 
343. fecond paragraph, two references to pages are left unfilled up— they are to 

pages 75. and 7 1. 
I48. line 9. for fuch, read much. 
Jja- hue 6. for though, read the. 
185. line 2. from bottom, for forehead, read forehand. 
193. line 10. from bottom, for to, read at. 
J&15. Eddleftone fair — for O. S. reaJN. S. 
C42. line 15. from bottom, for 903, read 703. 
S78. line II. from bottom, far duty, read duties. 
490. line 13. for old mother ancient, read our ancient mother. 
29 1. foot note, line a. for fteady tenor of, read fleadily announced. This correc- 
tion is indifpcnfable, to exprefs the author's intended fenfe. 
C99. line 5. for 1446 read 1449.— JV. B. Wherever the Scotifh acts I446 and 
1466 are quoted, fubfequently, let them be corrected into 1449 and 1469. 
31a. line 14. from bottom, place 2. before thefe words in italics, The Extent of 

the Right. 
33a. line ao. place 3. before thefe words in italics, The Extent »f the Ufc, 
336. laft line, fupply a comma after fward. 
340. line 5. from bottom, for mogen, read moyen — an old Scotifh word from the 

French, iignifying in common. 
348. line II. for rife, read ufc. 

36a. line 3. from bottom, place a fcmicolon after the word prtuttngi and a comma 
after the word road. 



INTRODUCTION. 



A lthough Agriculture has been prattifed as an art, from 
^ the remoteit antiquity, it can, as yet, hardly be confi- 
dered as ranking among the fciences, eftablifhed upon fixed 
and determined principles. Experience is, in all things, our 
only inftruclor. But it is difficult to afcertain the principles 
of Agriculture, through experience •, becaufe, here, we can- 
not, as in mechanics, chymiftry, &c. command every circum- 
ftance that is to be admitted into the experiment ; and, con- 
fequently, can never determine, with exact precifion, the ex- 
tent of efficacy of each concomitant co-operative caufe, in 
producing the refult. The wide extent of the difference of 
refult, produced by the differences of feafon, over which the 
power of man has no controul whatever, is extremely obvi- 
ous •, and there is no poffibility of determining how far the 
effect is to be afcribed to human means, or merely to the fea- 
fon, unlefs every agricultural experiment were to be con- 
ducted in a comparative manner. 

In regard to the food of plants — a principle which we ought 
to be able to fet out with, as the foundation of die whole practice, 
had Agriculture attained to the rank of a fcience — no certain 
conclufion feems, as yet, to have been fufficiently eftablifhed. 
"Whilft fome, perhaps, ftill adhere to the generally exploded 
theory of the fathers of the univcrfal drill-fyitem of hufband- 
ry, in imagining it to confifl of comminuted earth, however ap- 
parently unadapted to enter their capillary verTels under any 
form ; Whilft others place it in oils and laits j although, when 

immediate ly 



xv i INTRODUCTION. 

immediately applied, thefe fubflances feem either inefficacious 
or detrimental to vegetation : Others, confidering the earth as 
of no farther ufe, than as a fupport to retain the plants upright 
and firm, hold water to be the only vegetable fuftenance, or wa- 
ter together with air : And others, juftified, probably, by more 
ftrong analogies, confider it as confiding of the fubtle effluvia, 
or other folutiotiy of the fub fiance of putrified animal or vegeta- 
ble matters, adminiftered to the capillary roots or abforbent vef- 
fels of the leaves of plants, by the earth, by the air, and by rain ; 
and tranfmuted and affimilated to their proper fubftance, by 
the unknown, and probably uninveftigable, powers of vegetable 

life. 

But, though the theory of Agriculture is fo very little ad- 
vanced, many parts of eftablifhed practice feem abundantly jufti- 
fied by their general fuccefs. 

From the earliefl antiquity, the tillage of the ground has been 
found indifpenfably requifite, for the purpofe of deftroying ufe- 
lefs or noxious weeds, and to diredt the fertility of the foil to the 
production of plants more adapted to the fuftenance of man 
and beafl — for that of pulverizing the foil, fo as to render it 
permeable to the fibrous roots, extending themfelves in fearch 
of the proper nutriment of the plant — and that of ridding foils 
of fuch fuperfiucus moifture as is found detrimental to them, in 
throwing the furface into the fhape that admits of the readieft 
defcent to water. The manipulations necefTary for thefe pur- 
pofes, together with the necefTary implements of cattle fit for 
labour, and the inflruments of the plough, the harrow, &c. — 
thefe, being fubjecls more entirely under the command of man, 
where every thing related can more eafily be forefeen and pro- 
vided for, have admitted of gradual and progreffive improve- 
ment; and, in various particulars, may have poffibly arrived at 
all that perfection of which they are fufceptible. 

It has been further afcertained, through long experience, 
that alternation of crops is highly advantageous, in preventing 
the fertility of the foil from being fo fpeedily exhaufted. In 
this view, a clafiification of crops has been formed — into thofe 
which arc exhaufting. and thofe that are ameliorating, or, at leaft, 

lefs 



INTRODUCTION'. XV 11 

left exhaufting. Under the former clafs are aiTorted what are 
called culmiferous, or white crops ; which have few, or narrow 
leaves ; do not ftiade the ground while growing ; and leave the 
foil, when removed, in a compact, hardened date. To the lat- 
ter clafs are referred the leguminous, or green crops ; compre- 
hending the whole tribes of peas and vetches ; together with all 
plants cultivated for the root or for the leaves ; as alfo all that 
are cut green for Summer food or for hay, and are not allowed 
• to ftand till they ripen their feeds — the procefs of vegetation 
deemed mod exhaufting to the foil : Thefe meliorating crops 
ihade the foil, by their broad leaves ; or pulverize it, by the ex- 
panfion of their roots ; or exhauft the foil lefs, by drawing more 
nourifbment from the air; and, when removed, they leave the 
foil blackened in colour, and more loofe, puffy, and mellow, in 
confidence. It has been found advantageous to abftain from 
cropping with white crops in fucceffion, and ever to interpofe a 
green crop betwixt the white ones. It feems not, however, 
perfectly afcertained, whether this advantage entirely refults 
from the diftinaive difference of thefe crops, as meliorating and 
exhaujllng \ or whether it may not, in part, be afcribed to the 
general principle (if fuch a vague conception can be confidered 
as a definite principle) that nature delights in variety. This lat- 
ter fuppofition would feem, indeed, to be countenanced, from 
what has been alleged to have been obferved in Eaft-Lothian — 
that two green crops in fucceffion, fuch as turnip after beans, 
feems as unproductive a mode of culture, as two white ones in 
fucceffion. It is probably, too, upon this principle alone, that 
we can account for the fuperior thriving of changed feeds, and 
the deterioration of every fpecies too long fown fucceilivdy in 
the fame grounds — and for the foil fometimes tiring entirely of 
a particular fpecies of crop to which it has been long familiar- 
ized, as is laid to be the cafe with fome Norfolk foils in regard 
to clover. To the fame principles, of the meliorating nature of 
the crop, or of nature delighting in variety, may be referred, the 
experienced utility of recurring intervals of pailure, or what is 
defigned convertible hufbandry. 

Where 



X711I INTRODUCTION. 

Where the fertility of the foil has been exhaufted by crop- 
ping, or where its powers of fertility have never been brought 
into action by culture, the application of various fubftances to 
the foil, under the name of manures, has been experienced to 
be of very great advantage. Thefe have been clafTed under the 
two general defcriptions of enriching and Jlimulant ; though it 
feems dubious, whether the damn cation has proceeded upon a 
perfect and complete comprehenfion of their diftinctive natures. 
The former, confiding chiefly of vegetable or animal matters, 
in a ftate of putrefaction, are peculiarly fuited to lands ex- 
haufted by repeated cropping : The latter, confifting of calca- 
reous fubftances, fuch as lime, marl, and chalk, are cbnfidered 
as beft adapted to foils whofe powers have not, by culture, 
been ever brought into action — the feptic nature of fuch fub- 
itances tending to accelerate the putrefaction of fuch animal or 
vegetable matter as may fubfift in the foil, fo as fpeedily to 
convert them into the proper nutriment of vegetables : For 
the fame reafon, fuch manures may even be applied, with 
fuccefs, to lands in a ftate of exhauftion from repetition of 
crops, till fuch time as every thing putrifiable in the foil fhall 
have been actually putrined. 

Such feems to be the general fummary of the practical prin- 
ciples of Agriculture j which, in particular adaptation, might 
be extended into a wide detail. 

To thefe general principles the Author mult be fuppofed to 
refer in the Report, although no explicit reference is direct- 
ly expreiled. 

Draining, as a part of tillage j fencing, fo as to give com- 
mand of the foil for exclufive appropriation to particular ufes ; 
and fheltering, by plantations of wood, for the purpofes of de- 
fending both vegetable productions and pafturing animals from 
the weather •, — thefe, under the molt comprehenfive view of the 
fubject, might all, alfo, be confidered as feveral branches of 
Agriculture. 



The 



INTRODUCTION. six 



The unity of landed eftates, in times of feudal turbulence 
and anarchy, being as indifpenfable to their fecurity, as is, at 
all times, the indivisibility of their governments to tru<t of na- 
tions j hence, through the artificial reitri&ions of Entail, toge- 
ther with the eftablifhed law or cullom of the preference of Pri- 
mogeniture, land has, in moft modern nations, been abftracted, 
in a great degree, from commerce ; and large mafles of landed 
property have been made to ftagnate, for generations, in fingle 
undivided poflemon. 

Portions of land, too large for the perfonal fuperintendance 
of the proprietor, mufl be parcelled out into the occupancy of 
farmers, upon the principles explained at large in note D at 
the end of the Report ; and, accordingly, upon the exertions 
of farmers, mull the improvement of the lands at large, chiefly, 
or almoft folely, depend. 

As man, however, is not fubjected to the laws of me- 
chanifm, like inanimate matter — nor to unreafoning compul- 
fion, like the unrefle&ive brute creation ; his conduct cannot 
be regulated, or incited, upon the principles applicable to ei- 
ther ; and recourfe muff, be had to moral excitements> in order 
to ftimulate him to induftrious exertion. 

As Tweeddale is a county, into which improvements have 
been all recently introduced, from counties already improved j 
it was agreed between Sir John Sinclair and the Author, 
(when, at his folicitation, the Author confented to draw up the 
Report *), that it would be fuperfluous to dwell much upon 

the 



* From cira-nrrflances occurring, uninterefting to the public, the work was not 
publilhed by the B >ard of Agriculture, as originalK intended. The Author fent 
it to the Conductors of the Farmer's Magazine, who publilr.cd fome extracts, 
which fecmed to excite fome demand for the publication of the whole. And to 
the Author's objection, that the local fate, from local interefl, in fo narrow a coun- 
ty, for a work fecmingly local from its title, culd never defray the e v .pence of 
publifhing — the anfwer was, Publijh ly fubferiptkn, anJ we iviil/upiicrt vex - 
tar influence. This mode was accordingly adopted. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

the minutia of agricultural practice, or implements, the detailed 
defcription of which might be expelled in the Report of counties 
where they had been in longer ufe ; and that more fpace might 
be allotted to the confideration of thofe moral excitements to a- 
gricultural induftry in the farmer, which are of univerfal ap- 
plication. 

The handling of the fubject, in this point of view, the 
Author found more congenial to his accuflomed train of think- 
ing. In fo treating of it, he has uniformly proceeded upon 
this obvious and fimple maxim, the truth of which he ap- 
prehends to be as indifputable, as its application is univerfal, 
That the beft mode of injuring the invention and .profecution of 
the moft advantageous meafures, is, an arrangement, which fall 
communicate, to thofe on whom their execution is devolved, a fufi- 
cient perfofial inter ejl in their invention and execution. To fome, 
lie doubts not, fuch views will be confidered as foreign to the 
Report of a county ; whilft, to others, they will conftitute its 
moft efTential value. 

For the fake of uniformity, and of facility of reference, for 
the purpofes of comparifon, the fyflem of method for Reports 
prefcribed by the Board of Agriculture, has been adopted. 
The method is not objectionable ; though difficulty is experi- 
enced in confinement to the trammels of any prefcribed method. 
To avoid, however, the embarrafTment arifing from the mix- 
ture of fpeculation with the detail of facts, the Author has 
thrown into the form of Notes, fubjoined to the Report, vari- 
ous fpeculations which occurred to him as interefting to the 
fubject of Agriculture at large. 

For the information of Englifh readers, of whom he finds 
a confulcrable number in the lift of Subfcribers, the Author has 
dwelt upon fome fubjecls with a minutenefs, which would have 
been fuperfluous in regard to natives of Scotland. 

The Author returns his thanks to the numerous and refp 

rs, who have been pleafed to patronize his work. 

AG 



AGRICULTURAL SURVEY 



OF 



PEEBLESSHIRE or TJVEEDDALE. 
CHAP. I. 

GEOGRAPHICAL STATE AND CIRCUMSTANCES. 



Sect. I.— "Situation and Extent, 



JL he county of Tweeddale, or Peebles, is fituated betwixt 
55 deg. 24 min. and ^ deg. 50 min. of north latitude ; and 
from 2 deg. 45 min. to 3 deg. 23 min. of longitude, weft from 
London*, or betwixt g-15 and £-23 we ^ 0I " tne meridian of 
Edinburgh. It is bounded, upon the north, by the county of 
Mid-Lothian ; upon the eaft, by that of Selkirk ; upon the 
fouth, by that of Dumfries j upon the weft, by that of Lanark. 
Its greateft length, from north to fouth, is about 30 miles ; its 
greateft breadth, from eaft to weft, about 22. The contents, 
(See Statijlical Tables), in Englifh acres, amount to 229,778 ; 
or in Scotiih, (at the rate of converfion, of 5 Englifh to 4 
Scotiih acres), to 183,823 *. 

Armftrong, in his Companion to the Map of Tweeddale, efti- 
mates the arable lands at one tenth of the whole. If by arable 

B is 



• In a mountainous country like Tweeddale, the real furface may amount to a 
feventh or eighth part more than the plane of the bafe, as mcafured for the con- 
Aruftion of a map. 



'-g Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

is meant what is fufceptible of tillage^ this proportion would 
feeni by much too little. It is impoffible to form a probable 
conjecture, from any data furnifhed in the ftatiftical accounts 
of the parishes, of the amount of what is actually kept in con- 
flant or occafional tillage ; as, from the very various modes of 
treatment which fuch lands undergo, in regard to the time they 
remain in pafture, during the interval of tillage, the account of 
bolls fown, or of the extent of crop reaped, (were thefe even 
accurately Hated), could give very little light into the matter. 

Sect. II. — Divifwns. 

Tpie county is divided into fixteen parilhes, which are de- 
fcribed, in Sir John Sinclair's ftatiftical account of Scotland, 
as under : 

Page 
Linton 1 tt i T C 1 26 

Newlands ^ - Vol. l. - £ ^ 

Mannor *) ^"383 

♦Skirling l - III. - 4 2 54 



Stobo J (.324 



{ 



*Glenholm 

•Kilbucho 

*Broughton \ _ VIL _ J 156 



£ 429 
'Kilbucho 5 " ' iW - ' £324 



Drummelzier 5 i. l S3 

Tweedfmuir - - VIII. - 86 

Kirkurd - - — ■ — X. - 177 

Lyne & Meggot") ("55^ 



Peebles J. - XII. - -j 1 

Traquair J C369 

Eddleftone - - XVII. 182 

Inverleithan - - XX. - 592 

gf The four marked * belong to the Prefbytery of Biggar; the reft to the 
Prefbytery of Peebles. 

The divifion of Scotland into counties, refers to Civil jurif- 
di&ion ; the fubdivifion of counties into parilhes, to Ecclefiaftu 
cul duties and jurifdi&ion f. 

There 



f For particulars, as to thefe duties and jurifdiclion, the Englifh reader may 
confult note A, at the end of the Report. 



Agricultural Survey cf Peebles/hire. 3 

There are two maps of this county ; the one by Edgar ; the 
lateil (which is given upon a reduced fcale in this report) by 
Armftrong, who alfo printed an account of Tweeddale, or com- 
panion to his map, in 1775. There is alfo a topographical 
and botanical defcription of the county, accompanied with a 
collection of humorous poems, defcriptive of the manners of 
the times, by Dr Alexander Pennycook, proprietor of the lands 
of Romanno, in Newlands pariih, publilhed in 17 1 5. 

Sect. III. — Climate. 

The loweft lying arable land in the county, fituated upon 
the fide of the Tweed, where that river leaves the county, and 
enters Selkirkfhire, will be about 400 feet above fea-level. Be- 
twixt 900 and 1000 feet, is probably the higheft elevation in 
which cultivation is attempted by the plough. 

The higheft hill in Tweeddale (probably the higheft in Scot- 
land fouth of the Friths of Forth and Clyde) is Hartfield, m 
Tweedfmuir pariih, upon the confines of Dumfriesfhire ; its 
height above fea-level is, according to Armftrong, 2916 feet; 
that of Hartflant Broad Law y in the fame pariih, is 2850; 
Dollar Law, in Mannor parifh, is 2840. Armftrong, in his 
companion to his map, gives a variety of heights of higheft 
fummits of thofe ridges of hills which traverfe the county in 
all directions, extending from 1800 to 2300 feet above the level 
of the fea. Abftracling, then, the higheft fummits, the gene- 
rality of the pall ure lands may be confidered as fituated at from 
500 or 600, to 1700 or 1800 feet above fea-level ; or at 11 50 
feet at a medium. 

The climate, in fuch northerly latitude and high elevation, 
may readily be conceived as late j and, from the mountainous 
nature of the country, as moift. Sown-grafs hay begins to be 
cut rather after the middle of July ; that from natural grafs, a- 
bout the middle of Auguft. Corn harveft feldom commences, 
generally, till the fecond week of September ; and it is ac- 
counted rather an early harveft, when the whole is got into the 
Winter ftack before the clofe of Odober. The reapers from 

the 



4 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfljire. 

the Highlands of Scotland generally find employment for feve- 
ral weeks in Tweeddale, after the termination of the Lothian 
harveft ; the difference being obferved as greater in favour of 
thefe lower counties in a bad, than in a good feafon. 

The time of fowing, in the higher parifhes, is juft fo foon 
as the (late of the weather, and of the foil, will permit. Peas 
and oats are frequently fown in February ; it is thought tardy, 
at Linton, to fow even the earlier fpecies of oats much later 
than about the 20th of April j rough beer, or bigg, after the 
middle of May ; turnip, without dung, after the end of May, 
or with it, after the latter end of June. 

The higher the elevation, the greater is the degree of moift- 
ure ; and the crops are found to run more to ftraw, and lefs to 
corn. Early fowing is confidered as a check to the growth of 
flraw, and as conducive to the more thorough ripening of 
the corns : The length of pod or ear, however, is found to be 
proportional to the length and vigour of the ftraw or haulm ; 
and the medium, of mod advantage upon the whole, mull be 
attempted to be hit. Accordingly, in the lower end of the 
county, where (from lefs high elevation, as well as greater 
fharpnefs of foil) fhortnefs of ftraw, and proportional fhortnefs 
of ear, are molt to be dreaded, fowing is deferred till two or 
three weeks later in the feafon, than in the higher end, where 
the danger moft to be apprehended, is the want of thorough 
ripening. From early fowing, and the ufe of earlier ripening 
fpecies of grain, the backwardnefs of climate is feen to be fo 
far counteracted, that the harveft in the croft lands around the 
village of Linton, (where the improved hufbandry firft became 
general), has, for a number of years bypaft, been finifhed 
fooner than in the crofts around the town of Peebles ; although 
the difference of elevation cannot be fuppofed lefs than 200 feet. 
Early fowing cannot, meanwhile, be advantageoufly adopted, 
where the lands are not clean ; elfe the weeds, more congenial 
to the foil and climate, will thrive fafter than the artificial crop 
during the cold early Spring months, overtopping and chok- 
ing it. 

Cold 



Agricultural Survey cf PeeblesJlAre. $ 

Cold eafterly winds often prevail during the Spring months ; 
and it may be queftioned, whether we have not, in general, 
more grafs in the firft half of December, than in May. In the 
feafons 1794 and 1795, froft winds continued till the latter end 
of June, blackening the leaves of the afh-tree, (which foon feels 
the impreflion) ; and, in low fituations, nipping down the Items 
of the potato. In i8or, the whole potato items were laid flat 
with the ground, (excepting where growing in high fituations), 
on the night of the nth of June ; and, in 1796, the fame thing 
happened upon the night of the 7th of July. Before the laffc 
mentioned period, it was proverbial in Tweeddale, that there 
was no month in Spring, Summer, or Autumn, in which we 
had not experienced froft deftru£tive of vegetation, but the 
month of July. 

Our Winters are rigorous ; and the turnip crop is, of confe- 
quence, often loft, unlefs confumed by Chriitmas or New 
Year's day. Cattle do not fatten upon them in their frozen 
ftate ; it is well if they merely do not lofe flefh. In the high- 
er parifhes, they are often frozen to fuch hardnefs, that they 
muft be allowed to thaw in running water, before the cattle 
can make impreflion upon them with their teeth *. 

Befides the general frofts in Winter, the higher parifhes are 
much expofed to a fpecies of partial frofts in the end of Au- 
guft and beginning of September, which chiefly affect the 
low-lying lands by the fides of running waters, lakes, and 

morafTes. 



* When put into a veflel of cold water, where the procefs of their thawing is 
more eafily obferved, a fltell of ice, of greater or lefs thicknefi, forms itfelf all 
around the ftuface of the turnip, like a globe of gluts, exactly fitted to its fhape; 
upon breaking off the ice, the turnip isfound foft and found within it. If too 
many turnip are put into the veiTcI, the whole contents congeal into one mafs. 
In running water, the ice formed by the cold of the turnip is diilblved, as foon 
as formed, by the fucceffive application of new water. 

I laid out a potato on the outfiJe of a window to freeze all night, thawed if. 
in cold water next morning, and then boiled it ; its confidence was not impaired, 
but it feemc d rather infipid as to tafte. 

Animal or voluble fubftances, when thawed by the application of heat, grow 
putrid.. 



6 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesftjire, 

morafles. A low creeping mift, or hoar froft (called, provin- 
daily, rhyme, or cranreugh), in a dead calm, particularly after 
a tract of rainy weather, is feen to fettle, after funfetting, up- 
on lands of this defcription ; which, if fucceeded by bright 
funfhine the day following, proves deftructive to all further 
vegetation. It would feem to do little damage to corns that 
are hard ripe ; and in regard to fome fpecies, particularly that 
of oats, it does not prevent their further maturation, if it at- 
tacks them whilft the juices in the ear are {till in a watery 
flate : But, in the intermediate ftages betwixt that ftate and 
maturity, it renders every fpecies alike unfit for feed, and of 
very inferior value for meal, both in refpect of quantity and 
quality. A particular account of this kind of froft will be 
found in the Statiftical Accounts of the Parilhes of Linton and 
Glenholm. In the year 1784, the crop of bigg, or rough beer, 
was deftroyed, through the higher parifhes, fo early in the 
feafon as the 1 7th of Auguft ; and that fo completely, that I 
perfectly recollect to have feen it applied to the thatching of 
houfes in the village of Linton, unthrafhed, as it was carried 
from the field, without the fmalleft apprehenfion being enter- 
tained of a fmgle grain vegetating in the ear : In that feafon, 
the oat crop, which being a later grain, was not fo near ma- 
turity, fuffered but very little. In 1782, as the froft happen- 
ed much later, the beer was not fo effectually deftroyed as the 
oats, having reached its maturity ; while the oat crop was in 
its mod fufceptible ftage. 

It feems extremely probable, that plants, artificially intro- 
duced from a more fouthern latitude, and more benign climate, 
do not attain to that maturity in a northern latitude, which 
they reach in their native fituation : It feems equally pro- 
bable, that thofe plants which are native to a northern cli- 
mate, and which there attain to their moft perfect ftate, are, 
at beft, lefs nutritious than the native productions of a more 
benign climate. On both accounts, it feems probable, that, in 
a county fituated as Tweeddale, the whole vegetable produc- 
tions, whether artificial or native, fhould be of an inferior 
kind : and that even equal weight of the fame fpecies of grain, 

may 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. *f 

may not contain an equal quantity of nutritive fubftance ; as it 
contains not the fame quantity of fermentable fubftance, upon 
which probably the nutritive quality greatly depends *. There 
js a difference in the quality of the grain of the higher and 
the lower parifhes in the county, that amounts to the differ- 
ence of I s. 6d. of price per meafured boll, when the average 
price per boll is 16s. 

The climate of Tweeddale is not very propitious to fruit 
trees. The goofeberry, rafpberry, currant, and ftrawberry, are 
the beft fruits produced in our gardens. The rafpberry is a 
native, and ripens its fruit in the higheft parifhes. The bramble 
is a very rare plant, excepting in the lower end of the county ; 
and I am not afcertained that it brings its fruit to perfect ma- 
turity in any feafon. The hazel does not ripen its nut to per- 
fection in the higher parifhes, unlefs in very favourable fea- 
fon s. 

I am indebted to James Reid Efq. of Peebles, who has 
pra&ifed phyfic, with high reputation, in the county, for near 
half a century, for the following Regifter of the Weather, ex- 
tracted from one he regularly kept in the town of Peebles for 
many years. 

Register 



* According to the calculation of Mr Kcr of Kerfield, brewer by Peebles, Scots 
barley, on an average, yields fully one fifth lefs of fermentable fubftance, from 
like weight of grain, than Englifti barley. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



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I© ^Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire, 

In his letter to me, Mr Reid obferves, " That the climate 
of Tweeddale is variable, as that of all hilly countries : That, 
from its midland fituation, it receives a portion of wet from 
both feas, though probably lefs than either fhore, yet with 
more days having rain from flying clouds, than even the weft: 
coaft ; the quantity, however, falling in one day, often not ex- 
ceeding .001 of an inch : That, from a regifter kept at Dum- 
fries, in 1776, the rain there amounted to 36.9 inches ; when, 
at Peebles, it amounted only to 24.936 inches : That fnows 
add confiderably to the number of days marked wet in the re- 
gifter, in the months of December, January, February, and 
even March, though little to the depth of rain : That, includ- 
ing the fouth with the weft, and the north with the eaft, the 
winds blow more often from the weft, than from the eaft of 
the meridian, in the proportion, fometimes, as 4 to 3 •, at Ot 
ther times, as 5 to 4 : That the medium height of the baro- 
meter, at Peebles, is in Summer 29.2, and in Winter 29 : 
That the thermometer has been known at 81 in Farnheit's 
fcale •, and, on the 14th January 1780, as low as 14 below o ; 
Such inftances being, however, quite unufual. He remarks, 
that the fituation of the town of Peebles is particularly health- 
ful ; (landing upon a fine dry bottom of gravel, 500 feet above 
the level of the fea, and at the confluence of Peebles water in- 
to Tweed, the currents of which preferve a due circulation in 
the air, even in the calmeft weather ; the eafterly fogs, which 
fo often overfpread the Lothians, never almoft reaching Peebles, 
being arrcfted by the high' hills to the eaftward of that town *. 

In 



* The revenue belonging to the town as a body corporate, may be confidera- 
bly above 300I. yearly ; arifing from land rent — frcm corn and flour mills— from 
cuftom levied 4ipon goods fent to market, or carried through the town — from 
pontage alfo at the bridge over Tweed within the town's jurifdittion, levied upon 
drove cattle, the mod of this kind of revenue being received from Highland cattle 
faffing to England. Peebles would appear to have been often ufed as a hunting 
rcfidcnce by our Scotifh kings. Money would kern to have had been coined in 
it ; an houlc flill retaining the name of Cuinzte Noel. Large tratfs of land, ex- 
tending on the hills for fix or feven miles downward to Gatchaup burn, would 
feem to have been granted it, in property, or in right of paflurage ; the rights t$ 
yhkh arc now loft, from encroachment, or through dctclicTion. 



Agricultural Survey of Petblesjbire* 



II 



In regard to difeafes, he obfcrves, that there are few prevalent 
in Tweeddale, which have their origin from damp and putrid 
exhalations ; that bloody flux or ague feldom occur, or any pu- 
trid difeafes ; and that inflammatory fevers are fometimcs fre- 
quent in Spring*." In the year 1763, ague was extraordi- 
narily prevalent. Since that period, it feems to have totally 
difappeared. 

It would appear, from the Statiflical Accounts, that chronic 
rheumatifm {the pains, as it is provincially defigned), is fre- 
quent among old people in the lower claries ; and that flow fe- 
vers are pretty general in fome feafons, from poor feeding, bad 
clothing, and damp lodging : In regard to which circum- 
stances, incident to the lower orders, Tweeddale has much im- 
proved, and is (till improving f. 



* The only place in Tweeddale where ague was ever frequent, was at Pirn in 
Inverleithan parifh, owing to a clay morafs, fince the draining of which the dif- 
eafe has not appeared. There are numerous dwellings in Tweeddale fituated in 
the vicinity of mofles, and of fhgnant pools of mofs water, where ague is totally 
unknown ; from whence it would appear, that the miafmatous exhalations from 
mofs and mofs water, are Hot of the feptic nature of thofe from clay morafs. 
There is, indeed, an experiment familiar to eveiy old woman in Tweeddale, which 
fnows, that mofs water, even when ftagnant in pools in hot weather, is not nearly 
of fuch a feptic quality as any other water placed in the lame circumftances ; 
and it is this, that though lint will rot, if left in other water, in fuch circum- 
ftances, even for twenty-four hours only after it hath been fufficiently mace- 
rated, it may be left eight days in mofs water without fuftaining any material 
damage. 

f It hath often been matter of furprife, that no epidemic difeafes appeared 
after the very extraordinary alterations that the ufual feeding of the poorer clafTes 
muft have underwent, both as to quantity and quality, in confequence of the ca- 
lamitous fcarcities of 1 7 8z, 1799, and 1800. In molt great towns, the two laft 
have been remarked, from their bills of mortality, as unuiiially healthful ; yet, 
undoubtedly, a very great number did not receive above two thirds of their ufual 
quantity of food. Surely, in ordinary feafons, or at all times in lituations of af- 
fluence, much more food is ufed than what fuffices either for health or ftrength. 
The return of plenty in 1801, has been accompanied by the prevalence of pleu- 
rify. 

Sect. 



5 a Agricultural Survey of Feeble j/Ij in 



Sect. IV. — Soil and Surface. 

In agriculture, as in other fubjects, terms are bandied a-*- 
bout, to which, perhaps, no two that ufe them affix precifely 
the fame ideas. The ftrong marked distinctions of foil, into 
clay, tnofs, and fand, appear obvious to raoft people •, but the 
different diftin£tions of thefe, with all the intermediate diftinc- 
tions of foils compofed of thefe, together with ether materials 
in all varieties of proportion, have not probably obtained, as 
yet, a fufficient number of diftinctive appellatives, to differ- 
ence them properly ; and, even of thofe names in ufe, per- 
haps, few or none have been fo accurately defined, or fo flea- 
dily appropriated, as to communicate a very determinate figni- 
fication. It would tend much to the fpeedy difFufion of agri- 
cultural knowledge, were there fome eafy method devifed, ac- 
ceffible to every farmer, in the way of fimple chymical analyfis^ 
or otherwife, by which he might be enabled to diftinguifh rea- 
dily all the varieties of foil as they occur, and to refer them, 
under their proper defignations, to the claffes to which they 
belong : Writers upon agriculture would then be in poffefTion 
of a language generally intelligible, and be fpared numberlefs 
circumlocutions. Perhaps the time is not far diftant, when 
the fcience of Agriculture, under the aufpices of the fcientific 
and patriotic characters who have taken it under their protec- 
tion, mail attain to the fame precifion, in this refpedt, as the 
fifler fcience of Chymillry. In the mean time, I apprehend, 
that the terms ufed to chara&erife many of the varieties of 
foil, are very vague and undefined •, fuch, for inflance, as loams, 
in all their varieties, moorifh foils, &c. I confefs, I can never 
be certain of conceiving the exact meaning of the writer, when 
I read fuch terms •, nor could I pretend to apply them, with 
any fure conviction of exciting, in the mind of the reader, the 
precife idea which I have formed in my own. 

By far the greater part of the foil of Twecddale never was, 
nor probably ever will, be turned up by the plough. Of the 
lands under culture, there is great variety of foil ; fuch as 

mofs, 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 1 f 

niofs, clay, fand ; mofs and clay, mofs and fand, clay and 
fand •, and thefe mixtures, in every variety of proportion. 

Mofs would feem, from its hidory and appearance, to be a 
particular fpecies of foil, generated from the decompofition of 
vegetables fuccefhvely growing and decaying in ftagnant water. 
It conftitutes, when cut into peat and dried, a very common 
fuel in Tweeddale, and through the north of Scotland. It is 
probably convertible, by proper management, into a rich ma- 
nure. It is found in almolt every hollow, upon, or among the 
hills, in the higher parifhes, from four or five, to ten, or even 
twenty feet in depth : At the bottom of the bed, it is always of 
the deeped black colour, of the mod homogeneous confidence, 
and of the greated folidity and power as fuel, when dried in- 
to peat : Nearer to the furface, it is of a lighter tobacco co- 
lour, of a more fpongy contexture, confiding chiefly, to ap- 
pearance, of the interlaced fibres of plants, in a greater or 
lefTer date of decay. 

Befides thefe modes in hollows, or upon dead flats, mofs is 
alfo found on high grounds, in the higher parts of the county, 
compofing a foil of from two to three or four feet in thick- 
nefs, lying generally upon a coufiderable declivity, (a circum- 
ftance rather inexplicable upon the commonly received theory 
of its generation), over a fubfoil, impervious to water, of fand 
or clay till : In its natural date, it is always moid ; but, in 
courfe of repeated tillage, and of being treated with large dofes 
of lime, it fubfides and confolidates, and becomes more dry ; 
when, after the fubfoil is reached by the plough, and is raifed 
and incorporated with the mofs, thefe foil ; are formed, which, 
(according to the quality of the fubfoil), I would didinguifh 
by the names of mofs and clay, or mofs and fand — mixtures 
purely artificial, and which exid not in the natural date of the 
foil. Sir James Montgomery of Stanhope, late Lord Chief 
Baron of tiie Court of Exchequer, has cultivated more of this 
foil, than any other Tweeddale proprietor, upon the north-ead 
extremities of the pariflies of Newlands and Eddledone j wherf, 
under his mode of management, it is brought to yield pretty 
large returns of the Magbiehill, or Red oat, though of inferior 

quality 



f£ Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

quality as to grain ; and where, while laid in grafs, the largeffc 
fized oxen ever bred in Tweeddale have been reared by him *, 

There is a foil pretty common on the flcirts of heath-clad 
hills, and on high, dry-lying flats, which has fome appearance of 
being a natural mixture of mofs and fand ; it feems to confift 
of a peculiar fpecics of black earth, mixed with fand of a 
greyifh white colour : when turned up by the mole, the hillock 
appears black, fo long as it remains moift •, but, when it be- 
comes dry, it appears as if powdered over with the fand above 
mentioned \ whether the black earth is real mofs, feems doubt- 
ful. It produces heath in its natural ftate •, it is the pooreft of 
our foils ; very thin •, and fo loofe, as to blow with the wind 
in drought, after being pulverifed by the plough. When un- 
der tillage, and lying, as in general found, upon a fubfoil im- 
pervious to water, it acquires almoil a fluid confiftence in wet 
Winters, infomuch, that a ftrong wind will caufe the drills of 
turnip growing upon it to undulate perceptibly* This foil may 
be one fpecies of what is called moorijlj foil. It abounds pret- 
ty much in Linton parifh ; and, if I am not much deceived, 
will generally be found above freeftone rock. The wild un- 
cultivated thin mooriih foils which are met with in parifhes 
where the rock is whin, or Hate, or limeftone, will, I appre- 
hend, be found of a more folid and tenacious confiftence, and 
of a browner colour. 

The ikirts of moft part of the hills, at the higheft elevations 
to which cultivation is extended, feem generally to confift of a 
foil of the lalt mentioned kind ; which appears to be compofed 
of a mixture of fand and clay, in various proportions, with of- 
ten a mixture of gravel of various kinds ; fuch as gravel of free- 
ftone, of limeftone, of whin, of Hate, and, in feveral inftances, 
of ironftone. From the colour, perhaps, this foil might pro- 
perly be defigned hazel foil; a defignation which, I think, I re- 
collect to have read fomewhere. 

Defcending 

• I have known of an American being much deceived in conceiving our moft 
(from its colour) to be the fine deep black vegetable mould of the virgin foils of 
America. 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfl/tre, \t 

Defcending a ftage further down upon the hills, clay is ge* 
nerally found to predominate more in the compoiition of the 
foil. 

Still nearer to the bottom of the hills, where the declivity 
becomes very gentle, and immediately above the troughs of flat 
land, (called provincially, haughs), formed by the courfe of the 
larger waters, the foil is generally deep and fertile ; being com- 
pofed of fand and clay, with often a great proportion of loofe 
ftones, chiefly of whin or Hate. 

The flat lands (Jmughs) in the troughs of the waters, partis 
cularly where fubjecl: to be overflowed, are obferved to be, in 
general, of a more fandy confidence, and the more fo, in propor- 
tion to their contiguity to the water's courfe j though, in fuch 
fituations, there are fome exceptions, even m favour of ftronger 
clay. 

The old croft lands * are commonly found in the one or o-» 
ther of the two laft mentioned defcriptions of lands ; and the 
foil of thefe^ blackened and mellowed through repeated dunging 
and plough culture, may probably, with propriety, be denomi- 
nated loams : varying the designation, according to the original 
differences of the foil, as clay loam, fandy loam, gravelly, fonv, 
&c. CJV. Perhaps, it is proper to extend this denomination 
of loams to fuch foils as, in their natural ftate, bear the ftrong- 
eit afHnity to thefe artificial foils of old croft. 

From the appearances of the foil, as above ftated, a theorift 
might be led to fuppofe, \mo, In regard to the -water baughs — 
that their fandy confidence, particularly fandy in proportion to 
their contiguity to the water's courfe, arifes from this — " that 
the fuperior weight of the fand allows it alone to be depofited, 

in 



* Croft, or infield, is a generic dcfignation, applied univeifally in Tweeddale, 
and over Scotland, to fuch lands as have been in life to be kept under con (tant 
cultivation of cropping, receiving the whole of the dung produced from the cat- 
tle, houft-fed in Winter, with the allies, &c. from the farmer's dwelling. Land 
never cultivated, or only occafionally after folding or lime, is univcrfally defigned 
tutfield. This dcfignatioo, however, refers to ploughing ; fuch land never receiving 
the appellation of »ut/ie!J, till it is fpoken of either as ploughed, or as about to be 
fhugbeff. 



j<5 [Agricultural Survey of Peehlesjhire, 

in this fituation, from the overflowing flooded waters j hut 
that, in proportion as you recede from the water's courfe, the 
overflowing water lofes its velocity as it fpreads into a thinner 
body, and there depofits the more minute particles of fand, and 
the lighter particles of clay ; which alone it was able to keep in 
fufpenfion to that diilance from the main dream. " 

ido t As to the hills, he might conjecture, " that, towards 
their fummits, the rain water mufl run in a more difFufed ftate, 
and with lefs momentum ,■ and, to a certain diilance in their de- 
scent, can therefore only abrade and waih out a portion of the 
finer particles of clay or fand from amongfl the gravel, leaving 
the foil which it hath run over, of a gravelly or hazel defcrip- 
tion : that, as you ilill farther defcend, the hills generally 
grow lefs ileep •, whence, the velocity of the defcending water 
is impeded, and a depofition is made of the fine particles of 
fand and clay, which its velocity had hitherto enabled it to keep 
in fufpenfion : that, on dill farther defcending, the various 
bendings of the ground throws die water together into rivulets 
(or burns *), where its weight and velocity, or momentum, in- 
creasing, it is enabled to warn out and keep in fufpenfion the 
weightier particles of fand, as well as clay, to be depofited on 
the banks of thefe burns when they overflow ; a part being alfo 
delivered, as a tribute, by their main dream, to the larger wa- 
ters with which they unite, to be depofited alfo upon their 
laughs, in the ratio already noticed. " 

There are doubtlefs many fa£ts, which countenance fuch 
fuppofitions •, it is however doubtful, if they ate fo univerfal as 
to form a condant general rule. 

Strong examples may be found, in further fuppprt of that 
theory of foils, " which thus deduces their origin from the 
gradual decompofition of the more compact fubilance of the 
mountains, by the action of the different elements, waihed 

out 



* The defignation of the fmallcfr rill of water is zfylt, or a ivell-Jtraml, if from 
a fpring-wcll. If the water is of quantity fufficient to drive a iniall water-wheel 
for light machinery, it is called a burn. Larger (hxamt arc CiUcd lititcr:. Tweed 
ii our only water defined river- 



- lailuirc.l Survey of Peeblesf/in. 1 7 

Dut by the rain:., and depofited, in this manner, upon the lower 
grounds '*. " Thus, the prevailing Hone in Linton pariih is 
freeftone, whiph is everywhere found in quarries, in loofe 
ftones, or detached maffes, over all the hills and moors, and 
beds of rivulets, at the heads of Lyne water. Now, the de- 
compofition of freeftone mould apparently produce land : and, 
accordingly, fand foil is found to prevail more in Linton than 
in any other pariih of the county, with the exception of mofs, 
of mooriih or hazel foil, in fituations as formerly defcribed, 
and of fome more tenacious foil, lying on limetlone. Sand 
foil is the prevailing foil in the crofts kept under conftant ro- 
tation of cropping. The haughs, fubjecl: to be overflowed in 
the trough of Lyne water, (even where that water runs through 
the parifhes of Newlands, Lyne, and Stobo, where the pre- 
vailing done is whin), are, with few exceptions, of pure 
fand foil. The depofitions from Lyne water feem to produce 
the fame effect upon the foil of the haughs upon Tweed, to a 
confiderable diftance below their junction. The prevailing 
(lone through the other parifhes is whin or flate, or of a mixed 
nature between thefe two •, and the foil (with the exception, in 
many inftances, of fand foil, where the waters overflow) is of 
a more clayey, unctuous, and tenacious confiftence. 

Stagnant water, as already obierved, feems, in certain cir- 
cumlLances, to give rife to mofs : it feems alfo probable, that, 
by long continued action, it may haA'e a tendency to convert 
f. .nd into clay. In fome of our very flat valiies, where the ri- 
vulets, running through them, have little velocity, where the 
courfe of the ftream, impeded by windings, keeps die adjoin- 
ing lands in a conftant foaking moiiture, fuch lands are, I be- 
lieve, univerfaliy found to coniift either of mofs, or of clay 
morafs ; generally, indeed, mofs near the fource of the Itream, 
and clay further down. 

The higher you afcend towards the fources of the waters, 
mofs foil is commonly found in more abundance. When the 

D waters 

■ Townlhcnd, in his travels through Spain, affirms that he could predict th<; 
foil cf the rallies, from the nature of the fltbPunse of the furrciindmg hills. 



I"8 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

waters are in flood, they are of a brown colour, from the clay 
and fand kept in fufpenfion ; as they fnbfide, thefe heavier mat- 
ters are depofited ; they gradually become black ; and, for two 
or three days, (as the ground has been more or lefs foaked with 
rain), they retain a porter-coloured tinge, from the fufpenfion, 
or the folution, of the more minute and lighter particles of 
mofs. 

It has been remarked, that the hills on the left bank of the 
Tweed, of a foutherly or wefterly expofure, are generally more 
verdant than thofe of the right, though with many exceptions. 

Surface. — Upon a general and diftant view, this county 
feems to confift of a confufed congeries of chains of mountains, 
running in all directions. The arable land appears only, upon 
internal inveftigation, lying upon the banks of the waters and 
burns, and the acclivities of the fkirts of the hills. For thefe 
reafons, it was found impoffible to reprefent, in the map, the 
divifions of arable and pafture lands, or the diftin&ions o£ 
foils : the arbitrary divifion into parifhes, is therefore alone 
marked. 

In its general appearance, the county, though wild, can 

hardly be defigned romantic : the mountains, though high and 

large, and too much upon the vail for beauty, are yet too tame 

for the fublime. There is nothing abrupt — nothing terrific — 

nothing, in fhort, to ftrike forcibly the imagination of the poet, 

or the painter j unlefs, indeed, the feelings of a native, blunted 

by familiarity and repetition,, fhould be queftioned, as a proper 

ftandard of judgement *, 

The 

* Twceddale has probably furnifhed the fcene of fome of our favourite Scots 
longs. Of the Bu[h aboon Traqualr, there can be no doubt : As to Tiveedjldc, the 
matter may be more problematical ; Tweeddale having no exclufive appropriation of 
the Tweed. There is in the county, a Logan-heufc, ulfo a Logan-burn, which, in 
compliment, might be called Logan-water; both, probably, too infignificant to 
have been celebrated in the fongs of that name. Peebles play undoubtedly refers 
to fports celebrated in the county town. 

Doctor Pennycook makes a fingular remark upon the inhabitants, though I 
know not that it is well-founded — " Mufic is fuch a ftranger to their temper, that 
you fhall hardly light upon one amongft fix, that can diftinguifh one tune fronv 
anothcr ; yet, thofe of them that chance to hit upon the vein, may match with 
th« ikilfulleft. " 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblcsJInrt. ly 

The variety of hill, and dale, and water, might furnifh 
rfcenes of great natural beauty, or even grandeur, were it not 
for the almoft total want of natural wood. For though tradi- 
tion reports, that a great deal of wood once grew in the coun- 
ty, at prefent few veftiges of it remain ; and where any are 
found, upon the banks of the waters and llcirts of the hills, it 
is mere brufhwood, confuting chiefly of birch miferably llinted 
in growth, fome fpecies of grey willow, hazel bufhes, and a 
few mountain afhes, with Ibmetimes a fringe of dwarhfh alders 
marking the courfes of the rivulets. It may, no doubt, be 
reckoned unfair to judge of what the natural wood might have 
been, by the remnant that now appears : The former wood 
may have been grubbed out for fuel, or to make room for 
pafture or the plough j and what now remains, may have been 
ftinted in its growth by the repeated cropping of the fheep .: 
The trees, however, found in mofles, (the only fpecimens of 
the wood of former times), are generally, it mull be confefTed, 
of diminutive fize *. In the various artificial plantations 
through the county, the trees come to nothing in the higher 
parifhes, where the foil is mean, or the fituation expofed j 
and, of late, it is, with good reafon, coming more into prac- 
tice.. 



* The wood molt commonly found in our peat modes is birch, or hazel. 
Oak is fometimes, though rarely found ; black, heavy, and hard, like ebony. 
Single trees of oak, of confiderable fize, have been found in mcfTes near the top 
cf high hills. 

It is pretty remarkable, that, in the moors of Carnvvath parifh in Lanark (hire, 
adjoining to the higher parts of Tweeddale on the noith-weft, at an elevation as 
iiigh, and under a climate as unpropitious as any part of TVeeddalc, mod places 
ftem to have obtained their names from woods ; fuch as Harivood or Hart-wood, 
Girt -wood or Greatiuood, Woodjide, IVoodenl, &c. &c. There are no veftiges of fuch 
woods above the lurface, but abundance below the mofics. Fir (unknown in 
Tweeddale moiTls) is found in fome of thefc, long and ftraight, indicating its hav- 
ing grown in thickets. Its fibres are fo tough that they are twifled into ropes for 
halters and teathers : The fplits of it are ufed for li^ht, by the name of candic 
f.r — Strong marks of great convulfions in nature. 

Some farmers have taken the hint of burying fir, for roofing, in mofTvjS. in qj* 
<J'.r tc Infure its incorruptibility. 



2<3 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire, 

tice, to improve poor foil by lime, and to drain the wet by 
ditching, or the plough, before planting. Around gentlemens 
houfes, where the foil is good, and where they enjoy protec- 
tion and fhelter, trees thrive well j and though the uncultivated 
parts of the county feem no way linking, either for fublimity 
or for beauty, there are,*meverthelefs, a variety of gentlemens 
feats fcattered up and dov/n, which are pleafantly embofomed 
in trees, and which enjoy thefe chief advantages for policy, of 
great diverfification of furface, and command of water. 

Sect. V. — Minerals. 

There are quarries qf white freeftone in the north-eaft 
extremities of the parifhes of Newlands and Linton. Further 
weft, upon the boundary betwixt thefe two parifhes, there is a 
hilly ridge called Broomylees, containing quarries of a dark red 
freeftone, of an harder confiftence than the white, with fome 
feams of it which rife in flags, and which make durable pave- 
ment. Thefe are the only freeftone quarries open for fale ; 
and from thefe, together with the white freeftone quarry of 
Marfield, on the Mid-Lothian fide of the water of North Elk, 
the county has been, and is fupplied with thefe articles ; white 
freeftone pavement, and ftone for flairs or hearths, being gene- 
rally brought from Hailes quarry in Mid-Lothian. The free- 
ftone, both red and white, with a particular fpecies of the for- 
mer, which, from its weight, would feem to contain iron, are 
to be found, in many other places in the parifh of Linton, and 
the adjoining fide of Newlands. 

There are a few quarries of excellent whin ftone, parties 
Lilly at Edftone, near the town of Peebles ; whence, proba- 
bly, the town has been built. None arc open for fale : There 
is, indeed, no demand; whin being the prevailing rock through 
the county : It is, however, often of either a laminous contex- 
ture, of the nature of flate, or fo interfered with cutters, as 
to fly under the hammer in all directions, and to be incapable 
of being drefled into a regular fliape. 

The 



'Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. It 

The flate of Stobo parifh has been long in repute. Befidefc 
fupplying the county, it is carried down Tweed as far as Kelfo, 
to Edinburgh, and through the upper ward of Lanarkfhire. 

Coal and limeflone abound in the north-eafh extremities of 
Linton and Newlands pariflies, whence the whole county is 
fupplied - y with the exception of the parifhes of Eddlellone, 
part of Peebles, Inverleithan, and Traquair, which more gene- 
rally obtain thefe articles from the Lothians. A road, carried 
from Darnhall in Eddlellone parifh, to Noblehoufe inn in that of 
Newlands, connecting the two Edinburgh roads, would give 
nearer accefs, to part of thefe parifhes, to the coal and lime of 
the county, than what they poflefs at prefent, to thofe of the 

Lothians. 

The parifli of Glenholm is reported, in the Statiflical Ac- 
count, to burn lime fufhcient for its own confumpt, probably 
with coal from the pariflies of Linton or Newlands, or perhaps 
with peat, which is, however, but a poor fuccedaneum for 
coal. Limeflone might be found in feveral other pariflies, but 
is of little value, for want of coal ; it being generally accounted 
cheaper to carry burnt limeflone, than to carry coal from any 
confiderable diflance to burn raw limeflone upon the fpot. 
The coal is at prefent wrought no deeper, than fo far as the 
water can be carried off in a level •, the fcantinefs of popula- 
tion, and want of manufactures, occafioning no demand to 
enable the proprietors to work it in a more expenfive manner. 
The increafing improvement of land by lime, and the greater 
prevalence of fallow crops, which renders it inconvenient for 
farmers to fpare the time and labour formerly employed for 
cutting and drying peat mofs for fuel, have fo much increafed 
the demand both for lime and coal, that the fupply is not ade- 
quate to the demand. The prices, according to proximity to 
the demand and quality of the article, are as follow : Coal at 
CoIIybum, fed. ; at Car lips, 6d. or 71!. per load of 2 cwt. * : 

Lime 



* Formerly, Uforc the formation of good carriage roads, every thing was car- 
ried upon hffrfes backs. The load refers to this pra^Sce. 



%t Agricultural Survey of Peeh'lejjhire. 

Lime at Magbiehill, is. id.-, at Whitefield, is. 2d. ; ztCartips, 
I id. per boll of fhells ; two bolls of fhells, or, at moft, two and 
an half, being the loading of a fingle horfe cart : Farmers car- 
rying their own lime, carry only two bolls, and have generally 
nearly the fame loading as hired carts carrying two bolls and 
an half; the intereft of the former being, to have the greateft 
quantity under the leaft denomination— that of the latter the re- 
verfe. 

The coal wrought in this county, is the wefterly termina- 
tion of that large bed of coal which extends in a north-eaft di- 
rection through the Lothians, on both fides of the North Efk 
water, to the fea at Muflelburgh, in a ftretch of about fifteen 
miles in length, by from feven to eight miles in breadth ; and 
which, by Mr Robertfon's calculation, (Report of Mid-Lothian), 
would fuihce to fupply Mid-Lothian, at its prefent rate of con- 
fumpt, for 800 years. Jronftone abounds in the parifh of 
Newlands, in the range of hills running along the right of the 
public road as you go from Noblehoufe inn towards Edinburgh. 
It feems not, upon trial, to have been found fufficientiy rich in 
yield of metal, to afford the expence of carriage to the iron- 
works upon Clyde, or at Carron, or at Newcastle j though per- 
haps experiments may not as yet have been made, fufficientiy 
liecifive of its value. The Honourable Captain Cochrane, of 
the Ajax, (hip of the line, erected a fmall manufactory upon 
his eftate of Lamancha ; where, by means of a calcining fur- 
nace, and a mill with a water-wheel for grinding, this ore was 
converted into a paint of a dark red colour. None has been 
manufactured for fome years bypaft. 

In thofe ages, when fcanty yielding mines could afford a 
profit, it would appear that gold was fearched for in the rivu-* 
lets of Megget, (Statistical Account of Lyne and Megget) ; and 
that filver was obtained from mines near the village of Linton, 
where remaining veftiges of old finks, or pits, ftill retain the 
name of Silverhola. The hill where thefe filver holes are, is 
called Leadlaw ; and it is probable, before the difcovery of the 
mines of Peru, that it might be profitable to work even incon- 
Jidcrable veins of lead, for the fple purpofe of extracting filver 

from 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 2$ 

from the lead. The value of lead would appear to have been 
fo far reduced, by the difcovery of the rich veins of Leadhills, 
Wanlockhead, and probably others, that it is now unprofitable 
to work inferior veins for lead •, which, formerly, could have 
afforded the expence, for the mere filver obtained from the 
calcination of the lead. About forty years fince, the working 
of the lead veins in the hill of Leadlaw was revived, but foon 
dropt, as unprofitable. Attempts have been made to difcover 
lead worth working in other hills of Tweeddale, which have 
hitherto proved abortive. 

Marl, or at leaft fubftances fermenting with vinegar, have 
been difcovered 5 fometimes in ftrata of hardened clay, or 
tough ftone of a dark blue colour, lying above limeftone rock ; 
at other times in mafTes formed by wells from limeftone, of a. 
petrifying nature, incrufting the fog with calcareous matter, 
and of a white colour : beds of it, probably of the laft men- 
tioned origin, have been found covered with a ftratum of mofs. 
It hath not been found but in the parts of the county in the 
vicinity of lime, which fuperfedes its ufe. 

Chalybeate fprings, with blue fcum, iron tafte, and ochry 
fediment, every where abound in the parifhes of Linton and' 
Newlands. One of thefe, called Heavetiagua Well, in Linton 
parifh, is, I have been told, equally ftrong as the waters of 
Tunbridge. A fpring was, within thefe fifteen years, difco- 
vered near the village of Inverleithan, containing both fait and 
fulphur,' and faid to be of the fame nature as the waters of 
Harrowgate. It is confiderably reforted to ; and feveral houfes, 
of two Itories, have been built in the village, for accommodation. 
The yield of the fpring, in dry weather, is at the rate of about 
one chopin (Englim quart) in the minute. Before its proper- 
ties were attended to, the place where its waters oozed through 
the ground was much frequented by pigeons, and the fpot had 
obtained die name of the Pi</eons Well* 



Scct. 



84 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire.. 



Sect. VI.— Water. 

The river Tweed is accounted the fourth in magnitude 
among the Scots rivers. For feveral miles in its courfe it forms 
the boundary of the two united kingdoms. It takes its rife 
in the fouthern extremity of the county, from a well called 
Tweed/well, about 1500 feet above the level of tire fea. It runs 
in a north-eaft direction, till it receives the waters of the Lyne, 
when it bends to the eaft, continuing in that direction till it- 
leaves the county, and enters Selkirkfhire at Gatehaup Burn. 
Its ferpentine courfe through Tweeddale, which it divides 
nearly into two equal parts, is about thirty-fix miles •, the whole 
length of its run, from its fource to the fea at Berwick, may 
be about 100 miles. 

The principal waters falling into the Tweed, are, \mo t 
From its lift batik, Biggar water, with its adjuncts Kilbucho 
and Holms waters. Biggar water rifes in Lanarkfhire, from a 
bog near the courfe of the river Clyde, whofe waters, in high 
floods, overflow into Biggar water, and are with it carried into 
the Tweed ; whence the catching of falmon (which has fome- 
times occurred) in the Clyde, above its high falls, is accounted 
for. Lyne water, with its adjunct. Tarth ; Peebles or Eddie- 
(lone water ; Leithan water. ido, From its right bank, Maiuior 
water ; £h/air water. Some other waters, falling into it in 
Tweedfmuir parifh, as Cor, Fruid, Tala, might, from their 
magnitude, be equally entitled as many of the former to a 
place in a geographical defcription ; but there is neither actual, 
nor, probably, practicable cultivation upon their banks, to en- 
title them to a place in an agricultural furvey. 

Four waters rife in Tweeddale, or upon its boundaries, 
which do not pay tribute to the Tweed, or, at leaft, not within 
the county, viz. Maidivan, which divides its waters at a ful- 
ling mill on the weft fide of Linton parifh, fending the water 
which drives the mill to Tarth, and the main ftream to the 
Clyde •, North Fsk, in Linton parifh, and South Fsk, iiTuing 
from the Water Loch in Eddleftone parifh, which join theii 

ftream;> 



■'.Itural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



*5 



fris in Mid-Lothian, and fall into the fea at Muffclburgh ; 
ffitggrt water, in the part of Lyne parifh of that name, which 
falls into St Man's Loch, whofe outlet is Yarrow water in Sel- 
kirkfhire, which joins th.e water of Etirich, and, with it, joins 
the Tweed a little below the town of Selkirk. 

All thefe waters abound in trout, par, and eels ; the lochs 
5/ Mary and Water Loch, already mentioned, together with 
SHpperfield Loch in Linton parifh, abounding in perch and 
pike ; the St Mary and JVater Lochs containing alfo, the firft, 
trout and eel, the latter eels, which, in certain feafons of mi- 
gration, ufed to be catched in great numbers, in bafkets, at its 
outlet, the head of South EJh water. 

Salmon are caught, out of feafon, in all the waters, and at 
all times, in Tweed : There is however no fifhing upon Tweed, 
in this county, that can afford any rent. 

No water machinery of any kind has hitherto been erected 
in this county upon the Tweed. 

I am indebted to William Brown, mill-wright in Lyne pa- 
rifh, who has ere&ed, and who keeps in repair, the greater 
part of the machinery in Tweeddale, for the following ftate- 
ments of the water-wheels, with the work they are employed 
in, which are erected upon the other waters and burns through 
the county, 

STATE, NOVEMBER I 797« NwnBer of 

Water Wheel*. 

Driving the paint-mill at Lamancha l 
the manufactory of woollen at Inverleithan for fpin- 

ning, carding, roving, and a fulling-mill - 2 
a corn-mill, malt-mill, and thrafhing-mill, at Ker- 

field (A r . B. the firft thrafhing-mill in the county) r 
fulling-mills 4 



lint-mills - - , '- •- 2 

thrafhing-engines folely - - - 3 

corn-mills with one pair of (tones - - 1 8 

corn-mills with two pair of ftones, and a vertical 

running (tone for making pot barley - 9 

— corn-mills as above, alfo thraihing-engincs - 3 

Total 43 
£ Ik'fides 



^fy Agricultural Survey of Peebles/litre. 

Befides the above feven thrafhing machines driven by watery 
either by themfelves, or along with other machinery, there were 
then in the county only nine other thrafhing machines driven 
by two horfes each, together with one for a fingle horfe, ancfc 
two driven each by two men. 

December 1 80 1 . The following is the Statement :- 

Number of 
Water Wheels 

Driving the paint-mill at Lamancha 1 

■ the woollen manufactory of Inverleithan, with its 

fulling-mill ----- 2 

the woollen manufactory at Peebles 1 

. the manufactory of felts for paper-makers at Carlips 1 

manufactory at Garwell-foot, or at teafl teazing 

and fcribling engines, and fulling I 

fulling-mills - - 2 

■ lint-mills - 3 

a mill for all corm, for malt, and for a barley-mill, 

and a thrafhing-mill at Kerfield 1 

common corn-mills, with one pair of millftones 13 

— for wheat alone ____•- 1 

common corn-mills, with a vertical running-ftone 

for pot-barley - - - 10 

— — — corn-mills with two pairs of ftones, and a vertical 

ftone for barley - - 5 
- corn-mills with two pairs of ftones, a ftone for bar- 
ley ; alfo a thrafhing machine, and one of them 
a ftraw cutter befides 3 
: thrafhing engines lblely - T4 

5* 

Befides thefe eighteen thrafhing engines driven by water, 
there are, at this date, alfo twenty-four thrafhing engines dri- 
ven by two horfes each ; thofe driven by hand, or by one horfe, 
feem difufed as infignificant. They are erected by all the con- 
siderable corn farmers at their own expence — decifive of their 
utility. 

h 



Agricultural Survey of Peehlesfoire. ^ 

It would appear, from thefe ftatements, that thrashing en- 
gines have increafed, in four years, from fixteen to forty-two 
in number ; and that many other. improvements have been made 
in the machinery of mills. Two other thrafhing engines, to 
go by water, are in contemplation againit next feafon. 

Beveled work (confidered as a great improvement in wheel- 
.machinery, and firll introduced into Scotland, it is faid, by Mr 
Dale in his cotton-mills at Lanark, within lefs than twenty 
years) is univerfally adopted in the thrashing engines, and alfo 
in every new erected corn-mill ; the mill at Spittlehaugh in Lin- 
ton parifh having led the way. 

In the corn-mills with only one pair of ftones, the ftones 
are roughed on the furface, to enable them to tear and bruife 
the grain, by fmall hand pickaxes. Stones, thus dreffed, ferve 
well for making oat-meal, which is relifhed belt when rough in 
the grain. They cannot grind barley or peas to that finenefs 
of flour which fuits the general taftc: It is therefore neceffa- 
ry to have a feparate pair of ftones for that purpofe, which are 
dreffed on the furface with fmall chifeled grooves running in 
a direction from the circumference to the centre, like as in the 
ftones of wheat-mills ; the edges of thefe grooves clip the grain 
like fciffars, and there is no interftice through which any of 
the grain can efcape, till reduced -to the required finenefs of 
meal. 

The manufactories provided with teazing and carding en- 
gines, get great employ in teazing, carding, and roving wool, 
from thofe who make their cloth at home ; as it comes cheaper 
to the employer, after liberal payment to the proprietor of the 
machine ; and the work is done better, and with lefs wafte of 
materials, than when thefe operations are executed by hand la- 
bour. 



•CHAP. 



28 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfhirt.. 



CHAP. II. 

STATE OF PROPERTY. 



Sect. \.-~EJlates and their Management. 

As this county confifts chiefly of hill pafture lands, pro- 
ducing an herbage, fcanty and poor in quality, and more fitted, 
in general, for rearing fheep, than for fattening them •, a large 
extent is neceffary to conftjtute any confiderable value : It may 
thence readily be conceived, that landed cftates are of large di- 
menfions ; as alfo, that fmgle farms muft often occupy a large 
extent of furface, without which, the produce would barely 
compcnfate the trouble of attendance and management, but 
could afford no rent. 

Sheep farms are fometimes meafured in acres ; but the mea- 
furement affords no datum upon which to eflimate what ought 
to be the rent of the farm> and accordingly never enters into the. 
calculation of either the proprietor, or the farmer propofing to 
rent it in leafe. In eftimating their value, the only confideration 
taken into account, is, what number of fheep have ufually been, 
or may be kept upon the farm, with the quality of the fheep fo 
kept \ whether fheep of a different kind might not be kept to 

ter advantage, fuch as fattening, inflead of breeding flock, 
or vice verfa ,■ or whether, without either fattening or breeding, 
lambs ought net to be bought in annually, to be fold off next 
feafon as holding flock •, or whether a mere diminution of num- 
bers might not be more advantageous, from diminution of the 

of death, and from the fuperiority in quality of the remain- 
der, from more abundant feeding; or, in fliort, whether it 

lit be more profitable to appropriate lefs of the farm to fheep 

pafture. 



.Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjl/irc. 2y 

pafture, and more of it to the rearing of black cattle, or to 
tillage. 

The valuation of the county in the cefs-books, is 51,9271. 
3s. iod. Scots. The grois rent, including rent of mills, and 
alfo about 500I. rent from coal, lime, freeftone, and ilate, may 
amount to nearly 26,oool. Sterling. Were an eftimate to be 
made of the free rent, the deductions would be, the provifion 
pf the Clergy, (fee Statiftical Tables), with the building and 
upholding of their manfes and the parilh churches, cofting, if 
rebuilt, in each pariih, probably about 700I. at an average; 
the falaries of the fchoolm afters, (fee Note A), with the up- 
holding of the fchocls and mafters dwelling, colling, if rebuilt, 
in each parifh, probably 60 or 70I. at an average. Some o- 
ther deductions are not fo eafily calculated, fuch as, the up- 
holding of farm houfes and mills, &c. with the as yet incon- 
fiderable expence of poor's rates, where eftablifhed, or of vo- 
luntary contributions for their fupport, where there are no 
rates. 

The whole landed property may be divided among about 
fixty proprietors ; without taking into the account a few fmaH 
proprietors, poffeffmg lands to the value of 20I. yearly rent cr 
under, around the burgh of Peebles, and fome of the villages. 
Without pretending to any thing like exa£tnefs, the proprietors 
may be distributed into the following claliification : 
PoficfTing about, and little exceeding, 

in yearly rent, - iool. - 13 

From iool. to 400I. - 24 

From 400L to ioocI. - 15 

From ioool. to 40C0I. - 8 

60 
Of the more inconfulerable of thefe proprietors, perhaps 
eight or ten farm the whole of their own lands, feme of them 
renting other farms befides ; though the farmers anting lands 
to the greateft extent, are not of the clafs of landed proprietors. 
Fherc feems indeed a fecurity produced, from the certain in- 
come 



^o Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

come from landed property, where no rent is paid ; which fo~ 
pites induftry, and engenders indolence. 

Almoft all the proprietors, who refide either conftantly, or 
for a part of the feafon, farm more or lefs of their own lands, 
for convenience, for amufement, or even to a fomewhat great- 
er extent ; a very few, to an extent of farm that might be let 
in leafe at feveral hundred pounds of yearly rent. The prac- 
tice, however, of taking farms into their own management, for 
the purpofe of letting them in kafe, at advanced rents, after 
high melioration, though there are fome inftances of it, is but 
rare among Tweeddale proprietors : Indeed, the far greater part 
of the lands is little fufceptible of improvement by furface cul- 
ture of tillage ; and inclofure, at lead the fubilantial inclofure 
of ftone dikes, which need no nurfing, is as well carried on 
where lands are entered to upon leafe, as when in the adtual 
occupancy of the proprietor himfelf. 

About a fifth or fourth part of the lands is under ftri£r. en- 
tail ; befides what may be entailed by exifting proprietors, whofe 
deeds fhall take effect when their own confcioufnefs of the mat- 
ter fhall ceafe. From a fmgular circumftanee, to be afterwards 
explained, the lordfhip of Neidpath, comprehending the half 
of the lands prefently entailed, bids fair to become the moil 
fpeedily, and the molt fubfiantially, improved property in the 
county. 

Of nobility, there were lately fix who poffefled lands in the 
county, viz. the Earls of Dundonald and of Hyndford, whofe 
lands have palled into a different line of fuccefhon from the 
titles ; the Duke of Queenfberry, poffefhng, qua Earl of March, 
the lordfhip of Neidpath ; the Earl of Traquair, pofTemng the 
eftate of that name ; Lord Elliebank, pofTefTmg the barony of 
Darnhall, which, by entail, goes to the fecond branch of the 
family ; the Duke of Buccleugh, whofe intereft in the county 
is inconfiderable. 

The number upon the roll of freeholders, is generally from 
thirty to thirty-five, who fend one rcprefentative to Parliament 
from the county : The burgh of Peebles, in conjunction with 
thofe of Linlithgow, Lanark, and Selkirk, fends alfo one. 

By 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 3 J 

By much the greateft part of the lands is rented by profef- 
fional farmers, holding them upon leafes for terms of years* 
Nineteen years was, and is, the prevailing term of endurance 
of a leafe. The recent fpirit of improvement, leading farmers 
to perceive the propriety of launching out their capitals upon 
ameliorations of very diftant return, if only fecurity of poflef- 
fion can be obtained till that return arrives, has raifed a demand 
for leafes of longer endurance ; and the terms of twenty-one, 
twenty-five, thirty-one, and, upon the lordfhip of Neidpath 
three nineteens, have of late been adopted. I know not of a 
fingle inftance, in the county, of a liferent leafe now exifting ; 
though, unhappily, according to the legal conftruclion of the 
right of pofleflion by leafe, it may, under various circumftan- 
ces, occur, that a leafe for a term of years may prove merely e- 
quivalent to a liferent leafe, or even that the latter may be a 
preferable fecurity. Grafs inclofures, perfectly fenced, being 
yet but rare, let at a monopoly price. They are feldom let in 
leafes for years, but are ufually let for the feafon by public 
roup or auction, and are taken by farmers for their young 
cattle, which eat their Winter's fodder, or by profeffionai 
graziers or horfe-dealers : From two to three guineas per Scots 
acre is paid pretty commonly. 

The number of farmers renting lands to the extent of from 
100 to 500I. of yearly rent, amounts to about eighty. A 
much greater number pofTeis fmall farms, from 20- to 80I. of 
yearly rent. 

Few of the fheep farms contain much lefs than 600 or 700 
Scots acres ; there are more that contain from 1000 to 4000. 
Few of thefe farms pay lefs than iool. yearly rent. The high- 
eft rent paid at prefent by one farmer for lands within this 
county, is about 600I. yearly. One farmer who refided in this 
county, paid, at one time, for fheep farms, in this and neigh- 
bouring counties, no lefs than 1700I. yearly rent. 

The fmaller farms, chiefly arable, confift of from 40 to co 
to 100, and, in one or two inftances, 200 acres. Two or 
three of thefe may pay iool. or 150I. yearly rent ; the reft be- 
ing rented at from 25 or 30I. to 70 or 80I. 

The 



32 Agricultural Survey of Peehhsjhlrc. 

The following ftatement, of the mode in which the lands 
are pofTefTed, (in the parifh of Linton, where there is the large ft 
tillage of the county ; in that of Mannor, where there is only 
a fmall kirk town of ahout half a dozen houfes ; and in that of 
the united parifh of Lyne and Megget, where there is neither 
village nor kirk town), will convey a tolerable idea of the whole. 
Perfect accuracy in the ftatement, is not, however, pretended 
to. 

Linton Parish, (from perfonal knowledge, about the year 

1794)- 

Extent of the parifh, 25,472 Englifh acres. The whole 
yearly rent, about 2,4001. Sterling. 
Farmers renting to the extent of from 150 to 200L yearly 

rent -___«_ 2 

Ditto renting from 100 to 150L - 7 
A proprietor farming his own lands, to the extent of what 

might let at about 150I. - - - 1 

A gentleman renting a proprietor's houfe and parks at 75I. 1 

Farmers renting from 50 to iool. - 8 

Ditto renting from 20 to 50I. - - - 12 

Ditto renting at about 20I. - - - 10 

41 

Crofters, renting one or two acres around the village of 
Linton, are not included in the above enumeration. 

Mannor Parish (from Statiftical Account). 
Extent, 16,558 Englifh acres. Yearly rent, 1685I. 

Farmers paying 220I. yearly rent f 
Ditto paying 150I. - - 2 
Ditto paying iool. 6 
A gentleman renting a proprietor's houfe and parks at 50I. 1 
A proprietor farming his own lands, that might let at per- 
haps 90I. - I 
Farmers renting at from 20 to 60I. - - 7 

18 

Parish 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/litre* 23 

Parish of Lyne and Megget (from Statiftical Account). 

Extent, 16,987 acves. Rent, without including fines at en- 
try, 900I. 

Farmers occupying large farms, one of them not refiding 6 

Miller renting to extent of about 34I. 1 

Farmer renting the minifter's glebe at 20I. - I 

Mill-wright, with a very fmall poffeffion 1 



Sect. \\.~Tenures. 

The tenures, by which lands are held, may be claffed into 
fuperiority, property, and tack, or leafe. 

Superiority is merely that nominal title to land, which con- 
fers the right of franchife. As 400I. valuation of fuperiority 
confers franchife, and as, in Scotland, fuperiority may be re- 
tained, when the property of the land is conveyed away, and 
this fuperiority may alfo be fictitioufly conveyed in any given 
portions, it is evident, that, in creating votes, the fuperiority o£ 
the whole valuation, 51,927!. Scots, would give 129 voters at 
the county election : As, however, the number commonly up- 
on the roll of freeholders does not exceed 30 or 35, it may be 
readily inferred, that this county has not been much difturbed 
by die animofities of political conteft. 

Property is the valuable tenure of land, implying the full 
command of the fubjecT: to all the purpofes of human life ; ex- 
cepting, merely, political power, which is attached to fupe- 
riority, and may, or may not, be attached to the property. 

Tack for a term of years, is the tenure by which land is held, 
by profeffional farmers, from proprietors, for the purpofes of 
agriculture. 

For a more full explanation of this fubjeel, I refer the reader 
to note B. 



F CHAP. 



34 Agricultural Survey of Peehlesjhire. 



CHAP. III. 



BUILDINGS. 



Sect. l.—Houfes of Proprietors. 

There are in the counfy about 30 houfes, (including all 
thofe in tolerable repair), belonging to landed proprietors, pof- 
felling from 100I. to perhaps 3000I. of yearly land rent. Of 
this number, rather more than two-thirds may be confidered as 
ordinary family refidences •, confifting of from 6 or 8 to 20 or 
30 fire-rooms, and conftrufted upon plans confined to mere 
purpofes of utility, or admitting of more or lefs degrees of 
neatnefs, elegance, or magnificence, according to the various 
taftes or abilities of their refpe&ive pofleffors. 

There are five feats which have been, not long ago, or are 
now, the refidences of noblemen, viz. (arranging them in the 
order of higher up to loweft down in the county) Lamancha, 
Kirkurd, Darnhall, Neidpath, Traquair ; refpe£tively belonging 
to the Earl of Dundonald, Earl of Hyndford, Lord Elliebank, 
Duke of Queenfberry qua Earl of March, and Earl of Traquair, 
none of whom refide at prefent, but the laft mentioned Earl. 
Properly fpeaking, three of them only are ancient family feats, 
accompanying he pofiefiion of the titles, Darnhall, Neidpath, 
and Traquair. 

The fituation of Neidpath is, or rather was, the mod pic- 
turefque of any in the county. The houfe itfelf is, indeed, in 
no way remarkable ; being a tower-houfe of fmall dimenfions, 
but with exceffive thicknefs of wall, and now ruinous. It 
Hands upon a rock overhanging the Tweed, at the lower end 

of 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/litre. 3 J 

of a wide femicircular bend of that river : the concave bank is 
very fteep, of great height, and wooded for near a mile up and. 
down the river, from its top to the water's edge, forming a vail 
romantic amphitheatre. Upon the oppofite fide of the river, 
a bold projecting wooded bank juts forward into the bend •, at 
the foot of which, lies a fmall plain, half encircled by the 
Tweed, fuggefting the idea of a fnug, fequeflered, fheltered fi- 
tuation for an hermitage. This fcene lies about a mile above 
the town of Peebles, where the road, leading up the Tweed, 
enters upon it at Neidpath Caftle •, whence it is carried along 
the middle of the concave bank, being cut out in the rock, and 
feeming to hang over the water below. To the traveller, by 
moonlight, the conftant fhifting of the fcenery as he moves a- 
long, with the intervening glimpfes of the water renewing the 
moon-beams through the trees, gives to the whole an air of 
fairy-land and enchantment. I am forry to add, that the de- 
scription no longer applies ; the place having been very lately 
difmantled completely, by the fale of the wood. No blame, 
however, can attach to the prefent Noble proprietor. This 
fubject of regret, like many other, falls entirely to the charge 
of the extravagant extent of the power of entail j imparting to 
the will of the dead, who have ceafed to have any further ac- 
tual concern, an effect by much too extenfive, in controuling 
the wills of the living and interefled. When a proprietor can- 
not leave his landed property to the natural obje£t of his affec- 
tion, what elfe is to be expected, but that he fhould convert 
what of it he can into money, which the laws of his country 
{till allow him to difpofe of as he pleafes ? We laugh at the 
fuperftition of the Chinefe, in paying divine honours to the 
memory of their deceafed anceftors j though it is probable, 
this their worfhip is, like that of other people, fo managed, as 
not efTentially to interfere with their temporal intercfts. But 
might not a ftranger to our laws and cuftoms be tempted to 
tax us of a more than Chinefe fuperftition, in paying to the 
wills of our anceftors, where they interfere fo materially with 
our temporal interefts, as to preclude all power of choice on 
our part, in fome of the moft efTential parts of their manage- 
ment, 



36 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhire. 

ment, an obedience more devoted and implicit, than what is 
generally paid even to an acknowledged Divine authority ? 

It would be foreign to the purpofe, and incompatible with 
the limits of this Report, to attempt to characterife the ftyle of 
the various feats of the nobility and gentry : thefe we leave to 
the architect and defigner of policies, our bufinefs lying rather 
with the humbler fubjecl: of the accommodation of the farmer 
and the cottager. I fhall juft obferve, that the mountainous 
nature of the country affords choice of every variety of fitua- 
tion ; fo that he, who choofes to expofe himfelf to every wind 
that blows, may frequently, at this price, enjoy a pretty exten- 
sive profpect — of objects, however, not commonly very intereft- 
ing ; whilft he, who is contented to forego extent of profpect, 
may fnugly bury himfelf under the molt complete fhelter. 
There are feats to be found in both extremes of iituation ; 
though the middle ftate feems to have been the more general 
object, of choice. I have fubjoined, in an appendix, an account 
of Whim, which, from peculiarity of fituation, and particu- 
larly from the cultivation there carried on, of the deepeit mofs 
foil ever attempted to be cultivated in this county, feemed, in 
preference to others, to merit a particular defcription in an 
agricultural furvey. 

Sect. II. — Farm-Houfes, Offices, and Repairs. 

From various caufes, Scotland was more late in being re- 
lieved from the oppredion of feudal ariftocracy, than her filter 
kingdom ; the laft act of Parliament to that effect, and for 
which we are indebted to our rebellion in 1745, being fo re- 
cent as the 1 748. An emancipation de jure, when obtained, 
proves not, however, all at once, an emancipation de fatlo ; 
time is neceffary for the mind to habituate itfelf to the fenti- 
ments fuited to a new fituation ; and it is but of late, if as yet, 
that the feelings of fecurity and independence are as univerfally 
prevalent among the Scots, as among the Englifh tenantry. 

In former times, the Scots tenant poflefled the fentiments 
and habits of the fubject of an Afiatic defpot, rather than thoii 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire: 37 

of a free man : deftitute of that manly confidence, infpired by 
the confcioufnefs of fecurity in the equal prote£tion of law, 
he relied more upon the refources of his own dexterity and 
cunning ; and die dread of being plundered, made him cauti- 
ous of difplaying fuch wealth as he poflefled, either in improve- 
ments upon his farm, or in purchafmg fuch comforts and ac- 
commodations as its profits might afford. From his contracted 
habits of concealment, and from the fmall degree of wealth 
which he had any opportunity of acquiring, the Seots tenant 
was contented to live in the moft miferable hovel 5 the poverty, 
too, of his landlord, who could draw little rent from a wretch- 
ed tenantry, deftitute of every proper encouragement to induf- 
try, difabling him, even had he been willing, to afford much 
better accommodation. Thefe hovels, fuch as they were, coft 
nothing to the proprietor, but were upheld for ever by the te- 
nant ; it being underflood, at common law, independent of co- 
venant, that the outgoing tenant fhould leave them always to 
liis fucceflor, in tenantable and habitable condition : From ufe 
and practice, tenantable and habitable, had come to imply mere- 
ly, wind and water tight ; and the common ftyle of farm- 
houfes admitted of little more accommodation, than mere fhel- 
ter from the weather. 

In confequence of the firm eftablifhment of monarchy, and 
the diflblution of ariftocracy — of the abolition of heritable juris- 
dictions, and the fubflitution of independent Judges, uncon- 
nected with the fubjects of their own jurifdiotion, and having 
no perfonal intereft in their own decifions — the fecurity of the 
tenantry, as well as ol all the lower orders in fociety, is con- 
firmed : General induflry has kept pace with growing fecurity > 
and the fituation of every rank is altered greatly for the better. 
In confequence of increafing fentiments of liberality among the 
landed gentry, cf fecurity among the tenantry, and of wealth 
in both, the ftyle of farm-houfes through Scotland lias been 
much improved. Cre.it improvements, in this refpe£t, have 
been made in Tweeddale, within theft laft thirty years; Sir 
lames Montgomery of Stanhope, late Lord Chief Baron of the 
Court of Exchequer in Scotland, Sir James Nafmyth of New 

Pqffo, 



5? Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

Poffo, and Mr Burnet of Barns, having been among the firft to 
fet the example. 

In building farm-houfes, it is the prevailing practice, that 
the proprietor pays all the outlayed money for materials and 
wages of workmen •, the tenant performing the carriages, and 
becoming bound to uphold the houfes during his fack ; the lafl 
mentioned obligation having become the lefs onerous, from 
flate roofing having come more into ufage. In general, no fli- 
pulation is made as to payment of intereft, for the money laid 
out upon the buildings ; it being rather underftocd, that a tenant, 
pofTeffing flock to occupy a farm of the particular extent, is en- 
titled to accommodation in a fuitable ftyle. Much liberality, 
in accommodation of houfes, has of late been manifefled by 
Tweeddale proprietors, excepting upon the eftate of Neidpath, 
where, in confequence of entail, the prefent proprietor, having 
no more than a mere liferent intereft, cannot be exue&ed to 
fink money upon the fubje£t. 

Sheep farmers can be afforded the beft dwelling-houfes j as, 
from their fheep never being houfed, they require lefs extent 
of farm-offices than corn farmers. 

The beft farm-dwellings in Tweeddale, are built in a ftyle 
fimilar, but fo me what inferior, both as to fize, height of ceiL 
Ings, and quality of finifhing, to the dwelling-houfes, or tnanfes 
of the clergy. Thefe latter are of the dimenfions of from 34 
to 40 feet in length, by from 19 to 22 feet in breadth, within 
the walls j the door is generally in the middle of the front, 
whence you enter upon a very fmall lobby and the ftaircafe ; 
on one hand is the kitchen, with a fmall divifion, probably taken 
off it, for a fcullery and fervant's bed ; on the other hand, is 
generally the beft room, occupying the breadth of the houfe for 
Its length. When you afcend the flair to the fecond flory, the 
fpace above the kitchen may be equally divided, making two 
fmall fleeping apartments ; and the fpace above the beft room 
is unequally divided, affording a fort of drawing room, -with 
a fmall fleeping clofet. The garret fpace, under the roof, 
may be divided into a place for lumber in the one end, and the 
other end fitted up with a couple of beds, into what is called a 

barrack 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfiire. 29 

barracl room. The farmer, having a greater number of fer- 
vants than what are needed by the clergyman, is generally ac- 
commodated with a kitchen without the dwelling-houfe, which 
gives more room, though his dwelling-houfe is fomewhat lefs 
than the manfe. 

The number of farm-houfes of two (lories with flated roofs, 
lately built, may amount to fomewhat above fifty, without in- 
cluding a few of that defcription, prefently occupied by farmers, 
which formerly were occupied by the proprietors. The two 
mod expenfive farm onfleads (including both dwelling and 
office-houfes) that have been erected in the county, are, I be- 
lieve, one at Hudlefhaup in Mannor parifh, by Robert Camp- 
bell Efq. of Kailzie, the other at Elythfbank in Linton parifh, 
by John Carmichael Efq, of Skirling: the court of the latter, 
for dungftead and winterers, inclofed upon three fides by the 
offices, and on the fourth by a wall, contains a fpace of 100 
by 84 feet clear of the buildings *. 

Prior to the period of improvement before flared, the moft 
ufual conftruction of the better farm dwellings, was that of a 
long houfe of only fix feet wall in height ; the apartments all 
upon the ground; the dimenfions about 45 by 15 or 16 feet 
in breadth within walls ; no divifion by partitions within, but 

the 



* Mr Alexander, tenant of Eafter Happrew, who, upon fecurity of one of the 
fifty-feven years leafes, granted upon the barony of Neidpath, has built, at his 
own expence, a dwelling of two fiories, with offices, all covered with flate, and 
who generally thinks for himfelf, has formed his court of offices into a fmall 
fquare, merely fufficient to contain his dung. His cattle have no accefs into this 
court, the offices being all entered from the outfide. The dung is toiTed from the 
offices into this court through apertures in the walls; the urine from all the offices 
runs into a refervoir funk in a corner of the court ; a pump is placed in the re- 
fervoir, whence, by means of wooden conduits laid upon moveable fupports, the 
Mrine is conveyed over any part of the dung. He difapproves of the trampling of 
cattle upon dung, as kneading it into a iblid body, and excluding the air, to the 
prevention of putrefaction. His winterers, upon draw, are fed in a feparate 
court, whence the dung and litter can be removed at pleafure, to be tofied into 
the other dung-court ; or otherwise lightly "said together, for the purpofc 0: putrc- 
fa&tan. 



^a Agricultural Survey tf Peebles/hire. 

the crofs partitions effected by clofe beds * fet end to end, 
with a paffage betwixt them. You entered at the front, where 
the door was placed near to one end : On the right hand, we 
fhall fuppofe, you had a partition of clofe beds, which cut off 
a fpace for a room, and, on the other hand, the fimilar parti- 
tion dividing the kitchen from the paffage j turning to the left 
into the kitchen, a fimilar partition cut off a room from the 
kicchen. Thefe three apartments, viz. a kitchen in the middle, 
with a room at each end of it, conftituted the whole accom- 
modation. The round-about fire fide (ftill by much preferred 
where there are a number of farm fervants, and certainly by 
far moft preferable, but for the difficulty of keeping them clear 
of fmoke), was univerfally in ufe in the kitchen ; that is, a cir- 
cular grate placed upon the floor about the middle of the kit- 
chen, with a frame of lath and plafter, or fpars and mats, fuf- 
pended over it, and reaching within about five feet of the 
floor, like an inverted funnel, for conveying the fmoke ; the 
whole family fitting round the fire within the circumference of 
the inverted funnel. Here was placed the gudeman's refting 
chair, or wooden fopha, upon which he fat or reclined after 
the fatigues of the day, liftening, in thofe times fo dearthful 
of intelligence, to the news collected by the wandering beg- 
gar, or feafting his imagination upon the wonders of the lame 
ibldier or failor who had vifited foreign countries. 

Sect. 



* The clofe bed is a frame of wood, 6 feet high, 6 feet long, and 4 feet 
broad. In an houfe of 15 feet in width, two of them fet lengthwife acrofs the houfe, 
the one touching the front, the other the back walls, an entry or paflage, of three 
feet in width, is left betwixt the beds. To form an idea of a clofe bed, we may 
fuppofe it like a fquare-formed upright curtain bed, where the place of curtains is 
fupplied by a roof, ends and back of wooden deal, the front opening and fhutting 
with wooden doors, either hinged, or Aiding fidewife in grooves. The bottom, 
raifed about 18 inches from the floor, is fparred; this is covered with ftraw, above 
which a bag of ticken, or of fackcloth, filled with the chaff of oats, moft com- 
monly fupplies the place ©f a feather bedj with bolder and pillows of the fame 
.onftruc"tion. 



../ 7 ural Survey of Peeblesflj'tre. 41 



Sect. III. — Cottages. 

Hale a century ago, a great part of the cottages of the 
Scots day-labourers were built with walls of turf ; ilone but- 
trefles, or wooden pofts, built into the wall, fupporting the 
heavy timbers of the roof : A very few of this delcription (till 
exilt in this county ; but the greater part are built of ftone 
and lime. The general defcription of the cottage of a labourer 
or tradefman, who keeps a cow, is, a houfe of 18 or 20 feet 
by 15 or 16 within walls; the door is in front, clofe by- 
one of the gables ; two clofe beds form the crofs partition, di- 
viding the lpace occupied by the family from a fpace of four 
feet from the gable at which you enter, where ftands the cow 
behind one of the beds, with her tail to the door of the houfe. 
There is one window in front near the fire gable, oppofite to 
which, at the oppofite wall, ftands the ambry, or (helved 
wooden prefs, in which the cow's milk, and other family daily 
provifion are locked up ; and, above it, lying againft the flaunt 
of the roof, is the Jkelf, or frame, containing fhelves, with 
crofs bars in front, to prevent the utenfils fet upon its fhelves 
from tumbling off from its overhanging politibn •, the fhow of 
the houfe depending much upon the quality and arrangement 
of the crokery and other utenfils placed thus, in open view, 
upon the fkelf. A cheft, containing the family wardrobe, 
ftands in front of one of the clofe beds, ferving alfo for feats. 
The clofe beds are alfo furniihed with a fhelf at head and foot, 
upon which part of the family apparel is depofited, to prefex*vc 
it from the dull. A wooden armed chair for the hufband, 
when he arrives fatigued from his labour, and a few (tools 
for the reft of the family, and a plunge churn, completes the 
inventory of houfehold furniture ; to which only a fmall bar- 
rel for faked flefh, and another for meal, may be added, if 
rhe family can afford to lay in ftores, and are not from hand 
to mouth. The cooking utenfils are, a (mail caft-iron pot, in, 
which is daily prepared the oat meal porridge, the univerfal 
"breakfafr, eaten with milk, or with home-brewed weak ale 

G from 



42 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

from treacle, when the milk feafon is over * ; in which alf> 
the potatoes are boiled, as the univerfal fupper, while they 
lad, eaten either with milk, or merely with fait ; in which is 
aifo prepared for dinner, through Winter, potatoes drefled 
with mutton-fuet purchafed for the purpofe, or broth to be 
eaten with bread, made univerfally with fhelled barley, and kale 
from the kale yard, and, according to circumftances, either with 
or without a bit of faked mutton, to give them a relifh ; the but- 
ter from the cow being all fold frefh, from the high price it 
bears in fuch vicinity to Edinburgh, being the chief dependence 
for money to pay for the cow's Summer's grafs, and to pur- 
chafe her Winter's fodder; the Ikimmed milk only being ufed in 
the family, in the manner already dated ; or, when moft plen- 
ty in Summer, ferving for dinner broth. The next indifpen- 
fable cooking utenfil, univerfally in ufe in every cottage and in 
every family in the country, is the girdle, which is a round 
thin plate, either of malleable, or of cad -iron, from a foot to 
two feet and an half in diameter, according to the fize of the 
family. It is fufpended over the fire by a jointed iron arch 
with three legs, called the clips, the ends of the legs of which 
are hooked, to hold fad the girdle. The clips is linked upon 
a hook at the end of a chain, called the crook, which is attached 
to an iron rod, or wooden beam, called the rantle-tree, which is 
fixed acrofs the chimney-dalk, at fome diftance above the fire. 
Upon this girdle is baked the ordinary bread of the cottager, and 
of the farmer's fervants, confiding of bannocks made of the meal 
of peas, or of barley, but more generally of the two meals mixed 

together, 



* Time was, when the character of ost meal was greatly traduced ; being ac- 
counted heating to the blood, and the caufe of cutaneous difeafes, and even of the 
rational difeafe, the itch. It has regained its character, of late, with the faculty, 
a' fubacid ami cooling, and is prefrribed even for cutaneous difbrders. I am in- 
clined to date the relloraticn of its character from the publication of Smollett's 
Humphry Clinker; where a rational vindication of its wholcfome propcities is put 
into the mouth of Lieutenant Lefmahagoe. The itch has almoft totally difap- 
peared fince the introduction of cteanlinefs, though the ufc of oat meal is ftill pcr- 
fevcrcd in. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/fjire. 43 

together, and more rarely of oats. The meal is made into 
dough with water without leaven, and the dough is formed into 
circular cakes of from 7 to 9 inches diameter, and from ~ to ^ 
inches in thicknefs ; it is then toafted firft on one fide, then 
the other, upon the girdle ; and two or three days provifion 
are made at once : The bread has but a doughy tafte. The 
oat cake, known by the fole appellative of cake, is the gala 
bread of the cottager : The meal is made into dough with wa- 
ter, without leaven, as little water being ufed as is merely fuf- 
iicient to make the meal ftick together ; the dough is then 
kneaded, or rolled out, as thin as poihble, into a round cake, 
of diameter correfponding to the fize of the girdle ; the cake 
is then cut into four quadrants, and toafted on the girdle, al- 
ternately, on both fides, care being taken, both with cakes and 
bannocks, to prevent the girdle from being fo hot as to burn 
their furface : When the cake is fo hardened as to ftand on 
edge, it is placed upon an iron heater, linked upon a bar of the 
grate, where it toaits leifurely, till it is perfectly dry, though 
noway burnt ; if it hath lain fome days unufed, it is toafted 
anew before it is eaten ; it thus conftitutes a hearty fpecies of 
bread, of a tonic quality, to judge by the tafte ; and which, by 
many Scotsmen in the higher ranks, is preferred to wheaten 
bread *. There is juft one other utenfil indifpenfable to the 
cottager ; which is, a very fmail barrel, or can, of ftone ware, 
to hold his fait, which he keeps in a hole in the wall clofe by 
his fire, to prevent its running, from the moifture in the air : 
He muft alfo have a wooden pail to carry water ; in which his 
cow is milked, if he has one ; on which fuppofition, too, he 
muft have three cans of ftone ware, or veflels of cooper's work, 
in which the milk is fet in the ambry to ftand for calling up 
tin cream. 

I 



* In the predatory excurfions of our anceftors into England, the only provi- 
sion they carried was a bag of oat meal ; thtir only camp inenfi! was the girdle; 
as for cooking fkfli, thtir way was, to boil a ccw in her own fkin. 



44 Agricultural Survey of "Peehlesfonre. 

I have entered the more largely into the defcription of the 
food of the cottager, as farm fervants are fed much in the fame 
way, excepting only that they may more often have broth made 
with flefh, and flefh, or cheefe, or eggs, more frequently for 
dinner along with the broth. 

The molt artificial food ufed by cottagers, or farm fervants, 
is fonvins. When oats are to be made into meal, the grain, be r 
ing dried, is made to pafs through the mill, the millflones be- 
ing fet at fuch diftance as merely to flrip off the hulk without 
bruifing the kernel ; the hulk is then feparated by the fanners : 
As the grains are, however, of unequal fize, the whole is 
again returned to the mill, with the Hones approaching a little 
nearer, by which the fmaller grains zrejhcelfd, or fuelled, with- 
out bruifing the kernels fhelled by the fir ft operation : The 
hulks, ox foilling feeds, are again feparated by the fanners, when 
the flitting, or naked kernels, are committed to the mill, with 
the flones fet fo near as to grind them into meal. As fome of 
the {hells, however, dill remain among the meal, they are fe- 
parated from it by hand fieves : Thefe fhells, thus feparated, 
and having the finer particles of the meal adhering to them, 
called mill feeds, are preferred for fowins. A quantity of them 
are fteeped in water for eight or ten days, according to the 
heat of the weather, or of the place where they are depofited, 
when they undergo the acid fermentation, to be judged of ei- 
ther by the fmell or tafte ; they are then well wrung in the 
water, and the whole is decanted through a drainer into ano-r 
tlier vefiel, the drainer keeping back the hulks : After the de- 
canted extract has depofited the fine particles with which it i; 
impregnated as a fediment, it is poured off; frelh water i; 
poured upon the fediment, which is well flirred, and allowed 
to fettle for twenty-four hours, when it is alfo poured clT. 
This wafhing is intended to corre£fc the acidity, and is repeated 
till the water retains only fuch fubacidity as is grateful to the 
palate. When this is attained, that water is poured of, and 
fuch quantity of frefh water added, as, when the fediment is 
well ftirrcd with it, fhall bring the mixture to the confidence 
gf thin gruel, or cre^m, when a portion of it, fufiicicnt for a 

meal, 



Agricultural Survey cf PeeblesJIAre. /\$ 

meal, (always the fupper meal), is boiled in a pot, in which it 
thickens ; fo that, when poured into a veflel to cool, it acquires 
the confidence of a thick jelly. Againfl the fupper hour next 
night, recourfe is had again to the {lore veflel, when the water 
is poured from the fediment ; and it is again brought to its 
proper confidence by frefh water, and the quantity needed put 
-into the pot, &c. fo long as the prepared ftore lafts. The 
fowins thus prepared, are eaten either warm with cold, or cold 
with heated milk. They are a food of very eafy digeftion, 
having fomewhat of a diuretic quality, and are extremely plea- 
fant to mod palates. The feeds, from the different makings 
cf meal (welders) through Winter, are preferved till the pota- 
toes are exhaufted ; when they afford fowins, for a fupper 
difh, till the potato feafon comes in again. Sowins are ufed 
by the weavers as a dreffing for linen yarn for the loom. 

Subdantial labourers or tradefmen have generally two ap- 
partments in their cottages ; the cow, Handing in a feparate to- 
fall building •, the kitchen is formed by two clofe beds, as a par- 
tition, in the manner already defcribed ; the room is formed 
bv a Galafhieis partition * run acrofs the houie. This cecono- 
mical partition is formed of perpendicular dandards from the 
ground to the ceiling, of three-fourth inch deal, from three to 
four inches broad, according to the thicknefs of partition re- 
quired, and fet about three feet afunder : A flat board (com- 
monly an old door) is clapped fiat againfl the ftandards on one 
fide ; and a maibn, on the other fide, builds up the interdices 
betwixt the ftandards with fmall chips of ilone and lime mortar, 
the old door keeping the work ftraight on the fide oppofite to 
him. At every three feet advance in height, he lays a crofs 
binder of wood upon the maienry betwixt the ftandards, clofe 
fitted to their interval, and to which they are nailed. When 
the whole is thus completed, the furfaee is fmoothed with 
pl.'.fter lime. Partitions might be mpde of this kind with fold-* 
irig doors, and roof of lath and platter, which might fcrve the 

purpofe 



* I cjII it fo, having fir ft feen it ufal at the village of Galafliiells }n Selkirk- 
fcire, 



'jl6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

purpofe of clofe beds ; and poor people might find it more eafy 
to pay interefl for the advance, than to purchafe the clofe beds, 
which, in this dearth of wood, may coft from forty millings to 
three pounds each. 

Cottages, as defcribed, are covered with thatch, excepting 
in the villages of Broughton and Eddleftone, which were re- 
built on regular plans, with Hated roofs, by the proprietors of 
the manors, as viftas from their own manfions. 

Fern is reckoned a more durable thatch than ftraw, and 
heath than fern. Lint is reckoned a very durable thatch, and 
has been reared for the purpofe % the feed, fold to oil mills, pay- 
ing in fome meafure as a crop. Balket willow might, proba- 
bly, in many refpects, prove preferable to any of them. Tile 
is not in ufe, almoft, in this county ; from a dread that it could 
not endure the rigour of our Winters ; but chiefly from its 
conflant expofure to breaking in low houfes. The moft gene- 
ral thatch ufed, (till the two Winters 1 799, 1 800, fo dearthful 
of fodder, introduced the more general ufe of heath), is the 
ftraw of big ; applied to this purpofe, as being lefs valuable as 
fodder : It is either fewed to the crofs fpars of the roof, by tar- 
red twine ; or the roof is firft covered with divots (fod raifed by 
the paring fpade) laid on, overlapping like flate, with that end 
only expofed which hath received a knead or glaffing by the 
firft entry of the paring fpade ; when, after ftanding one year, 
the thatch, in fmall handfuls, twilled together at top, is thruft 
into holes previoufly made obliquely upwards in the divots by 
an iron-fhod, dovetailed-pointed hand inftrument (called zjting), 
by which both operations are performed, in alternation. Heath 
is neither fewed nor dinged ; excepting the firft courfe along 
the heads of the walls, which is fewed to the fpars. It is then 
laid on, in courfes from gable to gable, every courfe being beat 
clofe with mallets, and the top either feiurcd (like other thatch- 
ings) by a ridging of fods ; or, the angle of the roof being re- 
ceived into two deals let at angles, and the feam of their junc- 
ture fecured by a hollowed batten of wood ; a row of fod being 
ufed (as in all thatchings) to join the thatch to the flope of the 

A 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfiire. 47 

A confutable number of day-labourers and artificera are 
accommodated with houfes in the villages, which they rent 
from year to year. In Linton, and in feme inftances elfewhere, 
they pofTefs them fometimes (lefs to their profit) in perpetual 
right of property, conftituted in form of feudal tenure; or 
rent them yearly from proprietors of this description. When 
two farms, originally feparate refidences, are joined into one, 
the fuperfluous houfes (not occupied by the fubtackfman to 
whom the fheep farmer fubfets the houfes and arable land of 
that fheep farm where he does not refide) are let to labourers 
or artificers. Sometimes the labourer, or tradefman, takes 
-round in leafe of twenty-one or twenty-five years from a landed 
proprietor, generally by the fides of highways, for an houfe 
garden, and cow's maintenance for Summer's grafs, or for both 
that and Winter's provender. He builds the houfe at his own 
expence, the proprietor furnifhing the price of wood, and the. 
wages of the mafon and carpenter •, and, after the expiry of the 
kafe, it reverts to the proprietor, who again lets it in leafe. 
Proprietors who refide, build accommodations for their tradef- 
men and labourers, for whom they have occafion •, and when 
the lands in their occupation come to be let in leafe, the 
farmer accommodates independent tradefmen with fuch houfes, 
or lets them fall to ruin, if there is no demand for them. * 

Upon the feparation of farms from their ftate of townfhips; 
runrig, and commonty, (to which they had been driven, for 
mutual defence, in times of turbulence), into diftinct poffeffionsj 
with feparate refidencies, the farmer, who obtained poiTeflion or 
the farm upon which the cluftered dwellings had been ereded, 
might have a fupernuity of houfes to difpofe of to cottagers ; 
and in a ftate of feciety, where the little exteniion of arts and 
manufactures afforded few outlets to profitable employment, 



more 



* We have nothing of the pafWico-poetical mania in this county ; winch 
would lead to the everting of cottages for idlers, for whofe labour there is no de- 
mand, for the mere pleafure of editing poetic ideas. Our fpare funds hna 
cient occupation in removing real diOrefs ; we can iff.rd none for the 
icprelcntations of imaginary happinefs. 



43 Agricultural Survey of Peebiesjbirf. - 

more people might be found who would rent fuch houfei ct 
cottages, though there was fmall demand for them as country 
labourers, from their finding nothing better to do : Such fitua- 
tions would be, however, deferted, when better employment 
occurred to their occupiers ; and I doubt not but fuch amelio- 
rations may have often fiiggefted notions of thofe ideal diftreflibs 
fo graphically depicted, and io pathetically deplored, in Gold- 
fmith's fanciful poem of the Dcfcrted Village". The notion of 
whining over the defertion and depopulation of the country, is 
now abandoned to idle and ignorant fentimeutalifts, who arc 
left to lament, at pleafure, the lofs of thofe enchanting fancied 
fcenes of rural content, and cottage innocence and felicity, which 
no man of fenfe believes ever to have had aft exiftence but in the 
imagination of the poet. 

Cottages have been built, and cottages have been deferted, ac- 
cording to the local or general demand, or want of demand, for 
them. Amelioration of agriculture as to the fituation of farm- 
houfes, giving more of them to one place than there was demand 
for, occafioned their defertion in fuch fituations. The union of 
farms may fometimes alfo have the fame effect ; and the growing 
improvements of furface-culture may occafion a frefh demand for 
labourers, and of cottages for their accommodation. The old 
fyftem, however, of adfr.ricr.ing the cottager's labour, in hay 
time and harveft, to the farmer from whom he rents his cot- 
tage, is probably not very eligible for either party : If the cottar 
is bound, as was cuftomary, at low wages, or at no wages, 
this mud be compenfated to him in the lower rent of his 
houfe, or in privileges of fowing barley, lint, or potatoes, and 
carriage of fuel : It might be equally advantageous that every- 
thing fhould be paid for on both fides at market price, which 
might diminifh temptations to evalion in performing the terms 
of the agreement. 

The feparation of profeffions is indifpenfable to their per- 
fection *. The tradefman and labourer ought to have no more 

land 

* The convcrfc of this propofition fecms alfo to hold true ; and the minute 
knowledge of detail fecms incojifiitcnt with enlarged views. It would be no re 

commendation 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 49 

land, than grafs for his cow, and perhaps a garden of fuch fize 
as could be laboured at his fpare hours, which would be parti- 
cularly healthful to thofe of fedentary profeflions. If he gets 
lb much land as requires ploughing for Winter's fodder, the 
lofs of time he fuftains, and the diftra&ion of application 
which enfues, (in hunting after farmers, who keep horfes, to 
plough for him, for favour or for hire, and in attending to the 
culture of his crops when growing), in general foon disquali- 
fies him from carrying on the bufinefs of his profeffion with 
much fuccefs. Many tradefmen in this county are reduced to 
this fituation ; being obliged, from neceffity, to bungle on in 
the belt way poflible. Where it is to be had, and where, 
from vicinity of refidence, it is equally convenient to all in- 
terefted, a grafs field, or a grafs inclolure requiring no herding, 
rented in common as a cow pafture, from a proprietor or 
farmer, is the beft accommodation in this way for tradefmen ; 
and as for Winter fodder, to purchafe it in the market. Un- 
happily, however, the monopolizing fpirit of the landed pro- 
prietors, jealoufly reftricting the confumpt of the fodder to the 
farm that produces it, (lands in the way of this moft eligible 
mode of the cottager's accommodation. Indeed, except in the 
cluftered refidence of fome of the villages, this moft advanta- 
geous mode of having grafs cannot be attained to ; but a fingle 
cow is grazed at the expence of an herd to attend her. Such 
as are not burdened with the additional diftra&ion of land to 
be cultivated for their cow's Winter fodder, have ftill, as yet, 
contrived to obtain that accommodation ; either in the expen- 
five purchafe of fown grafs hay, (which the fpirit of restric- 
tion has not yet doomed to be confumed upon the farm where 

H it 



commendation of a ftatefman, that he was perfectly ildlled in the practice of 
weaving ; nor of a prefident of an Agricultural Board, that he could vie with a 
miller or a butcher in judging of the yield of grain or the weight of a buliock. 
The fubdivifion of htbour would fcem carried to a ridiculous excefs, in the confli- 
tution of France; where haranguing is the exclqfive privilege of one part of the 
reprefentation, and judging, of the other : Or, does a Frenchman, neceflarily, fv 
heat himfelf; when he fprak«, as to be incapable pf.iult-ln.r with discretion? 



r© Agricultural Survey of Peebles/lire. 

it grew) •, in that of draw fodder, from farms held by older 
leafes, unfubje£ted to reftri&ing claufcs 5 or in that of growing 
corns fold by public roup, upon the termination of leafes by 
conventional expiry, or the tenant's bankruptcy, as againft fuch 
difpofal, in fuch circumftances, the reftri&ing fpirit has not as 
yet univerfally lifted up its teftimony. 

The perfection of improvement would feem to infer the 
complete feparation of every profeflion : The occupation of 
every inch of the lands by profeflional farmers ; and the cluf- 
tering of labourers and artificers into centrical villages, fo com- 
pletely detached from the occupation of land, as to buy even 
their milk, as well as every other kind of farm produce, from 
the farmer by profeflion ; perhaps, even the profeflional carter, 
to be fo infulated within the bufinefs of his profeflion, as to 
purchafe from the farmer every article of his horfe's provender. 
Such a completion cannot, however, exift, but in a country 
rich in produce by nature and cultivation, and pofTefling a very 
numerous population : but it is the tendency of the efforts of 
felf-intereft in every individual to produce an approximation to- 
wards it, fo far as circumftances will admit. Meantime, it 
were idle to attempt, by political regulations, prematurely to 
enforce the adoption of fuch arrangements as will, of their own 
accord, enfue in the natural courfe of things. It were ftill, 
however, more abfurd, to counteract, by regulation, thefe na- 
tural tendencies towards amelioration* by forcing the land into 
fmall cottage pofleflions, where there is no demand for fuch 
minute divifion ; either in yielding to the Cockney apprehen- 
fion of that bugbear the monopoly of farms ; or to the enthu- 
fiafm of fentimentaliils, wilhing to embody their poetic con- 
ceptions, by the gratuitous erection of cottages ; which mult 
neceflarily transform their occupants, from independent la- 
bourers, paying in work for what they receive in wages, into 
abject dependent beggars *. 

CHAP- 

* Sec Note C at end of volume. 



Agricultural Survey of FeebksJIAre. 5 1 



CHAP. IV. 



MODE OF OCCUPATION. 



Sect. I. — Size of Farms — Characler of Farmers. 

An account has already been given of the a£tu^ fize of 
Tweeddale farms, (pages 28 — 33). 

That the largeft pofiible difpofable produce may be raifed, 
at the leaft expence upon that produce, in a fheep farm, fo as to 
enable it both to fend more goods, and of better quality, to mar- 
ket, and, of courfe, to afford moft rent to the proprietor, it 
ought to be of fufEcient extent to admit of diftinet hirfeting 
and herding; in fuch a manner, that each diftin£t hirfel 
fhould be fufficiently numerous to occupy, completely, a di- 
ftincl: herdfman, without which he muft be kept, to a certain 
degree, idly and unprofitably. If fheep farms are either too 
fmall or too large for this purpofe, the public mind may fatisfy 
itfelf upon this head, that all fuch inequalities of excefs or de- 
ficiency, will infallibly rectify therhfelves, fo foon as agricul- 
tural ftock is fufficiently abundant, by the offer and acceptance 
of higher rents for fuch farms, under the moft proper conffcruc- 
tion, as to fize, for their moft productive and moft profitable 
occupation. 

In the courfe of the actual demand in offers of larger rent 
(which can alone be afforded upon the fuppofition of larger 
difpofable produce raifed at lefs expence), the fheep farms in 
Tweeddale have paffed through various revolutions, in regard 
to their fize. 

Before 



£j2 Agricultural Survey of Feeble sfhirc. 

Before the extenfion of trade and manufactures afforded fo 
many outlets to profitable occupation, it is probable, that, 
upon the death of a farmer, his children, having no other pro- 
fitable occupation in view, would continue the poffemon •, ei- 
ther agreeing to manage it, without divifion, as a common 
concern ; or dividing it amongft them into minute feparate pof- 
felfions. Upon the former fcheme, their management would 
be Subjected to every caufe of inefficiency, originating in dis- 
crepancy of views, or difcordance of will ; upon tire latter 
fcheme, to all the inconvenience and expence of keeping, in a 
conilant ftate of preparation, a refervcir (fo to fpeak) of la- 
bour, to effect what could never pay for it : to which may be 
added, too, the temptation, or even the necelfity, of forcing 
corn to grow (for maintenance of fuch fuperabundant popula- 
tion), in confiderable defpite to nature, and at fuch dispropor- 
tionate expence of the labour of men and horfes, as, in other 
occupations, or more favourable Situations, might have pro- 
duced a tenfold greater profit. Such unprofitable occupation, 
in minute divifion, or under heterogeneous difcordant manage- 
ment, muft neceffarily (from the offer of larger rent than it 
could afford) have foon been made to give way to a more pro- 
ductive occupation, in undivided poffeffion, and under fingle 
unthwarted direction : accordingly, fuch conjunct, or minute- 
ly divided poffeiiion, has very generally ceafed through the 
county*. - 

In the deficiency of farming Stock, or Skill, or both ; fupe- 
rior (lock, or even Superior Skill and enterprise, with that cre- 
dit which is given to confidence, have Sometimes diilodged 
what was deficient : And, accordingly, inftances have already 

been 



* The farm in Tweecldale which had admitted of moM rife of rent, at 
the time it was let, is one at Inverleithan, partly arable, partly fheep paftofe. 
It was entered to at Whitfunday 1795, at the yearly rent of 350I. ; it had, im- 
mediately before, been pofTrfild by three or four tenants in conjunct farm, upon 
a leaf; of nineteen years, none of whom are undaftood to have enriched ' 
felvcs, though their yearly rent was only 125I. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. r? 

been given, of one farmer, in particular, renting, at one time, 
to the extent of 1700I. of yearly rent. But, in coniequence of 
the more universal tliffufion of agricultural ikill and enterprife, 
with the more general acquifition of farming capital, fuch mo- 
nopolies have been gradually hemmed in to an extent more 
fuited to their capacity of fuperintendance ; in courfe of the ef- 
fectual demand for farms of more manageable extent, in offers 
of higher rent. I fpeak under correction of the inhabitants of 
the county ; but affert, according to my own obfervation and 
belt information, that, during the time elapfed fince the termi- 
nation of the American war, (a period of moil rapidly pro- 
greflive improvement to Scotland), the inftances of the dif- 
union of fheep farms into feparate poffeflions, in this county, 
very confiderably exceed, in number, the inftances of their 
union into fingle poffeflion. 

The acquifition of fupevior fkill, in regard to productive 
furface culture, but particularly the greater demand for carters 
and carriers to perform the carriages of coal and lime, See. to 
the larger farmers, (who generally efteem it cheaper to hire 
their carriages from profeflionalifts, that they may attend, with- 
out diftraction, to their own profefiional vocations), have 
raifed a demand for fmall arable poffeflions, of different, though 
all of finall extent ; whofe poffeffors pay their rent, and main- 
tain their families, partly by the produce of their dairies, partly 
by performing the carriages of the larger farmers, or fome- 
times working upon the highways. The greatefl: number of 
thofe minute occupiers will be found in thofe parifhes that lye 
neareil to the town of Edinburgh, and which alfo are thofe 
which are neareft to the coal and lime of the county ; where 
the opportunity of difpofing of dairy produce to the hicheft 
advantage, and the vicinity to the materials of the carriage 
for which there is the greatefl demand, enable offerers to come 
forward with an effectual demand, in offers of higher rent, fofr 
fuch minute poffeflions. My readers, I fuppofe, will have no 
hefitation in believing, that the exiilence of a conftitution of 
fuch minute occupancy, is not to be afcribed to any capricious 
principle of fentimentalifm in the Tweeddale proprietors of 

land, 



54 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

land, under whom they exift ; but to the more fteady principle 
of their felf-intereft ; to which we may apply the lines applied 
to the ftomach by Prior, in his Alma t 

of which it it the Jolid jlrole 

That tells our being -what's o'clock. 

I have ventured to detail my notions of the fixed principles 
which uniformly operate, both in dilating farms to their proper 
fize, and alfo in circumfcribing them within their proper bounds, 
in note D at the end of the Report. — I proceed to 



The Char abler of Farmers. 

And here I fhall juft ftate a few particulars as to the cha- 
racter of Tweeddale farmers, and the influence thereby pro- 
duced upon the introduction of the improved fyjlem of farming; 
referving what I would fuggeft as to the generic charaBer of 
the farmer, to the note D. 

The fheep farms being the moft extenfive farms in Tweed- 
dale, and requiring the greateft extent of capital, the ftore- 
mafters, of courfe, conflitute the moft opulent clafs, and are 
the moft informed. From near vicinity to markets, they gene- 
rally tranfa£t all their own bufinefs in perfon, without inter- 
vention of a middleman ; and are, by confequence, formed to 
habits of acutenefs, and activity in bufinefs \ and have the 
more opportunity of acquiring fome knowledge of the world. 
That cuftomer would, neverthelefs, be a very fimple fool, in- 
deed, who mould expe£t to obtain a cheaper bargain, at firjl 
hatid^ from a Tweeddale fheep farmer, felling his goods him- 
felf, than what could be got from a middleman or forejlaller } 
who (according to the fuggeftions of anxious fear in dearths) 
will force the markets at his own option, becaufe he will not 
go without his profit. I am rather of opinion, that there is 
more probability the foreftaller might be obliged to relinquifh 
his expectations of profit, than that he fhould be able to fell 
the commodity to greater advantage than the Tweeddale farmer 

himfelf. 



Agricultural Survey of 'Peebles/hire. C? 

lumfelf. Betwixt thefe farmers and fuch permanent cuftomers 
as are in ufe to buy, in wholefale, their fheep and their wool, 
a liberal fyftem of intercourfe prevails, from a fenfe of mutual 
intereft; infomuch, that the goods are often bought before 
being feen, or fold and delivered without fixing the price. 

A fimilar liberality in dealing fometimes alfo takes place be- 
tween the pofTefTors of the fmaller arable farms and their corn- 
merchants. This clafs are generally, now, induftrious ; fome 
of them confiderably enterprifmg. Till of late, the habits of 
all the farmers led them rather to fave, than to make money ; 
to ftudy ceconomy in expence, rather than the liberal outlay of 
capital, in expectation of a more plentiful return. The fmall 
arable farmers, pofiefied of lefs capital, and generally obliged, 
not merely to overfee, but to work upon their own farms, are 
necefTarily more confined than the Iheep farmers, in their range 
of obfervation, and their means of information ; which feems 
the chief caufe of the latenefs of introdudtion, into Tweeddale, 
of improvements in the cultivation of the foil ; fuch improve- 
ments being of lefs intereft to the extenfive hill fheep farmers, 
who otherwife, from their more enlarged opportunities of in- 
formation, might have been expefted to have fooner adopted 
them. 

Both clafies, very properly, di (cover a confiderable degree 
of tardinefs in adopting modes of improvement introduced by 
gentlemen farmers, in farming their own properties. They 
are difpofed to confider fuch improvers as admirers of the cu- 
rious, as much as of the ufeful, in farming ; and are difpofed 
to lend but doubtful faith to the accounts of the profit of fuch 
fchemes ; looking upon them as the mere exaggerated ftate- 
ments of fervants, wifhing to curry favour with their matters, 
in flattering them with the idea of the utility of their experi- 
ments, rather than as the refult of that accurate obfervation 
and rigorous calculation which are, in a great meafure, incom- 
patible with the numerous avocations incident to the ftarion oi 
fuch improvers. Unlike to the political reformers of the 
feafons of dangerous peculation, when innovation, mer - 
fuch, was confidered as improvement} they are rtluc"hnt in 

roinquiihing 



§6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

relinquiihing the fure and trodden path of long experience for 
mere unafcertained theory, whatever brilliant profpects it may 
hold out. Though flow to change, they are not, however, fo 
bigotedly wedded to old practices, as to reject: fuch improve- 
ments as have flood the teft of repeated and unequivocal ex- 
perience : And the new improved fyftem of hufbandry has, 
accordingly, at lafl, found its way into general practice. 

This improved fyftem, which may be fhortly characterifed 
as comprehending the ameliorating rotation by green crop fal- 
low, and artificial grafles, had been practifed, upon a fmall 
fcale, by gentlemen proprietors farming for amufement, and 
perhaps by one or two farmers, confidered by the generality ra- 
ther in the light of gentlemen farmers, near forty years ago ; 
and many unfuccefsful attempts were fuccemvely made to in- 
troduce it into general practice among profeffional farmers. 
In fome inftances, it was attempted, by allowing the farmer a 
deduction of rent for each acre kept by him under green fal- 
low crop ; a mode, in particular, adopted by Mr Kennedy of 
Romanno : But a practice, to which, apparently, the farmer 
needed to be bribed, had not the appearance, with the public, 
of a practice which was for his advantage ; and the examples, 
in this wav produced, met with few imitators. Others endea- 
voured to entice farmers from improving counties to fettle upon 
their eftates ; very properly judging, that the example of fuch 
profeffional farmers would weigh more with their fellows than 
that of any gentleman farmer who had no rent to pay. But, 
as it is extremely difficult to prevail with fuch as are fuccefsful 
at home to defert their connexions for a land of ftrangers, the 
perfons, thus introduced, proved, in general, mere defperatc 
adventurers ; who, having nothing to lofe, fported fanciful 
and injudicious fchemes, at the rifk of the proprietor ; till 
they were difmiffed, after exhaufting the pockets and patience 
of their employers, by a continued feries of unproductive ex- 
pence. 

Neverthclefs, the new hufbandry was at la ft introduced by 
means of profeflional example : And I have no hefitation in 
afcribiag its prefent prevalence to the example fet by Mr James 

M'Dcugal, 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 5 7 

M'Dougal, farmer in the village of Linton, originally from the 
neighbourhood of Kelfo, and trained under the celebrated Mr 
Dawfon at Frogden. Being poffeffed of only a fmall capital, 
but his ideas of improving farming, inferring a much more li- 
beral outlay of capital upon equal extent of land, than what 
correiponded with received ufages, he entered, upon leafe, to 
a farm (very fmall in proportion to what would have been 
confidered as fuited to the extent of his capital) at Linton, in 
the year 1778; which farm he ftill occupies, with confiderable 
additions : the land, fuited to conftant rotation of cropping, 
being a pure brown fand foil ; the hill pafture land being very 
thin, moorifli, or hazel foil. The arable land, intended for 
conftant rotation of cropping, he immediately began to prepare 
for the Norfolk turnip-foil rotation of four, viz. 1/?, Green 
fallow crop of turnip or potato, to which is applied the whole 
dung collected upon the farm ; lime being alfo ufed, at firft 
going over, to the extent of twelve or fourteen fmgle-horfe 
cart loads of lime (hells per acre, and applied previous to fow- 
ing the turnip, and after railing the potatoes : id, Big or 
oats ; grafs feeds being fown with the crop, at the rate of 
10 lb. of Dutch red clover, 2 of white clover, and about a 
bufliel of rye grafs per acre : 3J, A crop of hay ; the after 
growth either cut for green houfe-feeding, or paftured : 4/^, 
Red oats ; when the rotation begins again with green crop 
fallow. At the fame time, he commenced a fpecies of im- 
provement, till then almoft equally foreign to the practice and 
the notions of either landed proprietor or farmer, in fallowing, 
liming, and, where attainable, dunging alfo his outfield hill 
pafture •, for the purpofe of (owing it off with grafs feeds, for 
(heep pafture, with the very firft crop. For a while, his neigh- 
bours could hardly be ferioufly perfuaded that he farmed at his 
own rifk j conceiving of him rather as a mere agent for the 
proprietor: But, being convinced of their miftake, and wit- 
neffing his fuecefs, they, at length, began to think 1 1 beco 
profclytes to his fyfterh; Trie example firft fpread amongft 
the fmall arable dairy farmers; from th< obvious 
ffen to refult to the el dry, in c< lee of the 

F 



k8 Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJI/ire. 

ant green houfe-feeding thus procured for the cows, by cut 
grafs for Summer and Autumn, and by turnip through Win- 
ter, befides fown grafs hay for the Spring months : and a prac- 
tice, radically founded upon the fame principles, may be now 
confidered as univerfal. 

In the extenfive uninclofed hill (beep-farms, the dairy is ne- 
ceffarily a matter of trilling import, from the next to impoili- 
bility of appropriating a difHncl: walk to cows : The new fyf- 
tem was, therefore, looked upon with indifference by the ftore- 
mafters, till about the year 1786 or 1787. When M'Dougal 
applied his turnip to the purpofe of feeding fheep of the native 
breed of Tweeddale, which, for a while, it was fuppofed, 
would not take at all, to the eating of turnip ; they were 
cheaply inclofed upon the field by nets, their horns (with 
which this fpecies are liberally provided) being fawed off, to 
prevent their entangling in the inclofmg nets, an operation 
feemingly attended with no rifk or detriment to the animal *. 
The iTieep farmers now faw clearly the advantage to be derived 
from a practice, which (by enabling them to prolong the feed 
of their caft-off breeding {lock through part of the Winter, 
inftead of hurrying them to glutted markets, as formerly ob- 
liged to do upon the failure of the grafs), put it thus in their 
power to obtain a better price \ and that, not only by procuring 
a longer range of marketing feafon, but alfo from the addi- 
tional improvement made upon the carcafe of the animal. The 
advantage was equally obvious, of thus fecuring a certain quan- 
tity of regular fupply of hay for their holding ftock in Winter 
ftorms. As might be readily expected, the example, when it 
once took effect, was, by much, more rapidly diffufed amongft 
this clafs : Infomuch that, I have the beft reafon to believe, 
there is not now a fmgle fheep farmer in Tweeddale, who has 
land fit for die purpofe, or length of leafe fufficient to make it 

worth 

* They are cut off, within an inch of the lkull, by a hand faw : Cautery, 
formerly ufed, is now omitted, the lofs of blood being no greater than what is 
deemed falutary : It is judged mofl fafe to perform the operation when the wea- 
ther is frefh and cool. Where wooden flakes are uied inftead of nets, there is no 
need of cutting the horns. 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhijfa* 59 

worth while to alter his prance, that has not already reduced, 
or is not reducing, his croft land, at the leaft, under a fyftem 
of management correfponding to the principles of the afore- 
mentioned rotation of four *. Farther than the corn lands ad- 
joining to the farm houfes, and eafily herded, becaule always 
in fight, this fyftem cannot be carried with any degree ox con- 
venience i nor even thus far, without confiderable inconve- 
nience, whilft the lands remain uninclofed. 

In the diffufed population of the county, each individual 
is diftinaiy recognized, and the check of mutual obfervation 
has a ftrong influence in producing regularity of morals, an in- 
fluence unhappily awanting in great towns, where the cluftered 
population renders the individual indiftinguifnable -making 
them the refort of the profligate for concealment, and the fe- 
minaries of every fort of corruption. The prevailing charac- 
terises of the lower orders in this county are, fobnety, in- 
duftry, andafenfeof religion-, with the exception of a few 
inftances of perverfion of principle, occafioned by the intro- 
duaion of the French philofophy, and thofe, too, chiefly con- 
fined to the county town. A good many, who have not mar- 
ried early, or who have got thrifty wives, and families not very 
numerous, have a little money faved. Shepherds, kept by 
their vocation at a diftance from temptations to foetal ex- 
pence, are generally wealthy for their ftationj and the com- 
petition of their capitals, fometimes procures the diviiion or 
large farms. Bating ficknefs, accidents, families more than or- 
dinarily numerous, and fuch other circumftances as may pro- 
duce ftraits, without fault or miimanagement, there fubfifts, m 
the generality of the lower claffes, a fpirit of independence, 
which revolts againft the idea of fubfifting upon charity : Hap- 
pily, indeed, poor's rates are not io decidedly eftabiifhed by 
law or pradice, but that fubfiftence, not gained by perfonal 

induftry, 

• In o« of the higher fheep farms of 1 wrddale, where the plough had never 
beenuftd, the farmer, within theft few years, has brought into Ullage tea or 
twelve acres of land; induced to adopt the practice, for the pnrpofe of pro. 
turnip for carrying on his caft-off bvcefcl s, and Ifccwife fome hay f« bu (1 
fnow ftarms.. 



6q Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJnre. 

i 

induftry, is ftill confidered as charity, and not as a right. Moft 
of them contrive, by their own induftry and frugality alone, 
not merely to feed and clothe their children in a decent man- 
ner, but alfo to give them education, fo far as learning to 
read : Very frequently, they are alio taught writing, and a little 
of arithmetic ; though more commonly the young people them- 
felves obtain thefe laft mentioned branches of education from 
their firft earnings of wages, by attending night fchools in 
Winter, after their working hours. A profligate head of a 
family, who diffipates, in idle extravagance, the means intrud- 
ed him by Providence for the maintenance and education of 
his family, is a character rarely to be met with. Not only do 
parents endeavour to fupport their children in an independent 
manner, but children, alfo, are feldom deficient in endeavour- 
ing to aflift their aged parents, according to their refpective a- 
biiities ; and there are not awanting inftances of day-labourer* 
fupporting aged parents paft their labour, without being in- 
debted to any charity whatfoever. 

We are apt to form unjuft eftimates of the characters of 
people in fituations different from our own, by referring to a 
wrong ftandard. The fame induftry to obtain gain, with the 
fame penurious attention to the ceconomizing of its expendi- 
ture, which would dilgrace a perfon in an affluent fituation, 
are indifpenfably neceilary to the maintenance of refpectability 
o2 character in the poor ; the want of them directly leading to 
abject: dependence and beggary, to difhonefty and ruin. The 
rich are, however, fometimes apt to defpife, in the poor, as 
mean, thofe habits which would indicate meannefs only in a 
fituation of affluence ; overlooking thofe manly efforts of for- 
titude and felf-command, which are exerted under ftraitened 
circumftances, in maintaining the noble fenfe of independence, 
and the confcioufnefs of inflexible probity — efforts to which, from 
the delicacy of their own education, they might find them- 
II Ives to be altogether unequal, but which, no doubt, are more 
c.ifily fupported through force of habit. The poor, meanwhile, 
are equally incapable of granting fuperibr latitude to the rich, 
in point of cxpence : Without inferring from it the fame pro- 

fligarv, 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfl/ire. 6t 

fligacy, which, in their own fituation, would be the infallible 
refult, and not duly confidering that this greater liberality of 
expenditure is the caufe of independent fupport to many of 
the induftrious ; they are fometimes apt to comfort them- 
felves, under a fenfe of inequalities of condition, by adopting 
the idea of a future retribution, upon the model of the parable 
of the rich man and Lazarus, generalized without limitation or 
reftri&ion. 

Mode of Managing Farms y ivith their Produce. 

Though none of the fe£tions, in the fchedule of the form 
prefcribed for the Reports by the Board, would indicate a di- 
rect: and continued difcuflion of this fubje£l, I have thought 
proper to introduce it, as a feparate fe£tion, under this chap- 
ter of the Mode of Occupation ; that it may be feen, under one 
view, to what purpofes the farms in this county are applied, 
and what kind of produce they yield, from which the farmer 
is enabled to pay his rent, and to obtain his own profit. 

For the fake of diftindtnefs, this fe£tion may be divided in- 
to two parts, I. The management of Jheep pajlure farms ; II. The 
management of arable farms. 

I. Management of Sheep Farms. 

In fome of the large flieep farms, where the farmer does not 
refide, as alfo in others where he does refide, plough culture 
is unknown, or ufed only to a very fmall extent : The meal, 
for family maintenance, being bought in ; the cows and horfes, 
for family ufe, being fupported chiefly, or entirely, through 
Winter, upon fuch coarfe natural hay as is found upon the 
farm without culture, confiftmg chiefly of fprits ; and the 
Jheep, in Winter ftorms, being either driven to other parts of 
the country, where there is more accefs to the pafturc from 
lefs depth of mow, or where fodder can be obtained ; or elfe 
fodder being bought in to them from other places, when there 
is carriage accefs to the farm,, 

The 



62 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

The generality of fheep farms have, however, more or lefs 
arable land attached to them. In a few inftances, the arable 
land may form the principal dependance, the fheep being ra- 
ther an acceffory ; or they may be nearly balanced in point of 
importance. 

It would lead to endlefs and fuperfluous minutenefs, to ftate 
the various proportions which the fheep and the arable lands 
bear to one other, as to their importance in point of profit, in 
the various fheep farms of the county. It will fufHce, to con- 
vey a general view of the fubject, firjl, to ftate the general 
management of fheep in fheep farms ; fecondly, to ftate the 
management of the arable lands attached to fheep farms. 

Fiijiy Management of fheep in fheep farms. 

Tweeddale being, in general, more adapted to breeding than 
to feeding, the great article of fale from the fheep farms is 
Young fheep for holding flock ; though, fince the practice has 
become generally prevalent within thefe thirty or forty years, of 
keeping fewer fheep upon the fame extent of land, probably 
more are fattened for the butcher, than under the antiquated 
practice of overftocking the pafture. 

The great article of fale, formerly, from the breeding farms, 
was the ewe and wedder lambs, kept on through Winter, and 
fold in the end of the enfuing June, or beginning of July, at 
fourteen or fifteen months old, and called at that time ewe or 
wedder hogs. Of late, feveral fuch farms, inftead of keeping 
the lambs through Winter, difpofe of the lambs in June or 
July, at three or four months old, in the fame feafon in which 
they are lambed. The fale of hogs is at Linton markets, 
-whence they are bought for the Highlands of Scotland, for the 
Oichil Hills in Fifefhire, or for Lammermuir in Eaft-Lothian, 
where they are kept on to a proper age, and either fold fat, or 
fold for farther fattening, to the Lothian grafs parks, or to 
England. When fold as holding lambs, they are generally 
bought in to the Upper Ward of Lanarkfhire, whence they are 
fold, ne\t feafon, as hogs, at Linton markets, as above. A 

. i buch of holding lambs and of hogs, are difpofed oi at the 

markets 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJ/ire. 63 

markets of Stag's Hall in England, and of St Bofwell's In Rox- 
burghshire. 

There are breeding farms in Tweeddale, where (as in the 
farms of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, juft mentioned) no 
breeding ftock of ewes are kept, and no lambs produced ; but 
which buy in, annually, lambs in the end of June or month 
of July, which are fold as hogs, after being kept a twelve- 
month. 

In fome few very high lying ftormy lands, hogs are bought 
in annually, and fold, after being kept twelve months, as dutn- 
monds. In one or two inftances of farms of this defcription, 
the hogs bought in, are kept for two years •, and, being then 
three years old, are fold off" for farther feeding, under the name 
of old ivedders. The greater part, however, of old wedders, 
to be found for fale in Tweeddale, are merely thofe which are 
kept on, becaufe they were not in condition for the market, 
as hogs or dummonds. 

There are a few breeding farms, where all the lambs are 
fold fat for the butcher ; none being retained, but what fuffices 
to keep up the breeding ftock of ewes and rams. 

There are a very few farms of fine grafs, which keep no 
ftock, or very little ftock, upon them, through Winter ; ewes, 
heavy with lamb, (confiding of the caft-ofF part of the breed- 
ing ftock of breeding farms in this or other counties), being 
annually bought in, from the month of March forwards, at 
Houfe of Muir markets, but oftener at Peebles fair ; and the 
whole, both lamb and dam, fold ofF fat from the grafs, to the 
butcher ; the dam being ftill farther fattened, upon turnip, af- 
the failure of the grafs, if the farm hath arable land attached 
to it fit for railing this crop. Inclofed grafs parks are frequent- 
ly depaftured by fheep after this fafhion of farming. 

Befides thefe annual fales, the farms which keep a breeding 
ftock of ewes, fell off, annually, a portion of their old breed- 
ing ewes, before they begin to fail with 3ge 5 viz. a fourth, 
fifth, or fixth part, at the ages of four, ihe, or fix years, ac- 
cording to the length of time to which they preferve their vi- 
gour, which varies in different farms ; a proportional quantity 

of 



64 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

of ewe lambs being preferved annually to fupply them. Thefe 
caft-off breeders, or crocks, are fold fat from the grafs at Martin- 
mas, or ftill farther fattened upon turnip, or for the purpofe of 
being fattened by turnip feeders : But farms of this defcription, 
which have attached to them a confiderable quantity of low 
arable, or meadow ground, for Winter pafture, generally give 
the crocks the ram, keep them on through Winter, and fell them, 
heavy with lamb, in the month of March, at Peebles fair, or 
Houfe of Muir markets : the caft-off rams, in the proportion 
of one to forty crocks or fo, are fold in September or October, 
before their flefh grows rank from rutting. It may be alfo no-' 
ticed, that farms felling hogs or dummonds, have alfo a few dum- 
monds, or old wedders, to difpofe of ; being the reje£taneous 
ones kept on for another feafon. 

Such are the fales of fheep from fheep farms. 

Wool is alfo an article of fale from all the fheep farms, ex- 
cepting thofe which annually buy in lambs and fell them 
rough, after a twelvemonth's keep as hogs. A fmall quantity 
is fold to Stirling, a greater to Hawick, and the greateft part to 
Yorkfhire, for ferges, for fhalloons, for carpets, and coarfer 
cloths. 

Sheeps milk cheefe is fold from a few of the farms j the 
practice of milking the ewes has, however, of late, been more 
difufed ; the detriment accruing to the ewes being confidered 
as overbalancing the profit from the cheefe : The enormous 
price fetched of late by the cheefe, feems to be recalling the 
practice. 

In feveral fheep farms, young black cattle, or young horfes, 
conftitute alfo an article of fale, more conftant, or more inci- 
dental ; but in none to any great extent : The fame may be 
faid of the produce of the dairy, and of corn. 

The following Tables will convey an idea of the modes of 
management, and of the proportions of the fales. The pro- 
portions in the Tables are taken from known farms, though 
the numbers are arbitrarily chofen. 

ExrLA- 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjl/ire. 6$ 



EXPLANATION OF THE TABLES. 

I sty The flock of breeding ewes are marked at the top of 
the Table. In thefe, are included the ewes going in their fe- 
cond year, or gimmers, the ram being admitted to them at 
Martinmas, when they are eighteen months old, excepting in 
two or three of the mod high-lying flormy farms dealing in 
this fort of flock. The rams are not included in the breeding 
flock at the head of the Tables. In high-lying breeding farms, 
the proportion of rams to ewes is about one to forty ; in lower 
lands, one to fifty. The numbers accounted for in the Tables, 
are merely thofe belonging to die farmer. The fhepherds have 
the privilege, generally, of grazing a certain quantity of fheep 
along with the farmers, in lieu of wages ; receiving alfo fix and 
a half bolls of oatmeal, and the grazing of a cow, with coarfe 
fprit hay for her Winter fodder, in lieu of victuals. Upon a 
fattening farm, the herd may have the privilege of keeping 
twenty-eight or thirty breeding ewes, with fix or feven lambs 
to keep up his breeding ftock ; and, upon a breeding farm, per- 
haps fifty fheep, young and old. 

id, The numbers at the foot of each column, mow the 
quantity of the fpecies in that column which are annually fold. 
As the practice in Tweeddale is to number fheep in /cores and 
aid, this mode of numbering is followed in the Tables. Thus, 

j core. odd. 

io 15, is 215. 

3^/, Upon inquiry, I find, that in lambs, the proportion of 
males fometimes exceeds that of females ; and that, at other 
times, the females are mofl numerous ; but that, upon the 
whole, they are nearly equal. They are therefore ftated as 
fuch. 

/\th, The holding of a farm, is the number falved or fmear- 
ed at Martinmas. The old breeders that are to lamb the enfu- 
ing Spring, arc marked at the head of the Tables, as the hold- 
ing flock ; but to thefe may be added the number of the ewe- 

K lambs, 



66 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlj'ire. 

lambs, accounted for in their column as fet apart for breeders, 
making allowance for death. 

5th, In regard to the numbers fold, (as marked, foot of each 
column), it may be remarked, that there are always a certain 
proportion rejected by the large wholesale purchafer, which are 
either fold at inferior price, or kept on another feafon, as be- 
fore explained. 



TABLE 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 
TABLE I.— BREEDING FARM. 



67 



Holding 41 fcores 5 odd of Breeding Ewes, and felling out 
Wedder Hogs. 



Making allowance for death of old 
ewes through Winter, and of mifs 
of lamb in Spring, this breeding 
ftock may produce, annually, of 
lambs - 

Gf the word of thefe lambs, fix fcore 
ten may be fold off as lambs, viz 

Which reduces their number to - 
But three fcore ten, in lieu of thefe, 
may be bought in, of good wed- 
der Iambs, from fome farm fell 
ing thefe, viz. 

Making the number to amount to 
Of the males, may be kept uncaf- 
trated, and fet apart to fupply 
caft-off rams ... 

Reducing the number to 

This number of males are caftrated, 
to be kept through Winter, and 
fold in July as wedder hogs ; but 
there may die, of caftration, and 
through Winter 

Leaving, of wedder-hogs, for fale in 
July .... 

Of the ewe lambs, there may die 
before 14 or 15 months 

Reducing their number to 

Of which annually retained, to fup- 
ply call-off breeders 

Which reduces the ewe hogs for 
fale in July, to 

Old crock ewes fold at Martinmas 

Old tups, or caft-off rams, fold in 
September to feed fhearers 



MALES. 
score, odd. 



18 3 

4 o 



•4 



J S 



10 



J 7 13 



17 



16 16 



1 6 



FEMAIES CROCKS. [OLD TUPS 
score, odd score- odd.' scare, odd. 



18 



15 12 



{ 5 



15 12 



14. 6 

7 fo 



6 16 



6 16 



o 12 



The numbers annually fliorn may be fifty fcores : Six fleeces 
averaging a (lone of 23 lib. Engliili, the wool not wafhcd. 



TABLE 



68 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlnre. 

TABLE II.— BREEDING FARM. 

Breeding Stock, 40 fcores of Ewes, and felling Wedder Lambs.- 



MALES. 
score, odd. 



The annual produce of lambs may 

be taken at 
Of thefe lambs, there may be kept, 

to fupply rams, - c 15 

And there may die, in caftra- 

tion, or be unfit for it - o 15 



The remainder for fale of wedder 

lambs, is therefore 
Of the ewe lambs, may be kept, as 

breeders ... 

Remainder of ewe lambs for fale - 
The old fheep for fale are, 

Caft-off breeding ewes - 

Caft rams 



17 10 



16 



FEMALES. 
score, odd. 



CROCKS. jOLDTUPS. 
score, odd. score, odd. 



17 10 



Number fhorn annually, forty-eight fcores ; fix fleeces, un- 
warned, averaging a ftone. 



TABLE III.— BREEDING FARM. 

Breeding Stock, 50 fcores of Ewes j the Lambs and Crocks all 

fold Fat. 



Annual produce of lambs 
Ewe lambs kept for breeders 
Tup lambs kept to fupply rams - 

Remainder fold fat 
Old crock ewes fold fat 
Old caft-off rams 


MALES. 

score, odd 


FEMALES. 

score, odd. 


CROCKS. 
score, odd 


OLD TUPS. 
score, odd. 


22 IO 
I O 


22 
I [ 


IO 

JO 


9 


O 15 


21 IO 


II 


O 



Number annually fhoi-n, fixty-two fcores ten; five and an 
half fleeces to the Hone, unwaftied. 



Agricultural Survey of PecbhsJlAre. 



6 9 



In regard to thofe farms where lambs are bought in annual- 
ly, to be fold out next feafon as hogs ; or, where hogs are 
bought in, to be fold next feafon, or next again, as dummond9 
or old wedders ; or, where ewes heavy with lamb are bought 
in, both lamb and dam to be fold out fat the fame feafon ; 
their ceconomy is fo very fimple, as to need no illuftration. Ic 
may be juft obferved, that the rifk of dying is greateft in lambs 
kept over Winter, to be difpofed of as hogs, one in twenty be- 
ing the common average of deaths. 

In felling fheep, the Tweeddale practice is, to give one to the 
fcore, without payment •, fo that, when fheep are fold, for in- 
ftance, at iol. per fcore, they are not paid for at the rate of 
I os. a head, but at the rate only of 9s. 6~d. In dull markets, an 
additional fheep is fometimes given, without payment, to the 
hundred j and fometimes one alfo to the parcel, &c. This 
practice, introduced from facility in the feller, that the advant- 
age may go with the buyer, is itill perfevered in ; perhaps, from 
the vanity of the ftoremafler, that he may boaft of a good 
price •, or perhaps, that the nominal may be taken for the real 
price, in a way of deception, which, however, deceives no- 
body. The cuftom only introduces confufion and perplexity 
into the account, and had much better be laid afide. 

Before proceeding to ftate the management of the arable 
part of fheep farms, I fhall explain the Tweeddale defignations 
of fheep, according to their lex and ages. 



I. From the time they are lambed, in 


DESIGNATIONS OF 


April, till the enfuing Martinmas that 


M ALES. 


FEMALES. CASTRATED. 


they are fmcared or faked, they arc 
defigned ".."""- 






Tup Lambs. 


Ewe .Lambs. 


Wedder Lambs. 


J. From their being falved at Mar:inmas, 








till next July that they are (horn - 


Tup Hogs. 


Ewe flogs. 


Wedder Hogs. 


3. From this (hearing till next July, when 








they are fiiorn for the fecond time - 


Tups. 


Gimmers. 


Dummonds. 


4. From that time till next July, when 








they are (horn for the third time - 


Fups. 


Young Ewes. 


Wedders. 


5. From that time ever after 


Tups. 


Old Ewes. 


Wedders. 



N. B. The caft -off breeding ewes, when fold at Martini 
are defigned Jlack ewes, or crocks ; when fold heavv with Iamti 
in March, they are defigned great ewes. 

Sea id. 



<-.q Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

Second, Management of arable land attached to fheep farms. 

In dating this management, it may be proper to diftinguifh 
the arable land into old croft, and outfield. (See Note, foot of 
p. 15.) 

Croft. — Around all the dwellinghoufes of fheep farms, which 
have been long occupied as refidences, there is generally found 
from ten to thirty acres or upwards of old croft ; i. e. land 
which, for ages, has been kept in conftant culture ; receiving, 
in rotation, all the dung collected from the cattle houfe-fed in 
Winter, &c. The rotation obferved on this croft, was, uni- 
verfally, and, in a very few inftances, continues (till to be, 
i. Big, with the dung ; 2. Oats ; 3. Peas : no green fallow 
crop, nor artificial graiTes for hay ; the only hay from this 
croft being procured, by allowing 2 ridge or two of the third 
under oats to remain untitled ; when the roots of the couch- 
grafs, &c. never killed by fallow, produced a fpontaneous 
crop. As the land was ever full of grafs roots, the fheep de- 
rived confiderable benefit from picking up thefe roots from the 
ploughed land, in barren early Spring months. This indeed 
was the only fenfible objection brought by the adherents to the 
old fyftem, againft the introduction of the new. 

"When potatoes came to be planted in confiderable quanti- 
ties, which was our fir ft improvement upon the old fyftem, a 
part of that third intended for peas (our ameliorating crop un- 
der the old fyftem) was afiigned to the potato ; and when the 
potato was cultivated to fuch extent as to occupy one half of 
the peas third, it is evident, that, by interchanging the places 
of the peas and the potatoes at the fecond vice of the rotation, 
the whole croft, in courfe of two rotations, or in the fpace of 
fix years, would be cleaned •, at leaft in fuch imperfect manner, 
as can be effected by potato fallow ; where, from necefiity of 
more early planting, the land cannot admit of fuch previous 
cleaning as with a turnip crop. 

Since the introduction of the turnip and fown-grafs hufband- 
ry, this old croft is, we may now fay univcrfaliy, kept under 
rotation, upon the principles of the Norfolk rotation of four, 
viz, 1. Green crop fallow of turnip, and part of potato, with 

all 



Agricultural Survey cf PeebUsjhite, ~ t l 

all the dung ; 2. Barley or Big, and fometimes Red Oats, with 
grafs feeds; 3. Hay ; 4. Oats, or fpmefcimes Big, when the de- 
mand is great, anfwering tolerably well with one furrow upon 
light land. Where there is fufficiency of arable land for the 
purpofe, it is evident, that, by thus, ag -.'.iing only once in 

four years, the farmer may add to his crofts an additional break, 
equal to one third of what he could formerly command by his 
dung ; particularly when we advert to his additional power of 
enriching his land, by eating the turnip crop upon the ground 
with his fheep, inftead of being obliged to difpofe of them in 
glutted markets, upon the failure of Ms pafture ; this ability 
of the farmer to take a longer range of marketing, tending alio 
to keep the market price of meat more Heady and equable to 
the confumer. 

If the land is of that fuperior quality, as to admit of a rota- 
tion of five or of fix after one dunging, it is evident, where there 
is land lying fit for the purpofe, that a quantity of additional 
land may be taken into the rotation ; extending, in the firft cafe, 
to two thirds more ; in the fecond, to double of what could be 
commanded by his dung, under the old fyftem of the rotation 
of three. The five-courfe rotation is very commonly adopted, 
where there is fufficiency of land, and the foil of confiderable 
richnefs •, viz. 1. Green fallow crop, with the dung ; 2. Big, 
with grafs feeds; 3. Hay; 4. Oats; 5. Peas. The fand 
foils are, however, commonly kept in rotation of four only ; 
being accounted too poor to bear a more extended rotation, 
and being alfo found unpropitious to peas, the only other ame- 
liorating crop in ufe, in the alternation of white and green 
crops. A rotation of fix is fometimes, but very rarely, attempt- 
ed ; though I am informed it hath been found to anfwer by 
Sir James Montgomery of Stanhope, upon fome of his very fu- 
perior land in the old crofts of Stobo : This fix-courfe rotation 
may be, 1. Green fallow crop, dunged; 2. Big, or Barley, 
with grafs feeds; 3. Hay; 4. Oats; 5. Peas; 6. Oats: 
Or, t. Green fallow crop, with dung; 2. Oats; 3. Peas; 
4. Big, with gi-afs feeds; 5. Hay; 6. Oats; or fome 
fuch mode of alternation, as ihall include green crop fallow, 

and 



7 j Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJjire, 

and artificial grafTes, with the conflant interchange of white and 
green crops. It is probable, no land in Tweeddale can, with 
advantage, be fubmitted to fuch fevere courfe of cropping ; un- 
lefs the fheep farmer were to confine his green crop fallow en- 
tirely to turnip, and (facrificing the fheep in a great mMfure 
to the foil) to confine the fheep eating the turnip, in all wea- 
thers, upon the turnip field. But the greater part of the fheep 
farms have not fuflicient extent of proper arable land 10; ro- 
tation fields, to render their poiTefTors very folicitous about 
dung ; of which article they have often a fuperabundant quan- 
tity for their rotation fields, in confequence of the number of 
young black cattle they rear and keep through Winter, up- 
on the coarfe fpontaneous hay of the farm. In their turnip 
feeding of fheep, they therefore look more to the improvement 
of the fheep, than the benefit of the turnip field : the fheep 
are accordingly, in many inftances, never confined, but have 
liberty to range at large over the whole turnip field, and to re- 
tire, when full, to dry beds, where they chuie, or to the fog, 
when they with for variety of food. I think there can be little 
doubt, that the fheep muft, in this way, thrive much better 
than in any other ; yet it muft be confeiTed, that it is a moft 
unccconomical mode of expending the turnip crop : the fheep 
foon wound every turnip of the field, by their bite, after which, 
the turnip can ftand no ftrefs of weather. If the fheep are not 
to be confined upon fucceflive portions of the field, it would be 
expedient to inclofe the field from the fheep, and, by having 
one fide of the inclofure moveable, to admit them to the turnip 
by little at a time. Unlefs upon the very light dry fand foils, 
the fheep are materially retarded in their thriving, by being con- 
fined upon the turnip field when the weather is wet. 

The firft improvement introduced, according to prefent re- 
membrance, into Tweeddale fheep farming, was, ihe diminution 
of numbers ; by which, the numbers kept were rendered fupe- 
rjor in quality, from more abundant feeding, and the rifk great- 
ly diminifhed, of death, and of difeafes originating in poverty. 
The laft great improvement was, the turnip and fown grafj 
hufbandry, through which, fheep ;>.nd arable farming have been 

rendered; ■ 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 73 

rendered mutually fubfervient to each other ; the acceffion of 
dung, from the fheep feeding upon the turnip, enabling the 
ftoremafter to enlarge, or keep in higher order, his crofts, or 
rotation fields •, his turnip and his hay enabling him to difpofe 
of his crocks in better order, and with greater extent of market, 
and alfo fecuring for his holding Hock a certain degree of provifioiij 
when their pafture is blocked up by fnow ftorms. Such, how- 
ever, is the excefs, in Tweeddale, of the quantity of mountain- 
ous fheep pafture land, above that of the arable land, that it is 
queftionable, whether the whole arable land would fuffice, un- 
der any proper rotation of culture, to afford an extent of turnip 
crop equal to the feeding of the old flieep annually fold, or a 
full furficiency of hay, annually, to fupply the holding flock in 
a Winter ftorm ; even fuppofing the whole arable lands to be at- 
tached entirely to fheep farms ; or that the flieep and arable 
farmers fhould, in their interchange of traffic, bring tl.eir inte- 
refls to the operation of a copartnery. 

Outfield. — In molt of the fheep farms, befides the old croft, 
tracts of arable land are found, of greater or lefler extent, and. 
lying fo flat, or upon fuch gentle declivity, as to be eafdy ac- 
cefhble to the plough. Where thefe lands are fo fituated, aS 
to give little interruption, while under crop, to the fheep walks, 
they are occafionally brought into tillage, after folding of flieep 
or black cattle, or after lime. 

Ewes, where milked, are folded, nightly, for convenience of 
milking, for fix or feven (formerly eight or ten) weeks after the 
middle or latter end of July that the lambs are weaned. A 
fmall flock, upon a narrow range of pafture, may be folded, 
nightly, through the whole cf Summer, without inconvenience ; 
as they have no diftance to travel from the fold to their pafture, 
in going and returning: Where a part of the ewes and lambs 
of an extenfive fheep farm, are fattened upon enclofed and im- 
proved pafture, on the lame farm, it is ci ' d as even ad- 
vantageous to take them off their pafttrre 

tiguous fold ; as this prevents that difgufl \ hieh they feel to 
the parts of their pafture upon which : . 

black cattle, - ' ' ire not hotffed tl roi . ■ :h, i 1 

h 



74 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

fome farms, comprehends the whole, in others, only thofe not 
giving milk), are folded, nightly, to prevent their damaging the 
growing corns, from Whitfunday, till the end of September or 
October, that the corns are got off the ground. 

The folds are contracted upon a part of the outfield grafs 
ground, intended to be broken up for tillage. The enclofure is 
made of fod-dikes, at the expence of about 3d. the running rood 
of 6 Scots ells ; whins are infeited below the coping fod, to 
make the fence more formidable. Left, in a large range of 
fold, the folded cattle ihould frequent a particular part of it, en- 
riching it with their dung, while the remainder of the fold re- 
ceived little or no dung j it is judged preferable, to have two or 
three folds for the black cattle, and two or three for the {heep, 
according to the time they are folded, to be occupied in fuccef- 
fion ; rather than to enclofe the whole fpace intended to be 
ploughed, in a fingle fold at once ; by which means, the land 
would not be fo equally teathed (dunged). After harveft, the 
fod dikes of the fold are levelled, and the land ploughed ; or, 
where lime is alfo added, the lime is laid upon the furface be- 
fore ploughing*; when a fucceflion of three or four crops of 
oats are taken, according to the richnefs or poverty of the foil ; 
after which, it is left to cover itfelf with grafs fward, as nature 
fhall direct ; fhable loft grafs feeds being fometimes fown with 
the laft crop, to bring it fooner to grafs. After the whole of 
the outfield has been gone over in this manner, what was firft 
refigned to grafs, is again reforted to ; being ready to undergo 
a fecond courfe of the fame treatment. According to the num- 
ber of crops taken, after this mode of dunging, the farmer has 
thus, yearly, under crop, triple, quadruple, or even quintuple, 
of that quantity of his outfield, which he can fold in a feafon. 

If the farmer finds that he hath more outfield in his farm, 
than he can thus teath, by folding, during the currency of his 
leafe, and judges that it would yield him more profit under 
crop, than in pafture, he has then recourfe to lime ; liming, 

upon 

* As an improvement, the lime is laid upon the furface, fometimes, in the be- 
ginning of Winter, previous to the Spring, when the land is folded- 



Agricultural Survey cf Pe-.blcsfbire. 75 

upon the fward, as much as he can overtake in a feafon \ and, 
with no other manure than the lime, taking, perhaps, four or 
five crops of oats, then one of peafe, which, in fome meafure, 
fecures a fixth one of oats; when it is configned to nature, to 
gather fward for pafture. Very weighty crops, to the above 
extent of number, have been reaped, in this way, from outfield 
of tolerable foil, which had -never before been either ploughed or 
limed : Upon attempting, however, to make it undergo the fame 
treatment, by a fecond liming, even after it had lain in grafs for 
fourteen or fifteen years, die experiment has been found unfuc- 
cefsful ; and teathing by folding, net liming, was judged the 
manure to be thenceforward depended upon for crops. 

Barbarous as this method of treating the outfield may appear, 
it is not eafy to iuggeft a better mode, fo long as thefe outfields 
Jhall remain unenclofed. To improve thefe comparatively fmall 
portions of arable land to be found in extenfive fheep farms, 
and to lay them out under rich pafture, would produce no per- 
ceptible advantage to a large fheep flock, to whom it would on- 
ly yield a few mouthfuls a piece, and whom, by the entice- 
ment of its fuperior fweetnefs, it would only diftracl: from the 
coarfer pafture on which they muft depend. It would be idle, 
to forego the fubftantial advantage of crops, for an inconfider- 
able quantity of fuperior pafture, which would be detrimental, 
rather than advantageous ; unlefs, by being enclofed, it could 
be diftin£Uy appropriated to fuch a number of animals as it 
would fuflice to feed fully, whether fheep for the butcher, or 
cows for the butcher or for the dairy. 

Outfield land, exhaufted by fuch treatment, efpecially after 
liming, is, no doubt, of lefs value than in its original ftate ; i. e. 
in refpeel of the profit that can be derived from it, by fubj edg- 
ing it to fuch exhauftion : Otherwife, it may univerfally be 
confidered as improved ; inafmuch as the lime brings a fponta- 
neous white clover into the fward, much preferable to the 
rufhes, heath, or other coarfe grafles which are native to the 
foil previous to its receiving lime. At all events, why fhould 
anxiety be manifefted, as to land, alone, againft reaping advan- 
tages which cannot be obtained a fecoud time to the like cx- 



i- 6 Agricultural Survey of ' Peebles/hi ir. 

tent ? Why preferve a value, always in mere poflibility, without 
ever realizing it ? A coal mine never to be worked, is, furely, e- 
oually ufelefs as an exhaufled coal mine. The value, thus ab- 
ftra&ecl from the outfields, is not all loft to the identical farm 
to which they belong •, being transferred, in fhape of dung, 
from the outfields to the crofts, through the acceflion to the 
dunghill, from the great addition of fodder from the outfields, 
confumed by cattle in the farm offices : The profit, meanwhile, 
from the crops, augments the capital of the farmer ; in whofe 
hands, from the oeconomy adhibited in its application, it is ca- 
pable, under proper encouragement, of being more effective of 
agricultural improvement, than in any other hands ; it may be 
fo employed upon that very farm •, or if, from fimilar caufes, it 
is everywhere fimilarly augmented, its operation will come 
round, although the identical farmer mould not lay it out up- 
on that identical farm whence he derived it. 

Were all the arable lands of fheep farms completely enclofed, 
fo that the farmer might have the opportunity of appropriating 
his improved pafture, exclusively, to that precife number of cat- 
tle which it would fuffice to feed to the full, there can be no 
doubt, but that it would then be more profitable to lay down 
the outfields in rich pafture, after moderate cropping, than to 
exhauft them. It might then be eligible, to throw off the 
whole of the prefent crofts in pall are, which, in that ftate, 
might pay equally well as under crop-, and to convert an equi- 
valent part of the prefent outfield into croft or rotation fields ; 
which, by receiving ail the dung collected from the farm offices, 
together with the acceflion from fheep eating the turnip upon 
the ground, might focn be rendered equally rich as the old 
crofts of the farm ". 

The greateft improvement of which Tweeddale is fufceptible, 
is, to render (heep farming and arable farming mutually fubfer- 
vient to each other, by fuch a fcherae of enclofure : The great 

addition 

* To ('lis fyftem of mnna^tmint, the farmers upon Count Lockhart's tftate 
were bound down, at the laft leafing out of his lands in the Upper Ward of La- 
narkfhirc, about f;< years aj.-o. Tenants on unexpired leafes Ibon followed the 
,| .' ' iugh noi boui d to it by a: y obligation. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire* 77 

addition of dung, from the {heep feeding upon turnip, and 
through various methods of mere folding of them, might add 
greatly to the extent of the lands kept in rotation tillage, as 
alfo to the quantity of their return ; whilft the improved pas- 
ture, and the turnip crops, would enable the farmer to fell the 
whole, or part of his diipofeable (heep, (according to the pro- 
portion of his arable to his hill land), in higher condition, and 
at an higher price. Farther than the arable land, enclofure 
could be of little or no advantage to flieep farms, for reafons 
to be explained under the article Jhcep *. 

But 

* John Loch, Efq. of Rachan, whofe property confjfrs of a fmall round hill, 
holding about a dozen or fourteen fcores of breeding ewes, and of a more confider- 
able extent of arable land, of excellent quality, all of which he farms himfelf, has, 
for upwards of twenty years bypaft, been fetting an example of the reciprocal fub- 
ferviency of fheep farming and tillage, to the mutual advantage of both. He 
places great dependence upon the folding of his fheep, both for bringing land into 
tillage, and alfo for the improvement of his paffure. 

In his letter to me, he obferves, that he took the hint of improving land upon a 
large fcale, by fheep folding, from obferving the luxuriancy of the crops produced 
in the way of folding (heep, common in the country ; and that, hitherto, the pro- 
fecution of the practice, upon a more extended fcale, has anfwered his warmed ex- 
pectation. Finding the fod dikes of the country troublefome and exnenfive, he got 
flakes of foreign wood, each ten feet in length, and in fnch number, us to enclofe 
about four fifths of a Scots acre at a time. His whole flock of fheep were, nightly, 
brought from his hill, and folded up,.n his land intended to be brought into tillage, 
from the end of May, till the end of October ; the flake fold being fhifted to new 
ground every io or 14 days in wet weather, and once in three weeks when the 
weather was dry. Wher.ce it may be concluded, that about 8 Scots acres would 
thus be annually manured by his flock; or at the rate of thirty flieep to manuring 
one acre. 

In this manner he brought much of his arable land into tillage, for which he 
had accefs to procure manure in no other way. 

He has foimetimes got ploughed, before Winter, a part of the land intended 
for fheep-folding the enfuing Summer ; and alfo limed it in time, to have the lime 
effete before folding the fheep : Upon this part, which the fheep were folded firft 
ytpon in Spring, he had the opportunity of lowing broadcaft turnip, after ihe fheep 
were removed, which turned out a half crop ; and were eaten by the fbeep, next 
Ppting, upon the field, in time to have the land b treated, ploughed along ith 
the reft <:f the folded land for a ci"p. 'I his he eonfiders as a very great im 

I ; as land io treated, not only receives a flieep teathing, in common with the 
! folded, l^nd a of th/ turnip eaten upon it by 

the 



78 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfl/ire. 

But who, it may be afked, are the proper perfons to carry on 
fuch fchemes of extenfrve enclofure ? The anfwer we would be 
inclined to give, upon experience of what has been effected on 
the lordfhip of Neidpath in Tweeddale, is, Tenants, at their own 
expence> upon moderate rents ; and with the fecurity, from their 
leafe y of thrice nineteen years poffeffion of the farm. 

Proprietors, not practical farmers themfelves, are but ill 
qualified to judge of the proper plan of enclofure, to render the 
farm productive ; but of this the tenant is a competent judge, 
becaufe to this alone he directs his attention. The proprietor 
confults often elegance, izfc. ; the tenant only ufe. The pro- 
prietor cannot drive a hard bargain ; and there muft be a want 

of 



the fheep, previous to its being fubje£ted to a crop of corn. The ploughed land 
he confiders as yielding a drier bed to the folded fheep than the grafs land ; and, 
when it hath been limed, the paddling of the fheep's feet, mixes the lime more 
intimately with the foil, than can poflibly be effected by the operation of the 
harrow. 

Having brought into proper order the greater part of his outfields by means of 
folding, and having laid out, in grazing parks, what is not intended to be kept 
under conftant rotation culture, he has now lefs occafion to fold his fheep upon 
new land intended to be cultivated. He, however, finds the folding to be the 
beft mode of recruiting his improved pafture, deftroying the fog, and invigorating 
the grafs. The turnip fields, upon his rotation lands, he finds moft profitably ex- 
pended, when eaten upon the field with lheep. And as his hill is now all enclofed, 
and fubdivided with Rone dikes, he is in no riik of intermixture; fo that he can 
attempt different breeds of fheep. He has found the Cheviot breed to anfwer well, 
and is now croffing that breed with the South-Down. He tells me, he is entirely 
of the opinion of the old writers, " that a flock of fheep is the moit powerful arm, 
cither for bringing land into culture, or for preferving it in the mofl highly pro- 
ductive condition. " 

Although Mr Loch informs me, that, to judge by the price at which he dif- 

pofes of his fheep, the continued folding is in no way detrimental to them ; it 

would neverthclefb be extremely abfurd, to extend his practice to widely extended 

fheep farms. His fmall flock can, without long travel, be eafily conducted, daily, 

from his comparatively fmall extent of hill land to their fold, and back again, 

without much fatigue, or interruption of the time of pafhiring. The cafe widely 

, in both icfpccts, as to an extenfive hirfel of 50 or ICO fcores of fheep, 

ing, when at cafe, fcattcrcd over miles of mountain. In fituations iimilar 

to his own, no fyftctn can be better than Mr Loch's. The fame fyftem, as to the 

.15 part of hit flicep, is adopted by Mr Charles Alexander, upon his extent 

(iw farm ol ' : «.\v- 



Agricultural Survey of Feeble sflnre. 79 

of oeconomy in the whole of his expenditure : The very fame ca- 
pital, under the rigidly ceconomical application of the tenant, 
would effecl: almoft double the execution. The tenant, even 
upon a nineteen years kale, would be willing to pay intereft 
for enclofing capital : If, however, the enclolures are laid out 
with a view to talte, more than utility ; or if the capital advanc- 
ed is over proportioned to the work executed, the tenant can 
lefs afford intereft, and the proprietor has paid disproportion- 
ately for the extent of melioration accruing to his farm. 

Perhaps, the moft ceconomical fcheme of enclofure, which a 
proprietor could adopt, would be, to give his tenant a charte 
blanche as to enclofing, when he finds him judicious, thriving, 
wilhing for enclofure, and willing to pay common intereft for 
the capital advanced : that he fhould entruft the direction of 
the enclofures entirely to the tenant, in the certainty that they 
{hall be conducted fo as to add the moft productive value to 
the farm : that he mould alfo impower the tenant to contract 
with the undertakers, who, as he pays intereft, will therefore 
adhibit his ufual ceconomy in the advance of capital. Upon 
fuch a fyftem, it might be prudent in a proprietor to borrow 
money for the purpofe of enclofing, however unfafe fuch prac- 
tice has hitherto been accounted in the agricultural improve- 
ments of proprietors •, as he might be certain his tenant would 
never call for an advance, for which he is to pay 5 per cent., 
unlefs upon the well-founded profpe£t of its yielding himfelf 
1 o or 15*. Indeed, a great part of the lands in Tweeddale 
cannot be brought to their proper productive value, by improve- 
ment of culture, till enclofure is more generally extended. 
When this Ihall be effected, improvements of their value may- 
be 



* Money funk in agricultural improvements, is not like money launched out 
upon mercantile enterprizes ; it cannot be recalled all at once, but merely in an- 
nual returns ; and probably not in this way, till alter a confiderable lapfe of time. 
Proprietors borrowing money for fuch purpofes, fbould know well from whom 
they borrow. Money-broking conveyancers have an evident intereft in Uniting ft- 
curities as often as poffiblc, from the profit arifing to them from drawing up new 
titles of feciuity, the expence of which falls upon the bonower. Such is the cufc 
'.n Scotland- 



So Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjfjire. 

be extended, both to the arable lands and to the fheep. It Is, 
however, fubftantial, immediately ufeful, (lone-dike enclofure, 
that the Tweeddale fheep farmer (lands in need of ; and for 
this alone would he confent to pay intereil. Hedges, he confi- 
ders as mere vexatious baubles, which can never, in any degree, 
prove a fence for TweeiMale fheep. Confidering, indeed, the 
variety of foil that mult be encountered in any extenfive fcheme 
of enclofure, it were abfurd to fuppofe, that every part of it 
was fit to rear thorns. In fo far as my obfervation extends, 
there is not to be met with, even in the richeft foils of Tweed- 
dale, one hundred yards of continuous hedge, fufficiently fen- 
cible againft any defcription of pafturing animal. I now pro- 
ceed to 

II. Management of Arable Farms. 

By arable farms, I would be underflood to mean fuch farms 
as do not depend upon fheep, but upon tillage ; although there 
are few of them that do not keep a few fheep of the long-tail- 
ed, large, fine-wooled, Englifh breeds, which are eafily confin- 
ed to narrow ranges ; neither pofTeHing that uncontroulable pro- 
penfity to roam at large, which is proper to our native wild 
fheep ; nor the fame contempt for hedges as a fence : Thefe 
fheep pafture along with the cows, are often houfed in Winter, 
and are called pets ; a defignation applied to every kind of 
fheep kept in this flate of domeftication. 

There are few of thefe farms entirely arable, though fome 
are. 

A confiderable number of them are moftly enclofed with 
hedge and ditch, which, with conftant repairs by paling, makes 
a tolerable fence. As thefe farms often extend into the plains, 
and have the arable lands of fheep farms interpofed betwixt 
them and the fheep ; this circumdance gives protection to the 
hedge enclofures, which, being thus defended from the aflaults 
of their more formidable enemies from without, more eafily 
i\i (lice to confine their more peaceful inhabitants within. 

Thefe farms are of fmaller fize, and of lefs. extent of rent, 
than the ftieep farms, as already mentioned. 

The 



Agricultural Survey of PecblesJJj'ire. 8l 

The ftaple articles of their produce are the dairy articles 
of frefh butter, {kimmed milk cheefe, new dropt calves, with 
old cows fold off, in calf, or fat, and fometimes young cows or 
oxen \ corn alio and hay ; with, incidentally, a young horfe 
bred from the plough mares ; and, where they are kept, the pet 
.lambs, or eld pet fheep, fold fat. 

Frefh butter, fent weekly to Edinburgh, by weekly carriers, 
is the chief dairy product to which attention is paid \ and 
with good reafon. To deal in fatted veal, excepting, inciden- 
tally, at the fcarce feafons ; or in any cheefe, but what is made 
of the milk, after abstracting the cream for butter ; would be 
to relinquish the advantage we poflefs, of vicinity to the belt 
market for frefh butter, and to place ourfelves on a level of 
competition in the market, with counties the mod diftant from 
the capital *. 

M The 



* Butter is all made from cream. Great care is taken to preferve the milk 
from impurities. A milk-houfe muft be cool, but free from damp, and admit- 
ting of the circulation of air. The milk veflels, generally of cooper's work, are 
well waited, every time the milk is taken out of them, in boiling water; and are 
carefully fcrubb;d, with a ndier, or hard brufh made of the fmalkr twigs of 
heath ; fome adding a little fU.lt during the fcrubbing, others a little quicklime, to 
neutralize the acid imbibed by the vefTel from the milk. The milk is poured 
from the milking pail into thcie veflels, where it is to remain for carting up the 
cream, through a fieve of flannel, or of fine brafs wire. According to the heat or 
coolnefs of the weather, it is allowed to ftand for 36 or 48 hours, before the cream 
is fkimmed oiF; the cream is put into a ftparate veflll, where it is collected for the 
weekly churning. The churn ufed, is the barrel-churn, with moving breakers; 
though, of late, a fquare box, with a Aiding lid, and encvine breakers, which can 
he taken out at pleafure, is getting into ufe, from the greater facility of cleaning 
it. The cream, when put into the churn, is palled through a canvaf> bag ; am!, 
in fhort, every precaution is thus ufcel, to preftrve the milk free of every taint, 
and of the admixture of all extraneous, lubilances. About 30 years ajo, very lit- 
tle attention was psid to rleanlinefs ; and, after the butter was taken from the 
churn, a large knife, hacked law-ways on the edge, was repeatedly paflcd through 
it in all directions, that hairs and other impurities might be removed, by their 
adhering to the ragged edge; this practice, then univerfal, was called hairing lit 
butter. 

Of 'all animal concoctions, that of the converfion of the aliments into milk, 
fcems to produce the lcatl change upon the original nature of the; aliment ; and 

the 



§2 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

The parifhes chiefly abounding in fmall arable and dairy- 
farms, are thofe nearefl the capital, as Linton, Kirkurd, New- 
lands, Eddleflone, and Peebles ; Newlands being probably the 
bed adapted for the dairy, in confequence of more abundant 
fhelter for milk-cows, from the more abundant artificial wood 
plantations. The town of Peebles confumes a considerable 

quantity 

the quality of the milk and butter depends very much on the nature of the food 
given to the cows. The butter of cows, fed in Winter upon carrots and hay, dif- 
fers very little, either in colour or richnefs, from that made upon Summer's grafs 
feeding. There feenis, indeed, to be a particular congruity betwixt the juice of 
carrots and milk ; inlbmuch, that the exprefled juice of rafped raw carrots, put 
into the churn along with the cream, gives to Winter butter, not only the colour, 
but a confiderable degree of the rich tafte of butter from grafs : It, indeed, pre- 
vents the butter from keeping fo long fweet. The difagreeable tafte given to milk 
and butter, from turnip feeding, is generally corrected, by putting into the milk 
veffels, along with the new milk, a fmall quantity of faltpetre, either in powder, 
or infufed in water. 

The ikimmed milk is made into cheefe ; the milk being immediately curdled, 
fo foon as the cream is taken from it, after being warmed to the heat of new 
milk ; when, if the dairy yields a fufficiency at one fkimming for a cheefe of the 
fize required, the curd is immediately committed to the cheefe prefs ; if not, the 
curd is preferred, and mixed with the curd from the milk next Hummed. The 
whey is ufed inftead of water, for making the oat-meal porridge, to the confider- 
able faving of meal, (a faving produced to a greater extent, by ufing milk for the 
fame purpofe in Winter, when there is not fufficiency of milk for cheefe-making), 
and the refidue is given to pigs; fometimes, inftead of water for drink, to weaned 
calves for holding ftock ; and fometimes to new weaned foals. A fort of very 
mean cheefe, is fometimes made from butter milk, but none for fale ; when kept 
till moulded (which foon happens), it acquires a particular high aromatic flavour, 
exceedingly grateful to iome palates. 

In the [beep farms, where Cheeps' milk cheefe is made, the whole milk of the 
cows upon the farm is mixed with the lheeps' milk. The butter, during this pe- 
riod, being ill tailed, is kept to be mixed with the tar for fmearing the flieep; 
and the milk is afterwards made into cheefe. There are, by confequence, very few 
farms where cheefe is made of entire fheeps' milk ; and, frewn the various propor- 
tions of the admixture of cows' milk, there are few article-s in commerce, paffing 
under one common denomination, of which the qualities are fo various as thofe of 
f beeps' milk cheefe. 

The yearning, or runnet, ufed for curdling the milk, is commonly the flomach 
of a calf, well falted, along with the curd found in it, and dried : When about to 
be ufed, it is cut into fmall pieces, (fome only ufing the (lomach, and thiowing 

away 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 83 

quantity of dairy produce from the farms in its neighbourhood. 
The medicinal well, with die woollen manufactory, begun at 
the village of Inverleithan, may, in time, raife a confiderable 
demand for dairy produce, from the farms in the pariih of that 
name, and in that vicinity. 

The 

away the curd, which is often rancid), and put into a can, with a ftrong pickle 
of fait and water: When it hath fteeped fo long, that the liquor, upon trial, is 
found to have acquired the yearning quality, the liquor is carefully decanted from 
the fediment, and bottled up for nfe ; when frelh pickle is poured upon the fto- 
mach, fb long as it is found capable of giving out this quality to the pickie. In- 
Read of the ftomach of a calf, fome ufe, with fnccefs, the ftomach of an old cow, 
falted, rolled up hard, and dried ; the itomach of a hare, or of a lamb, are found 
to anfwer; and perhaps the fame property is to be found in all ftomachs, intend- 
ed, in early life, to digeft milk : What appears fingular, the infidc fkin of a hen's 
gizzard, cleaned, falted, and dried, is found to pofTefs this quality ; perhaps, it is 
a property belonging to every kind of ftomach. Several vegetables are ufed, in 
aid of the ftomach yearning; I have made trial of decoctions, of all different 
ftrengths, of one pointed out to me, as of high character, but could not find that, 
of itfelf, it had the fmalleft tendency to curdle milk. The quantity of the yearn- 
ing liquor necciijry for a given quantity of milk cannot be afcertained ; evcrv par- 
ticular ftomach yielding a ftronger or weaker impregnation to tiie pickle in which 
it is infnfed ; and the houfewife being net unfrequently difjppointed, in finding 
that no yearning quality whatever has been imparted. If chymical analyfis were 
applied to runnet, perhaps fome fuccedaneum might be found out, which would 
produce the effect with certainty, and, at fame time, prevent the bad tafle often 
communicated, by ftomach runnet to the cheefe. 

Sweet-milk cheefe, /'. e. cheefe made of the whole milk, without abstracting ths 
cream, is not made for fale in this county; but only for private family ufe. The 
theory of prefciving all the richnefs pcftible, to cheefe of this defcription, feems to 
depend upon the following facts, which feem abundantly afcertained in experience : 
lino, That cream is c-vaporable, in a degree of heat not very inieitfe ; as appears from 
the equal p :ornefs, both of the cheefe and of the whey, when the milk is too 
much heated before putting the yenrnhig to it : 2J0, That the adbefton of the cream 
to the curd part of the milk it but flight ; as appears from the richnefs of the laft 
drainings of the whey, which, in whole milk cheefe, are very rich cream, if the 
curd is too hard wrought by the hand, or if it is too hard prefted at firft, imme- 
diately upon its Leing committed to the cheefe prefs : 3^/0, That the whey, if not 
fijon feparatcd, fpeedily contracts the acid, and then the putrid fermentation in 
the cheefe; making the cheefe fwell, tainting its fmell and talte, and rendering it 
unfit for keeping. 

Hence, the propriety is indicated, Imo, Of yearning the milk as cool as may 
be : 2do, Of moderate working of the curd by hand, in extracting the whey ; to- 
gether 



84 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

The evident advantage to the dairy, to be derived from the 
improved fyftem of husbandry, led fpeedily to its adoption (as 
already obferved) in farms of this description. The milk-cows 
(generally feeding to from 25 to 30 (tones Dutch of carcafe, 
when fold moderately fat to the butcher) are much fed in the 
houfe, during mid-day heat, and over night, in Summer, up- 
on clover cut green ; which adds greatly to the dung bred up- 
on the farm. The turnip crop is given to the milk-covs, and 
the young flock in Winter. The plough horfes are alfo much 
fed on cut clover in the houfe through Summer, when hard 
worked ; as they can thus fill their bellies very fpeedily, and 
have more time for work : When at pafture, they generally 
feed with the milk-cows ; or fometimes, when they come hun- 
gry from the yoke, they are leathered (i. c. confined by a long 
rope, fattened to their halters, with a ftrong wooden or iron 

pin 



gether with a regulated prefTure, moderate at nrft, and gradually increasing, when 
it is put into the cheefe-vvell, and fubmitted to the cbecfe-prefs * : Or the Ayr- 
fnire practice, of taking the curd repeatedly from under the cheefe-prefs, and dic- 
ing it into fmall pieces, which are expofed, at each operation, upon a fievc, for 
draining and drying by the air ; that, thus, the aqueous particles of the whey 
dripping of, or exhaling, the cream, bee- , may continue adhering to the 

curd, while undergoing the laft more flrons confojidatihg preffure. 

The general time of preflure, becaufe fuiting the practice of daily chcefe mak- 
ing, without the expence of double apparatus, is 24 hours. 

Some houfewives i'jlt their cheefe in the curd ; others, by rubbing fait upon the 
ikin of the cheefe after it is made; o:hei. ; , by putting the ciieeie in pickle, which 
is thought to extract Tome of its richi 

A faft, faid to i • <ilab!ilhed in experience, is the ground-work of fome family 
receipts for making very rich whole milk chcefe, viz.. That a fmall quantity of 
the whey taken off, marie boiling hot, and poured upon the remainder, caufes the 
curd infrantly to cor.folidatc, and expel the winy, the cream part, meantime, n- 
maining united with the cferd ; the mafs of curd is then lifted from the whey, and 
plunged into the coldeft fpring water, which congeals the cream, from its liquefac- 
tion by the heat; it is then put into -well, and fubmitted to the prefe. 

* The r wt •with Iron, and full of holes in 

the bottom and fides "The cbeefe-prefs is a weighty fione, lotvtred down or raifed up by 
a lever, or by a fcretv ; or a fmall weight, w'ltb advantage of a long lever preffing down 
a board, wlofe oppofte end is forced down by wedges. The fctew is alnwfi never ufed. as 
Q preffing force 1 and is improper, as it does not, of "ttj "elf \ follow ip its advantage, 



Agricultural Survey of ' PceblaJIjire. $- 

pin at the other end of the rope, which is ftuck firm into the 
ground) upon patches of fueh coarfe grafs as they would re- 
ject when full fed. 

A confiderable number of tnefe farms are of too fmall ex- 
tent, to give ffrfficien't occupation, at ail feafons, for the horfes 
and fervants ncceffarily kept upon them : The farmer, there- 
fore, lets out his fervants and horfes, and often himfelf for hire, 
in carrying coal, peats, lime, flate, ftone, &c. &c. ; or in la- 
bouring the Hill fmaller pofleffions of day-labourers or artificers, 
who occupy land for the mere maintenance of one or two 
cows ; or in working upon the public roads. Indeed, a num- 
ber of them are merely taken with a view to fuch occupations. 
(See Note D.) 

For the moil part, thefe arable farms are held in leafe im- 
mediately from proprietors : A Few are held in fubtack from 
tenants. When a fheep farmer takes in leafe a fheep farm, 
which formerly had been a farmer's refidence, but where he 
does not intend to refide, he generally fubfets the houfes and 
croft-lands of that farm ; referving to himfelf the right of Win- 
ter downfall for his fheep, which, if rigoroufly exacted, would 
be an effectual bar to their improvement. 

Where the arable farms are all equally fit for plough cul- 
ture, through their whole extent, and properly fubdivided by 
inclofure, the whole is regularly cultivated ; palture forming a 
part of the fyfterh of rotation, and the general principles of 
rotation culture, already mentioned, being obferved. For in- 
ftance, to begin with the breaking up of what is in paflure ; 
according as the rotation admits the field to have lain for a 
longer or fkorter time under pafcurc, one crop of oats and one 
of peas, or two of oats and one of peas, are taken ; then tur- 
nip fallow with dung; then barley with gfr; Is; theri hay ; 
then paflure for a longer or fhorter period. U, however, the 
land is not all equally fit for either paihire or tillage— if, for 
inftance, a particular field is more convenient for paflure than 
the others, from contiguity to the houfes ; from being belt wa- 
tered ; from being left fit for tillage^ on account: of deep de- 
clivity, or of wetuefs, or of poverty of foil-— or if, as is oft- 
times 



S6 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesftj'tre. 

times the cafe, the beft arable land is alone inclofed by a (ingle 
ring-fence, without fubdivifion, the reft of the farm lying open : 
In thefe cafes, the open uninclofed land, that which is leaft 
adapted to make a return in tillage, or that which, in other re- 
flects is moft convenient for the purpofe, are refigned to per- 
manent pafture : The perpetual tillage land being cultivated, if 
light or fandy, under a four-courfe rotation ; if of better con- 
fidence, under that of five ; and, in fome very few inftances, 
under that of fix, as already defcribed. 

Sect. II. — Rent, in Money, in Kind, in Perfonal Services. 

Although victual rents may be moft equitable in making 
provifion for perpetuity, as being lefs fubjecSt. to variation in va- 
lue, at diftant periods, than money rents, yet, for the fhort 
endurance of an ordinary leafe, money rents are certainly pre- 
ferable, both for the proprietor and tenant. They prevent all 
difputes, as to quality, in the payment j or intrigues, as to Jlrih- 
ing the market price, upon converfion : They prevent alfo, the 
irremediable inconvenience incident to vicinal rents j of dou- 
bling or trebling the rent againft the tenant, in an year of fear- 
city, when he is leaft able to bear any addition ; or of diminifh- 
ing the value, in the fame proportion, to the proprietor, in an 
year of plenty. Money rents are alfo by much the moft eligi- 
ble, as interfering, in no degree, with the tenant's manage- 
ment, but allowing him to turn his ftock and induftry to what- 
ever mode of culture he finds moft profitable ; whilft rents in 
kind, in carriages, or other perfonal fervices, are, from this 
interference, extremely injudicious. In very long leafes, it 
might be eligible, that a part of the rent fhould be payable ac- 
cording to the rate of vidtual ; calculated, however, not from 
year to year, but always upon the average of perhaps the im- 
mediately preceding eight or ten years, in order to avoid the 
exccfhve inequalities of price that take place from feafon to 
feafon. 

In Twecddale, the proportion of rent paid in kind, or per- 
fonal fervice, 'is very trifling; the more enlightened among the 
proprietors, entirely relinquilhing all rent of this fpecies. In cafes 

where 



Agricultural Survey cf Peehlesfblr'e. 87 

■where the proprietor refides, (the practice being, however, of- 
ten continued from mere blind adherence to old ufage, even 
where he does not refide), out of an idle anxiety of being fe- 
cure of accommodation in certain articles, or perhaps from 
fome fdly conception, that the farmer will fet no value upon 
the work, and the time he can foare from his farming opera- 
tions, or upon fuch produce as can be raifed from his offals •, a 
fmall proportion of kind rent or fervice is exacted, in addition 
to the money rent •, fuch as, meal and bacon from mills, poul- 
try, and the carriage of fuel from all forts of farms. The lead 
reflection would, however, convince any one, that all fuch ar- 
ticles might be obtained equally cheap, without, as with, an ob- 
ligation to furnifh them. The tenant's varying views and prac- 
tice, through the courfe of his leafe, are the only proper mea- 
fure of the time and labour he can fpare from the farm •, and 
thefe he will furely be ready to line to the proprietor, as cheap 
as to any other : The tenant's experience can alone afcertain 
the extent of produce which may be raifed from his offals ; 
and this produce the landlord can always purchafe at its mar- 
ket price. If either time and labour, or offal produce, are im- 
pofed beyond this extent, they come dear to the tenant ; and 
this dearth muffc fall ultimately upon the landlord, as the lefs 
rent, proportionally, can be afforded. If the landlord wifhes 
to have fecure accommodation, at fuch expence, he can always 
command it voluntarily, by offering a price equally high. As a 
lum equal to the diminution of ctherwife affordable rent, from 
neglect of farm, and wafte of its produce, by the exaction of 
labour and time and offal production beyond their proper ex- 
tent, could at all times bribe the tenant to the fame extent of 
negligence and of wafte — the only difference confuting in the 
tenant's being paid before (in diminution of rent), cr after (in 
excefs of price), for the negligence and die wafte ; — in fitua- 
tions where particular accommodations cannot poffib'y be ob- 
tained for hire or price, it may be more excufeable to fecure 
them by obligation : We ought, however, to be certain 
they cannot otherwife be had, as undoubtedly eyi can 

be had cheapeft from the profeffional furnifher. In regard to 

I 



§8 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhivc. 

poultry, in particular, it may be remarked, that the reiidettt 
proprietor can generally rear them himfelf, at much lefs ex- 
pence than his tenant : For, as the tenant's houfes are in cjreat 
part low roofed, and covered with thatch ; and as growing 
corn crops, with his barn-yard, are in clofe contiguity to his 
dwelling, which admits not of policy •, the damage fuftained by 
poultry, in treading down growing corns, and deftroying' the 
thatched coverings of the houfes, and the corn ftacks, may foon 
amount to more than what they can produce of profit, from 
picking up offals that would otherwifc go to wafte : But the 
flated roofs, and grafs lawn of the proprietor, fecure him agamft 
fuch damage. 

By a£t of Parliament 1 748, the arbitrary unfpecified fervices 
of ufe and wont, an obligation to which was inferred at common 
law, though not expreffed in the leafe, are all abolifhed. They 
would feem, formerly, to have furnifhed a pretext for endlefs 
vexation and oppreihon cf the tenantry ; even fo far as to de- 
volve upon them moft of the public taxes impofed by Parlia- 
ment upon the proprietors of the land. No preftation is now 
exigible from the tenant, but what is exprefsly ftipulatecl in his 
leafe ; with exception of fuch legal burdens as are already, or 
Shall be direclly impofed upon him by act of Parliament ; and alio, 
of his adftri£tion to the mill. 

The permanent legal burdens, impofed upon the tenantry by 
aft of Parliament, in their capacity as tenants, are, the one half 
of the poor's rates, where fuch rates are carried into effect ; the 
one half of the falary of the parochial fchoolmafter ; alio, a cer- 
tain number cf days labour upon the public roads, proportioned 
to the number of labourers and holies kept upon the farm— 
a burden which (from the experienced inefficiency of compelled 
labour) is now almoft univerially commuted into money pay- 
ment, by authority of Parliament, in the fpecial acts obtained 
by the different counties, for making and repairing their roads 
by the money they are impowcred to collect in toll ; the com- 
mutation being aflcffed according to the ploughs kept, or the 
valuation of the lands in the cefs-books ; and the money arifmg 
from it, being generally applied to by-roads, now that the pub- 
lic roads are upheld from a different fource. 

The 



Agricultural Survey of Pecblesjlnre. %$ 

The burden of adftriction to mills (called in Scotland thirl- 
age) infers an obligation upon the tenant, to grind his grain at 
that particular mill to which the lands he occupies are thirled ; 
/'. e. which pofTefTes the exclufive privilege of manufacturing the 
grain of thefe lands. 

It feems not improbably conjectured, that, in former times, 
the Great Baron obliged all his tenants upon the barony, to 
bring their whole grindable produce to his mill, (not only as the 
narrow-minded mode of obtaining indemnification for the ex- 
pence of erecting it, but) as the bed method of both afcertain- 
ing and collecting his rents, which were moll probably paid in 
kind, and in proportion to the produce. The proportion retain- 
ed at the mill, in name of multure^ might therefore include, 
not only the price of manufacture, but the whole of the victual 
rent : Accordingly, the territorial bounds of an adftriction are 
generally commenfurate to that of a barony ; and the extent of 
thirlage is frequently ftill found to reach to the whole of the 
grindable corns. In confequence of the introduction of money 
rents, and of the alienation of lands from baronies, in all the 
varieties of private bargain, the thirlage of lands to mills is found 
exifting under all modifications of extent, both as to the pro- 
portion of produce which the mill has the exclufive right of 
manufacturing, and alfo as to the proportion retained, as mul- 
ture, or price of manufacture. 

In Tweeddale, the rate of thirlage varies in both refpects. 
The moll narrow extent of adftriction reaches to all the oats ufed 
in oatmeal by the farmer's family and fervants irpon the farm ; 
and the broadeft (the only other extent I believe in the coun- 
ty) reaches to all the grindable corns upon the farm, with the 
exception only of what is conmmed by the horfes, and of the 
feed fown upon the farm *. The corns of beer and of peas' 

N were 

* The broadeft adftridrion leaves an option to the farmer (after having mannfac* 
Hired as much as is judged equal to the confumpt of his family and fervants) of 
difpofing cf the remainder in an unmanufactured flate, upon his paying to the mill 
a proportion fomewhat inferior to what might have been exacted upon m an u factor- 
ing it (called dry multure), amounting 'o !■ O'.it a one u»d twentieth part ol . ( 
tit.y difpoftd of. 



pO Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJInre. 

were probably introduced into culture, of a date much later than 
that of the eftablifnment of thirlage j and this is probably the 
reafon why, even under the broadeft adllriction, reaching to all 
griildable corns raifed upon the farm, thefe two fpecies of grain 
are pretty generally underftood to be exempted from the ad- 
ftriction — a circumftance which I have known to lead to the 
prepofterous lowing of beer, where oats would have been more 
profitable. 

The rate of multure exacted at the mill, is, in general, mo ft 
moderate where the extent of adftrittion is mod narrow, and 
higheft where the extent of adftriction is broadeft — correfpond- 
ing, it would feem, to the remanence of the lands under their 
original conftitution in regard to thirlage, or to the prevalence 
of the notions of emancipation in the bargain of their alienation. 
Thefe rates of adftricted multure vary in this county from a 
25th to a 2 1 ft, and even a 16th part of the quantity manufac- 
tured : A certain proportion of meal is alfo paid for the ufe of 
the kiln in drying the grain, though there is, indeed, no thirl- 
age to kilns, and it may be dried at home \ and a fmall due, in 
meal, eftablifhed merely by ufage, and therefore lefs defined, is 
paid to the under miller, under the name of ktiavejhip. Where 
the higheft rate of adftricted multure is due, the proportion 
paid for the drying and manufacturing procefs, is fuppofed to 
amount to about a 14th part of the quantity manufactured : But 
in cafes where there is no adftriction, the multure is univerfally 
a 3 2d part ; and the whole quantity exacted, for both drying 
and grinding, is reckoned not to exceed the 28th or 27th part, 
which may therefore be confidered as the real market price of 
the manufacture of grain. 

Thirlage not only fubjects the tenant of the thirled lands to 
an higher rate of multure, but alfo to various other burdens and 
vexations. If the mill to which he is adftricted fhould be out 
of repair — let his demand be ever fo urgent, or his grain in ever 
fuch rific of being fpoiled, he mull allow the milter a proper 
time for reparation (fome fay fix weeks from the time of appli- 
cation) before he is entitled to go elfewhere for fervice. The 
thirled tenant is fubje&ed to many occafioaal fervices, from 

which, 



Agricultural Survey of Pteblefjbirti 91 

which the free tenant Is exempted ; fuch as, the upholding of 
the water dam dike •, the upholding, frequently, of mill fanners 
and mill fieves, and the carriage of rniliftones, when needed : 
he furnifhes fuel for drying his grain ; he tranfports his grain to 
and from the mill — furnifhings provided for him by the miller 
at free mills •, he attends alfo at the drying procefs, lifts his own 
meal, and performs the greater part of the moft laborious work ; 
in all of which, his time and labour (in reality, or at leaft in 
probable imagination) are not well hufbanded. 

Aditriction is, in principle, abfurd. In every employment, 
of which mere pecuniary emolument is the objeft, the only fti- 
mulant to induftry, excellence, and integrity, is that neceflity of 
pleafing cuftomers, in order to fecure their cuftom, which arifes 
from free competition : But adfhiaion (implying an exclusive 
right to employment, whether the performance fhail, or (hall 
not, give entire iatisfactton to the employer) completely re- 
moves this ftimulant. What check can the adftricted tenant 
have over the manufacturer of his grain, when the latter knows 
that the tenant cannot withdraw his employment, however dil- 
fatisfied with the execution, nor have recourfe for any damage 
but what can be legally inftru&ed ? How is it poflible, legally to 
inftruct damage from negligence or improper manufacture, or 
from unneceflary and expenfive wafte of the tenant's time in 
attendance, or from difhonefty in regard to the yield of grain, 
which it was impoflible to ascertain, but from the return at the 
mill ? The tenant muft evidently lye much at die mercy of the 
manufacturer of his grain, which may be productive of confi- 
derable real wafte, if not from difhonefty, at leaft from that 
negligence attendant upon fecurity of employment — productive, 
alfo, of much imaginary cpprcjfion, which, of itfelf, is probably 
the word of grievances. In farms where the adftri£hon ex- 
tends to all grindable corns, it acts, like the Englifh tithe, as 
a dired tax upon agricultural induftry, increafing in propor- 
tion to the increafed productive value of the lands, to the im- 
provement of which, no (hare of the expence has been contri- 
buted! 

Where 



92 Agricultural Survey of ' Peeble •s/bire. 

Where land adftricted to a mill is thrown into grazing, it is 
generally underftood that no multure is exigible : Adftri&ion, 
therefore, can yield but a precarious rent. Suppofe an ad- 
ftri&ed farm, where the aditri£tion reaches to the oats ufed as 
peal by the farmer's family^ has been poffefled, for time im- 
memorial , by one family ; but that, in courfe of a demand for 
fmall conveniency farms, by people living by other profeflions, 
it fhall have been divided into twenty di(lin£l tenements, fepa- 
rately occupied by as many different families ; and that the po- 
pulation it hath now to iupport is ten times more numerous : 
iii 11 the adft nation, in this cafe, continue to be reftridted with- 
in the extent of oats ufed as meal by the fmgle family original- 
ly pofll fling the farm ? or (hall the adftriction receive a ten- 
fold extenfion, and be interpreted to reach to oats ufed as meal 
by the whole of thefe farmers families ? We may alfo reverfe 
the fuprjofition to the unition of farms; and here, alfo, a fair 
field is opened for litigation, to decide whether the adftri&ion 
fhall be contracted to the quantity of meal confumed in the 
finglc family now poffeffing ; or fhall be continued at the ex- 
tent of confumpt of the whole families originally poffefling the 
dill! net farms before they were united. Does the adftriclion, 
in fliort, continue always of the fame invariable value ? or, is 
it, thus, liable, from the various occupation or management of 
the adftri&ed lands, to be increafed, to be diminifhed, to be an- 
nihilated ? 

It is furely to be expected, that an ufage, fo abfurd in prin- 
ciple, and fo vexatious and litigious in its application, will not 
long be fuffered to exift under an enlightened Britifh Legifla- 
ture *. 

Where the privileged mill and adftricled lands both belong to 
the fame proprietor, one fhould think the interference of the 
Legiflature in no way neceflary ; it is, indeed, furprifing, that, 
in all fuch inftances, the good fenfe of the proprietor has not 
led him to emancipate his tenants from fo prepofterous a bon- 
dage ; 

* ] he above was written hi 1796 or 1797. Sec the reafon for not altering it ; 
in ^hc fubftquent foot note. 



Agricultural Survey of Pcebksjlnre. 93 

dage •, though I know hut of few inftances where fuch libera- 
lity has been difphyed. Where the mill and adftri&ed lands 
are vefted in different proprietors, it is not, indeed, to be ex- 
pected that the adftriction ihould be given up without a proper 
equivalent : It were furely, however, a matter of no great dif- 
ficulty for the Legiflature to confer a right of forcing a fale 
of the adftriction, under fome fpecified method, by which the 
price might be regulated, and the claims of all having interefl 
might be adjufted. Why not let the whole be referred to 
juries, acting by appointment, and under the authority of the 
Judge-ordinary of the county ? * 

What 



* An aft, to enforce the commutation of thirlage into an annual payment in 
grain, according to the award of a jury appointed by the Sheriff of the county, 
or the Sheriff of the county where the mill is fituated, if the fcrvient and do- 
minant tenements are in different counties, was obtained in 1799. — The above is 
retained as originally written, as the reafons of obtaining an aft, are the fame 
that fhould lead to embrace the privileges of it. By the act, no transient pof- 
fcflbr can apply for the commutation during his tranfitory intereft, the applica- 
tion being only competent to perpetual proprietors. 

I have heard, as yet, of no inftance of an application for the benefit of this 
aft; which may be one example, out of many, mowing that a grievance, which 
feems oppreffive {o long as we enjoy no method of redrefs, feels lighter (o foon 
as we have it in our power to rid ourfelves of it when we will. The fame obser- 
vation is probably fomewhat applicable to tithes in England : The tithes of the 
clergy are exclaimed agaiuft, becaufe the clergy, as a corporate body, can neither 
fell nor commute them : The tithe in the pofleflion of the laity does not feerrt 
to have occafioned fuch clamour. Yet it is ftrange that lay impropriators (Till 
continue to poflefs, perhaps, an extent of tithe equal to that of the clergy. Their 
being empowered to fell, probably diminifhes the anxiety to purchafe. Perhaps, 
too, without a compulfory aft to enforce a fale at prelent value, it might be diffi- 
cult to agree upon a price with the holders of a property which progreflively in- 
creafes in value with the progreflive improvement of the country, without any 
expenee of culture. 

Till uniform precedents are cftabWhed, juries may be fomewhat at a !ofs to 
afcertain the value of an adftriftion. It is evident, that the adftriftion is worth 
the excefs of the ad drifted multure above urjadfrrifted multure, to the whole ex- 
tent of the adftriftion : But is it worth no more ? If it is worth nothing more, then 
on fuppofition that the rate of multure were the fame under adftriftion as at free 
mills, the adftriftion is worth nothing, and liberty can afford no pui ;hafa money. 



54 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

What farther remains to be obferved, under this fection, re- 
lative to rents, may be very fhortly ftated. 

The diitrefling fcarcity of fodder, occasioned by the extremi- 
ties of cold and wet in feafon 1799, anc ^ °^ drought and heat 
in that of 1800, occafioned fuch an extraordinary mortality or 
(laughter of all cattle (landing in need of Winter fodder, that 
the great diminution of black cattle gave an extraordinary rife 
to the value of fheep. Some few farmers, who have, of late, 
taken fheep farms in leafe, (unaware, certainly, that the rife of 

fheep, 

The following historical account of mills in Tweeddale, from Mr Charles 
Alexander in Eafter Happrew, 1 think worth prcferving. 

It would appear, that a confiderable number of corn mills, formerly exifHng 
in Tweeddale, have been allowed to fall to ruin. This would feem readily ac- 
counted for, in the following manner : That, formerly, the lands were fubdivided 
among a greater number of proprietors ; that, from a grudge at feeing the mul- 
tures from the grain of their lands obtained at other peoples mills, each fmall 
proprietor was anxious to erect a mill upon his own lands ; and that, through fuch 
fhort-fighted calculation, mills were foon multiplied to an extent far exceeding 
any demand for their employment : That, meanwhile, in order to obtain rent 
adequate to the expence of their erection (though without any juft calculation of 
the lofs that might otherwise accrue in fecuring it), heavy thirlages were had re- 
conrfe to, both as to the extent of grain which the tenants were compelled to 
manufacture, and a'.fo as to the rate of multure, or price of manufacture ; perhaps, 
too, from a filly conception of thus cunningly catching rent from the tenantry, 
in a way they might lefs grudge, from its being lefs apparent ; as in the cafe of 
kind and carriage rent. But, as thefe fmall properties were gradually bought up, 
and united into large eftates, the reafons no longer fubfifted which had given o- 
rigin to this multiplicity of mills : The greater part were therefore left to go to 
ruin, one only being preferved for each eftate; the fly mode of catching rent, 
in a way fnppofed lefs apparent, leading, however to the continuation of the 
thirkge of the tenantry, to the old extent, and at the fame rate of multure. 
This revolution, having produced no advantage to the tenantry, as to extent of 
thiilage or rate of multure, has aifo, in many inftances, fubjeeted them to the 
additional inconvenience of diflant or incommodious carriage to the finglc mill 
upon the eftate to which they have been transferred; inflead of being accommo- 
dated, as formerly, with mills at their own doors. 

It is probable that no real lofs of rent would be incurred, were all fuch pro- 
prietors, by general confent, to emancipate t heir tenants entirely from thirlage ; 
and to let their mills for what they would bring, on fupppjjtion of the tenants 
being at liberty to go where they pleafed, for fcprter distance, 01 for better fer- 
Matters woulJ come round, ar.d thr LP, on one hand would be regained 
pn the other. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 95 

flieep, within thefe few years, to more than a third above their 
ordinary value, can only Hand till the deficiency of black cattle 
is fupplied by breeding), are fuppofed to pay at the rate of from 
five to fix {hillings for every iheep's grafs. Previous to rids, 
the rent of breeding ilieep farms was fuppofed to average at ra- 
ther better than three {hillings per head of the flock kept on the 
farm ; that of hill -feeding ilieep farms at about four {hillings, or 
four and fixpence. * 

Arable lands are fometimes let by meafure. The croft lands 
round the villages, may let at from thirty to fifty {hillings per 
Scots acre ; thole around the town of Peebles from forty to 
fixty {hillings. Thefe may be confidered as mere conveniency 
rents. Arable farms, according to quality, in this county ex- 
tremely various, may yield from fix or feven, to twenty or 
twenty-five fhiilings, per acre. The higheft rent per acre ever 
paid for a farm, of fuch extent, as that its management confti- 
tutes the fole occupation of the farmer, is that given of late for 
one in Inverleithan parifh, which the proprietor himfelf had 
improved, and is fifty {hillings per acre. 

The rent to the landlord is almoft all that the tenant pays 
for his land. He pays neither tithe nor land-tax. The half of 
fchoolmafter's falary, a trifle of itfelf, (not amounting to one 
halfpenny upon the pound rent), though exigible, is almoft ne- 
ver exacted. Poor's rates are feldom impofed, except in try- 
ing cafes, fuch as, the dearths of crops 1799 and 1800; and, 
in thefe feafons, I believe, the poor's rates did not exceed, in 
any parifli in Tweeddale, 4 per cent, upon the rent, or 2 percent, 
i. e. 4^d. upon the pound of rent to the tenant. Statute labour, 
commuted at 8s. 4d. upon the iool. Scots of valuation, can- 
not, in Tweeddale, amount to more than 3|d. upon the pound 
of rent. Excepting window-duty, and the tax on riding and 
farm horfes, the above are the only kind of compulfatory taxes 
exigible from Scots tenants. 

The whole rent of the county has been already Hated (from 
the Statiftical account) as amounting to about 26,000!. 

In the Statiftical Tables, fubjoined under the article Popu* 
kt'um, it appears, that the number of (heep held in the county 

amounts 



pcT Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

amounts to 112,800. Suppofmg, therefore, three-fourths of 
thefc breeding farms for holding itock, and each fheep paying 
three millings — Inde, 84,600 fheep, paying at thixe (hillings 
a head, rent - - L. 1 2,690 o o 

28,200 dc. paying at four millings a head, do. 5>i44 o o 

Rent from fheep L. 17,834 o o 
The cows, young and old, are in thefe Tables 
flated at 4378 ; or, as fome of thefe are in 
the Selkirkfhire part of Inverleithan parifh, 
fay only 4300. Suppofe thefe can pay, over- 
head, of rent, at the rate of il. 10s. each; 
hence - 6,450 o o 



Rent from fheep and cows L. 24,284 o o 
The remaining 1 7 1 61. of rent may be fuppofed to be made up, 
from horfes reared above what fupplies the breeding ftock ; 
and from grain fent to market, above what fupplies the con- 
fumpt of the farmers families and fervants. 

The average rent per Englilh acre through the county, 
would appear to be confiderably under half a crown. 

The fa£ls founded upon above, are chiefly collected from 
the ftatiftical accounts. But various interefts might prevent ac- 
curacy of ftatement in various articles. I fhould iufpeft the 
rents are ftated low. 

Sect. III.— Tithes. 

The Clergy of Scotland are fupported upon fixed Jlipends or 
fabrics, modified out of the tithes of the lands, by the Court 
of Seilion. 

The medium falary of a clergyman, I have underftood to 
have been formerly eftimated at cvol. *, belides a houfe, and a 
glebe of land, con fi fling, at an average, of near ten acres. 

The Court of Seffion had not, from its original conftitution, 
any jurifdiction in the matter of tithes and flipends ; but, by 
*cl of Parliament 1707, a commiflion was delegated to it from 

the 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlnrl. 97 

the Scotifh Parliament, for the purpofes of valuing of tithes, of 
plantation of kirks, and of augmenting the ftipends of the 
Clergy. It was at one time conceived, that, fo loon as the 
Court had fulfilled the purpofe of this commiilion, in augment- 
ing the clergyman's living in any parifh, its power expired in 
that inftance, and it had no right of future interference for the 
fame purpofe of augmentation. In courfe, it was an eftabliih- 
ed maxim, that, without a frefh commiilion from Parliament, 
the Court could grant no fubfequent augmentation to livings 
which had bw'en augmented by it fince 1707. In confequence, 
however, of a change of views in the Court, as to the extent 
of this Parliamentary commiilion, as alfo of the public opinion 
in regard to the flendernefs of the Clergy's provifion, the Court 
has, within thefe ten or twelve years bypail, departed from its 
ufual maxims, and has mown a willingnefs to grant augmenta- 
tions, whenever necefiary, wherever there are funds for the 
purpofe. 

The Clergy have not been backward in embracing this fa- 
vourable opportunity ; and it is believed that, immediately, if 
not already, the medium of Scots ftipends will reach to lOcl. 
or 100 guineas, be fides the dwelling-houfc and glebe. 

The livings of the Tweeddale clergy have all received aug- 
mentations, fince this change of maxims •, with exception of 
that of Kirkurd, where the teinds have been all valued in 
money, and are all exhaufted in payment of the prefent fti- 
pend. 

The power of valuing, and for ever fixing the value of his 
teind, at a certain rate, howfoever much the lands may be 
fubfequently improved in value, is a great privilege to the Scots 
landholder. Had it been made a rule (as in the late a£r. for 
commutation of thirlage), that the teind mould always be va- 
lued in an annual payment in grain ; though the fund, out of 
which the Clergy were to obtain their provifion, could not have 
increafed in proportion to the improved production and value 
of the lands ; neither could it have fuffered a diminution in va- 
lue, from the depreciation of money. As, however, there is 
nothing to prevent the valuation from being ciiimatcd in mo- 

O ney, 



08 Agricultural Survey of Feeble sjhire. 

ney, landholders have, by this means, not only obtained the 
juftice of being at full liberty to improve the productive value 
of their lands, in the certainty of reaping to themfelves the 
whole profit of their improvements ; but they have obtained 
an iniquitous advantage, in having a perpetuity fixed in a man- 
ner which renders the bargain of gradually increasing advan- 
tage to them, and of proportionate increafing difadvantage to 
the other party *. The Scots landed proprietor is, at any 
time, entitled to raife a procefs before the Court of Seffion for 
the valuation, and alio, if he choofes, for the fale of his tcind ; 
when, after proof of the free rent of his lands, the tithe is 
eftimated at one fifth part of the proven rental ; and the decer- 
uiture of the Court fixes it for ever at this precife extent, how- 
ever much the lands may afterwards increafe in value. The 
free part of this tithe (that is, what is not already appropriated 
to the clergyman) is payable by the proprietor to the titular of 
the tenuis ; but as it is to the titular a precarious fund, being 
fubjett to the future augmentations of the living of the clergy- 
man of the parifh, the proprietor can compel the titular to fell 
it him, at nine years, or at fix years purchafe, according to dif- 
ferent fpeeialties. When an augmentation of flipend is grant- 
ed, 



* In the cafe of the augmentation of the (Hpend of Lamington, the Court of 
Seffion feenicd to manifeft an intention of redreffing this inequality, arifing from 
the privilege of valuing tithe in money, by finding that fuch a valuation did not 
preclude them from allocating flipend in grain. It would have fulfilled every 
view of equity, had the Court, in allocating grain, efUmated it as exhaufting 
juft as much of the money-teind as would have fufficcd to have purchafed it at 
the date of the valuation. If fuch was ever the maxim, it was not perfevcred in ; 
for, upon a reclaiming petition, though the Court adhered to the maxim of their 
having power to allocate grain where teind had been valued in money ; yet they 
found, that grain, fo allocated, fhould be eftimated as exhaufting the tcind at the 
rate of 15 s. per boll. This procedure feems to be conlidered as a precedent for 
all fimilar cafes : But upon what maxim it may be founded, fuperior to mere fa- 
cility of compromife, it is difficult to guefc. Where mere compromife is allowed 
to take place of general principles, it is very apt to betray us into inconfiftency. 
In the fame fpirit, where grain is allocated upon money-teind, the proprietor may 
rid himfelf of the visual, by making a liirrender of his whole money-teind, if only 
Ix makes his option within the years of prescription. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebksfljire. 99 

ed, the titular of the tenuis of the parifh can allocate to that 
purpofe, in the firft place, the whole free teind of fuch pro- 
prietors as have not purchafed their teind from him : v 
thefe are exhaufted, the remainder of the augmentation falls, 
pari paffuy upon the tithes which have heen purchafed from the 
titular and thofe of his own lands, if he has any withir 
parifh. 

Important as is the privilege of the valuation and purehafe 
of tithes, it >. - : / out much difcern- 

ment of, or , its adv< itagt ices. At the 

Reformation, the patrimony of the Church, \ of the 

church lands, with the tithe of all other lands, was ( 
by the Crown : it was ibon laviihed away upon the favourites 
of the Court, by James the Sixth. Charles the Firft, upon his 
accefiion, amongft other devices for railing money, bethought 
himfelf of recalling the improvident grants made by his father, 
of the property that had belonged to the Crown : and, accord- 
ingly, in the firft year of his reign, he railed a revocation and 
reduction of all thefe grants. The grantees (who, in the cafe 
of tithes, were called titulars of the tithes) being, however, 
found too powerful a body to be rafhly attacked ; and they, on 
the other hand, being appYehenfive that the King might ulti- 
mately fucceed ; the affair ended in a compromife, in which it 
was agreed to fubmit the whole to the Kind's arbitration — 
aflurance having, no doubt, been previcufly obtained, th?r. he 
would not abufe the power thus given him to cut and cane 
for himfelf. Proprietors of land who had obtained none of 
the fpoils of the Church, and had felt no temporal benefit from 
the Reformation, (it being of no moment to them whether 
they paid their tithes to a layman or clergyman, if indeed the 
latter were not more eligible in point of moderate exa&ion), 
were alfo allowed to rfcprefent their claims, in the arbitration, 
in regard to the tithes of their own lands — a meafure probably 
adopted to ftrcngthen the hands of the King- in dealing with 
the titulars. In 1629, the King pronounced his decreet-arbi- 
tral upon the whole matters fubmitted to him : In which he 
fatisfies himfelf with an annuity to be paid him from eacli fpe- 



IGO 



Agricultural Survey of PceblesfJiire. 



ties of tithe — an annuity which has never been collected fmcz 
1674 ; appointing alfo commiflioners to value the tithes, for the 
purpofe of afcertaining his annuity, which was to be a propor- 
tional part ; and fixing a fifth of the free rent as the propor- 
tion which was to be held as tithe : Empowering alfo every 
proprietor of land to compel the titular to accept of the annual 
value fixed, inflead of levying the corpora of tithe ; or to fell 
the tithe altogether, upon the terms already mentioned. Thefe 
decreets of the King were confirmed by the Scots Parliament 
in 1633, and commiflioners were by it appointed for carrying 
them into efFecl : Thefe commiffions were renewed from time 
to time ; and the laft commiffion, before the Union, and con- 
sequent extinction of the Scots Parliament, was granted, as be- 
iore noticed, to the Court of Seflion in 1707. 

Scots landholders feem to have been flow in apprehending 
the value of this privilege conveyed to them. I am affined, 
that few of the more ancient procefles of valuation of tithe feem 
to have been raifed at the inflance of the proprietors ; but at 
that of the commiflioners, for afcertaining the King's annuity ; 
or of the titular, to afcertain the furplus teind he was entitled 
to receive. From the barbarifm of the country, it is likely, 
few proprietors entertained any conception of their rents rifing 
in conference of improvement. 

Conftitutions, apparently opprefiive, are often more fo in 
appearance than in reality ; fuch, in ail probability, is the 
cafe with the tithes in England. To the Scots landholder, 
privileged as he is, it may appear hard, that the tithe of the 
Clergy ihould rife upon him, in confequence of improvements 
made folely at his expence, and to which they have contri- 
buted no fhare. As, however, the clergyman will, doubrlefs, 
in general, find it convenient to live upon good terms with 
parifiiioners, it is prcfumeable that he will ordinarily 
confent to accept of a very eafy compofition. The farmer 
(who, in taking his leafe, muff, no doubt, make allowance for 
the poffible exaction of the whole tithe) will, therefore, always 

I himfelf eafcr, under the moderate compofition of the 
clergyman, than he could have done under the proprietor, 

fuppofing 



Agricultural Survey cf Peeblesjlnre. loi 

fuppofing there was no fuch thing as tithes ; becaufe the latter 
lies under no reftraints of this nature, to prevent him from 
exacting full rent for the whole value of the fubje£t. Thus 
would it feem probable, that tithe fo far operates to the en- 
couragement of the farmer, in preventing him from being dis- 
abled to carry on his improvements by a rent racked to an ex- 
orbitant ftreteh : But the improvements which fuit a farmer, 
upon any proper length of leafe, are of equal importance to 
the increafe of the productive powers of the foil, as thofe 
longer-fighted improvements of more diftant return, that are 
fuited to the more permanent intereft in the fubject, of the 
perpetual proprietor. Without doubt, the clergyman, as well 
as the proprietor, expects to reap where he has not fown ; 
and, upon a renewal of leafe, will lock for a rife ih compo- 
fition, as the other will for a rife of rent, proportioned to the 
increafed value of the fubject ; though improved entirely by 
the proper outlay of the farmer's capital, and though neither 
have contributed one farthing to the improvement. If, how- 
ever, the lands fhall have, meanwhile, been improved in pro- 
ductive value, it muft be a matter of fmall concern to the pub- 
lic, whether he who reaps the immediate benefit mall be a fox- 
hunter or a preacher. Extraordinary things are alone thought 
worth reporting ; and the instances of oppreffion of the farm- 
ers by the Clergy, which reach us in. Scotland, candour muft 
therefore difpofe us to confider as the exceptions from the 
general rule. Such feems to be the favourable view of this 
fubject. But when it is confidered that neither landholder 
nor farmer can, at beft, have any farther fecurity for a favour- 
able compofition obtained, than the uncertain incumbency of 
the compounding clergyman, with the- prefumeable good 
difpofition of his eventual fucceflbr ; the difadvantage to im- 
provement muft ftili appear very confiderable. 

Were an arrangement fettled by law, under wliich the Eng- 
lifh tithe could be impartially valued — without the odium of 
rigorous exaction attaching to the Clergy — ar fame time pre- 
venting the poffibility of fraud arid chicane, doubtlefs pretty 
prevalent at prefent j it cannot admit of queftion, that the re- 
venue 



IC2 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/litre. 

venue of the Clergy would, in the firft inftance, be very great- 
ly augmented *. And it feems to be as little doubtful, that, 
upon fixing the value of the tithe, the rapid progrefs of im- 
provement, on removal of this incumbrance, would foon 
much more than indemnify the expence of the immediate rife 
in the value of the tithe. 

It is prefumeable, that, in the event of the agitation of 
fuch a meafure, Martin will avoid the infatuation of his bro- 
ther Jack ; who, in the intoxication of applaufe for his zeal, 
in tearing, from the coat given by his father, the meretri- 
cious ornaments affumed through evil perfuafion of brother 
Peter, tore fluff and all, to tatters, fo as hardly to leave him- 
felf wherewithal to cover his nakednefs : And, that the equity 
of a Britifh Legiflature will no more confent to give, without 
proper equivalent, the property of the poffeffor of one tenth, 
to the holder of the other nine, than to give the property of 
the holder of nine tenths, gratuitoufly, to him who poffciies 
one. The character of injuftice is invariable, whether prac- 
tifed upon a larger, or a leffer fcale. 

Grain, or lands, conftitute the only permanent values upon 
which to fettle annuities for perpetuity. In the view of pub- 
lic utility, it feems, however, very inexpedient, that the in- 
come of individuals, compofing a corporate body, fhould a- 
rife from lands held in property by the corporation : The ex- 
ifting individuals having but a liferent, or even fhorter inte- 
reft in the fubjec~b, no improvement of it is to be expected 
from them, but fuch trifling ones as coft little expence, and 
immediately repay ; none of thofe moft important ameliora- 
tions, of expenfive outlay, and of diltant return, which fuit 
thofe alone, v.hofe property is exclufively perfmal, alienable, and 
tranfmijfibic. 

* I underftand, that, in fcveral of the reports of Englilh counties, this augmen- 
i nf the tithe is flatcd as the great objection againft a commutation ; it muft 
certainly, then, be wry laxly exacted. Perhaps thofe who arc mofl clamorous far 
a commutation, flatter themfclvcs with the profjxct of an unfair valuation. 

T.1DLE, 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfoire. 



103 



TABLE, SHEMTNG THE PROVISION OF TWLEDDALE CLERGY. 

The victual part of the (Upend, generally one half oatmeal, 
and the other, beer in grain, is here converted at the rate of 15s. 
per boll. The glebes are valued at il. per acre, Scots •, that of 
Peebles at 2I. Excepting where they can, without inconveni- 
ence, be kept in grafs, the poiTeffion of a glebe may, however, 
be confidered as conftituting an article of cxpence, rather than 
of profit, to the clergyman : as, when kept under tillage, a 
preparation for labour mult be maintained in readinefs, of 
which the return of produce from fuch a fmall poiTeffion can- 
not defray the expence. The money ftipend includes from 
3I. to 5I. allowed the minifter for the expence of adminiftering 
the facrament of the Lord's flipper, called communion elements. 
No valuation is put upon the minifier's manfe or dwellinghoufe. 



PARISHES. 


PATRONS. 


PROVISION OF 


THE CLERGY. 




Money 

Stipend. 


Bolls of 
J' i,f tat. 


Acrei Scots 

in Glebe. 


Whole Value 
of lAvnrr. 


Linton 


D- of Queen flvrry 


L. s. 
56 13 


d. 

4 


no 


l%k 


L. s. 

152 13 


d. 

4 


X'ewlands 


Do. 


64 


8 


96 


16 


148 





Lyne & Megget 


Do 


104 3 


O 


— 


14 


121 3 


4 


Brouchton 


Do. 


| 56 


4* 


2 2 


114 





Glenholm 


Do 


I 46 13 


A 


96 


9 


i*7 '3 


4 


rwe'edfmuir 


Do. 


I 15 





A H 


10 


121 O 





Drummelzier 


Do. 


| 74 - 





74 


10 


139 12 





Mar nor 


Do. 


1 QI 10 


ie 


" 


»4 


115 16 


10 


Peebles 


Do. 


| too O 





64 


6 


j 60 


c 


i ave 1 lei tli an 


Do. 


| JO 18 


6 


6j* 


to 


130 1 


c 


Kirkurd 


Mr Carmichael 


| 70 O 





- 


19 


89 





Skirling 


I)n. 


1 CO tl 


c 


Ho 


8 


j i i 1 





Kilbucho 


Col. Di i 1 n 


j r<r 





80 


ii 


1 16 





Eddleftone 


Lord Eitibank 


| 68 17 





80 


iS 







Traquair 


J he Ci 


I 58 16 





88 


11 i- 


6 





Stobo 


.Sir |a. Montgomery 


| 68 c 


& 


64 


VI 


137 





Total 


• 


jixio 11 


1 


9934 


230 


jooo 13 


•o 



Several of the Duke of Queenfberry's patronages arc fold. 
The parifhes of Glenholm, Kilbucho, and Broughton, are an- 
nexed together, as the mctwabencies hall ceafe. 

Sect. 



104 Agricultural Survey of Pechleylnre. 

Sect. IV. — Poor's Rates. 
(5«Chap. XV. Sect. VII.) 

Sect. V. — Leafes. 

Some political writers have afcribed the early and flourifh- 
ing (late of farming, in England, to the wide diffufion of the 
right of franchife ; which, by creating a mutual dependence of 
intereft betwixt the landed proprietor and the farmer, caufes 
th^ intereft of the latter to be more attended to •, rendering the 
fecurity of a leafe of the lefs importance. Whether this 
feeming advantage may not be counterbalanced by other difad- 
vantages, appears to be very queftionable *. As the Scots farm- 
er poffeffes no tie of this nature, his foie fecurity of tenure, 
to excite his induftry, muft be founded in the legal or con* 
ventional obligations of his leafe •, which renders the leafe of 
fuch importance in Scotland, that its proper, or improper con- 
flruction may be well confidered as the primary fource of good 
or bad hufbandry. 

More general obfervations upon this fubject, I have refer- 
ed to note D at the end of the Report. In this place, I (hall 
confine myfelf to the ftatement of the different effect of 
leafes, in this county, as ftimulants to the tenant's induftry, 
in rcfpecl of their duraUon y as experienced in fa 61. 

We poflefs, indeed, in this county, no very extenfive range 
of experience, as to the comparative effect of leafes of differ- 
ent endurance, in exciting the occupying tenant to improve- 
ments of permanent duration, and of expenfive execution ; 
though, from a lingular occurrence of circumftances, our ex- 
perience is probably more enlarged than that of many other 
counties. 

No very permanent or expenfive improvements, have ever, 
with us, been made, upon the fliort fecurity of the leafe for 
nineteen years. One farmer, upon the farm of Stevenfton, in 
Newlands parifh, under this fecurity, planted about two acres 

of 



See Note E, at ibe end of the Report. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 1 05 

of firs, as a foil, or fhelter, for his fheep ; which continues 
to be of very great advantage to the fucceeding tenants of the 
farm. The moft confulerable exertion ever yet made, upon fuch 
fhort fecurity of pofleflion, is that of Mr Scot, a farmer upon 
the eftate of Traqua.il : He has cut ofFfrom his (beep hill paf- 
ture, by a head-dyke of (tone, better than feventy Scots acres of 
land, fit for tillage, at his own charges ; and has reduced the 
whole into an high Hate of cultivation, by the turnip and 
fown grafs hufbandry, after clearing it of ftones, at very con- 
fiderable expence. The example, however, of this tenant, 
cannot be interpreted into a precedent, for expectation of what 
may be effected upon the fecurity of tacks of fo fhort endur- 
ance ; becaufe his fituation is, in fome refpecls, fingular — he 
is the^fr/?, in that quarter, who has difplayed fuch fpirited 
exertion, and may, of courfe, have received fome few favours, 
to which he is fo well entitled ; and may have entertained, not 
unreafonably, a reliance for a preference, againft the next 
letting of the lands. 

But the greatefl exertions, out of all comparifon, that have 
ever yet been excited among the Tweeddale tenantry, are 
thofe that have enfued upon the fecurity of the fifty-feven 
years leafes granted upon the lordfhip of Neidpath, about the 
year 1788 *. Although the tenants were obliged to advance 

fines 

* This eftate is under flrid entail ; and as it does not remain in the prefent 
poiTeflbr's family, he has no farther intereft in the fubjed, than to draw from it 
all the money it can yield him. The late leafes were offered, at the then prefent 
rents, for fifty-feven years; upon condition of paying agrajfum, or fine, at entry, 
proportionate to the advance rent that might otherwife have been expefte.i. 
The tenants confulted Counfcl, as to the powers allowed by the entail ; when it 
was found, that it contained no claufe directly reftrictive of the duration of the 
leafes that might be granted ; though there was a later claufe referring to a re- 
ftricYing one, which might thence be inferred to haie been intended, though 
omitted ; but nothing to indicate the extent of the reftriftion fecmingly intended. 
The tenants accepted the leafes, upon the opinion given them, that entails were, 
in their interpretation, Jlrifiijfimi juris, in which nothing could be inferred by im- 
plication beyond what was directly expreilid. 

The late decifion of the Houfe of Peers, in the cafe of Tillicoultry, in which 
:t was found, that the heir of entail in pofleffion was not debarred from even the ab- 

P fate* 



Io5 Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJlAre. 

fines at entry, (here defigned grajptms), which, by curtailing 
the tenant's (lock, difabled him, fo far, from carrying on im- 
provement ; yet (as credit could eafdy be obtained, where 
needed, upon fecurity of leafes of fuch long endurance j dif- 
encumbered, as they were, from their very length, from all the 
abfurd embargoes upon agricultural credit, originating in the 
deprivation of the power of alienating the leafe, which is ef- 
fential to the Gothic right of dcleElus perfona, fuppofed inhe- 
rent in every proprietor of land), a fpirited ftyle of improve- 
ment immediately commenced ; which, for expence of outlay, 
and diftant profpe£t of return, were (according to any ideas 
we had been accuftomed to conceive) fuited only to perpetual 
proprietors of land ; and not at all to be expected from tem- 
porary poffeffors upon expireable tenures. 

Almoft all of them have already built to themfelves, at their 
own expence, commodious dwellinghoufes, moflly of two (lo- 
ries, and covered with flate ; and alfo farm offices, in feveral 
inftances, of extenfive range, and including thrashing machines, 
and covered in the fame manner, Plantations of wood have been 
made, as fhelters for the fheep. Mr Murray, in Newlands pa- 
rifh, has, for this purpofe, inclofed and planted from eight to 
ten acres upon his farms. 

Moft fubftantial improvements have been alfo executed up- 
on the arable part of the farms of this efiate. Mr Symington, 
in Peebles parifh, has cut off from his fheep hill pafture, on 
the farm of Edftone, by a head-dike of ftone, upwards of an 
hundred Scots acres of arable land ; which he is fubenclofing 
into feparate fields, as each portion fhall, by culture, be brought 
into a flate worth feparate enclofure. Mr Gray, upon his farm 
of Lyne, in the parifh of that name, has completely fallowed, 

cleared 



folate alienation of that eftate, merely becaufe the reftriction againft alienation was 
not duly infected in the refolutive claufe of the entail, (although directly exprefled 
in the prohibitory and irritant clanfes of that deed), would certainly fcem, a for- 
tiori, to render the fecurity of thefe long leafes. unqueftionable. The hardlhip of 
entails is thus redrefled in particular inftances, by refilling them legal fupport, upon 
any fpecious pretext. A general law would prevent the expence of particular ap- 
plications! 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhire. *©7 

o 

cleared of (tones, and fubftantially enclofed, in feparate divi- 
fions, by ftone dikes, five diitina fields, confiding of about 
fifteen Scots acres each-, to be kept in conftant rotation of til- 
lage under a courfe of five ftufts, viz. turnip fallow, barley 
with grafs, hay, oats, peas j thus enabling himfelf to render 
his (beep and arable farming mutually fubfervient, by fattening 
off his caft breeding ftock upon the turnip, to the great en- 
richment of the foil; or to connect the dairy to his fheep 
farming, from the abundant green feeding to his cows, of clo- 
ver cut green in Summer, and of turnip in Winter *. Mr 
Alexander, another farmer upon this eftate (already men- 
tioned in the note, page 94.) in the farm of Eafter Happrew, 
parifti of Stobo, befides building a flared dwellinghoufe of two 
itories, with a convenient court of farm offices, all hkewife 
flated; had, fo early as 1796, inclofed and fubdivided with 
with ftone dikes, and brought into high cultivation (many 
acres having colt at the rate of 3 cs. per acre for clearing a- 
way (tones, befides thofe ufed for building) no lefs than one 
hundred and twenty acres of arable land ; an exertion, at leaft, 
equal, if not greatly fuperior, to any that has ever yet been 
made, in this county, on any one farm, in the fame fpace of 
time, by either farmer or proprietor : This was part of his 
fcheme, fince followed out, of inclofing one hundred and fifty 
Scots acres, fubdivided into ten feparate inclofures of fifteen 
acres apiece, intended to be kept under a conftant rotation of 
tillage, which admitted of recurving intervals of paiture f. 
b From 



* Mr Gray's land, which he intended to inclofe, being encumbered with earth- 
faft (tones, he, at firft going over, gave every field a complete bare fallow with, 

lime, without any green crop; that, by repeated crofs-ploughings, he might be 
enabled to difcover every ftone which obftrurted ploughing : thefe were blown to 
pieces by gunpowder. The enclonng went on at fame time with the tallow- 
ing ; the ftones, with which the land abounds, being ufed as part of the ma- 
terials of the ftone dikes. His farm containing much low land, he finds profit 
in buying in (heep to cat his turnip crop, rather than in fattening his own oft- 
caft breeding ewes; which are kept on, through Winter, and fold, great with 

lamb, in the Spring. . 

f The farm of Fl after Happrew was a breeding fheep farm, of middling ex- 
tent in refpeft to the number of (beep kept upon it ; but containing, in its lower 

' part;, 



108 Agricultural Survey cf Peebles/hire. 

From the ceconomy necefTary to fuch extenfive undertakings, 
the ftones ufed in enclofing were chiefly gathered from the 
land ; which, being rounded in courfe of repeated friclion by 
the plough, ftand not fo firm in building, and occafion need of 
more frequent repair. Thofe, however, who take a view of 
the many flimfy attempts at enclofure, by hedge and ditch, 
through the county, will not be much difpofed to difapprove 
of the (tone dikes upon Eafler Happrew. Our propenhties, in 
Scotland, feem to lead us to extravagance in the expence of 

means, 



parts, a great extent of fiat land, and land of fuch gentle acclivity, as is eafily 
cultiVateable by the plouch. 

Before Mr Alexander's occupancy of this farm, it was managed in the ufual 
ft) le, already pointed out in defcribing the mode of occupation in Jkeep farms. 

Encouraged by his fuperior length of leafe, Mr Alexander immediately faw 
the advantage of launching into a fcheme of farming, inferring more extenfive 
outlay of capital, and a more dilrant period cf return, than what was any way 
fuited to the intereft of a farmer, upon the tranfitory fecurity of a nineteen years 
leafe; and which, of courfe, was unprecedented in the accullomed practice, form- 
ed in conibnar.ee to the views fuited to this most, but ufual, tenure of the farmer's 
pofTeffion. 

He determined upon a fyfiem that fhould make his fheep and arable farming 
mutually fubfervient to taeli other; and which, properly to accooaplifb this ob- 
ject, inferred an extenfive enclofure of rhe arable part of the farm. 

His 01 i^ir.^1 fcheme was, to fatten all the fheep reared upon his farm, by die 
means of improved pafturc or turnip feeding, upon the low arable parts of the- 
farm ; inficad of difpoling of them, as they were formerly wont to be difpofed 
of, for holding flock : In fhoit, to feed all that he reared upon the farm, and 
to rear all that he fed, whether (hcep or black cattle. In this way, his hili fheep 
were to be brought to that fuperior »alu< they woald poflefs, when difpoi 
fat inftead of lean ; while, at fame time, his low land would receive the advan- 
tage of the dung, urine, and paddling of his flieep fed upon the turnip : 
together with that of the nightly folding upon contiguous fields (to which they 
could be carried from, and from which they could be remitted to their p; 

little interruption) of his ewes and lambs feeding, through Summer, upon 

! paflure parks. A nninber of bullocks were alfo to be annually bred, 

in order that the cafr, of proper age, mighl l"- houfc-fed with turnip; whil 

v nngcr fhovild conuroie ftraw and turnip (haws in a flraw court ; that their dung, 

h the oilier hoofed labouring or milking tattle, might he 

: to that enclofure, on the low Ian I, vl ich fell to be under turnip crop, it: 

the courfe of the rotation. 

i 



Agricultural Survey cf Pcehlesfo'ire. I0£ 

means, difproportionate to the ultimate profit to be obtained : 
Witnefs the canal, made previous to the trade, betwixt the 
Friths of Forth and Clyde, upon a fcale that "has admitted of 
the paflage, without unloading, of a fbip direct from Sweden; 
which, for many years, yielded i per cent, to the fubfcribers, 
and was at laft finiftied by aid from Government. Inclofure 

is 

The rotation propofed, was that of ten fhifts, correfponding to the number of 
the inclofures, viz. lit, turnip with dung; 2d, barley (or oats on the wiUefl 
ground), fown down with grafs feeds; jd, hay; 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, pafture; 
8th, oats; 9th, peas; loth, oats; or (if it fhould be found more eligible), after 
the hay, to have the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, pafture; the IOtb, oats; when 
t lie rotation re-commence?. A fcheme, too, was laid down for bringing into culture, 
fuch parts of unenclofed arable outfield, contiguous to the enclofure, as lay on 
fuch fieeper declivity as made it inconvenient to carry dung to it iu carts ; and, 
this was by folding upon it, with the fheep feeding in the enclofures : The land 
to be fo folded, is ploughed the year before folding ; and, early in Spring, is crofs- 
ploughed, and reduced by the break-harrow, then ploughed again, and fmoothed with 
the common harrow ; a broad border all around being referved unploughed, to afford 
fod for building the fold dike : After being dunged by the folded fheep, it receives 
a fourth ploughing, when it is fit to be ridged for fowing drilled turnip. Mr A- 
lcxander informs me, he divides this fold into three clidinc! parts, by dike or 
wooden flakes ; the two firft parts arc teathed, in time to produce the one very 
good, and the other middling turnip ; the lad is too late of teathing to be fown 
for turnip, but in fine preparation to be fown out, the fucceeding feafbn, with 
oats and graff.'s, along with the two parts which carried the turnip : If he can 
get it accomplifhed, thefe folds are limed either before the admiffion of the fheep, 
or the fowing of the turnip, or the lowing orF in grafs : and the fame general 
principles of rotation are adopted in thefe lands, as in the enclofed land. 

When Mr Alexander commencrd praclifmg upon thisfyftem, he brought down 
annually a certain portion of his hill ewes with lamb, and fattened both lamb 
and dam upon the artificial pafture of the enclofures; teathing fome of the out- 
field as above ; or (when lie began enclofing) teathing what was to be next enclofed, 
(which, in part, was but out field), by folding them upon it. A fpring crop of late 
fown turnip upon part of this teathed land, put it in his power to have the next 
year's portion of ewes for fattening earlier tupped ; as, from thefe fpring turnip, 
they had food to bring them in milk, before the fpringing of the grafs ; one im- 
provement in agriculture thus always facilitating the fucceedins ones. Whilft he 
continued to feed his own hili fheep, he kept always the lambs of his very young- 
cfi ewes for breeding Hock ; as the older, hcinp I i tl - and paving more milk, 
fid both themfelvcs and their lambs belter, undei confinement of enclofure; it is 
unufual to retain the lambs cf youngeft ewes For breeding flock, becaufe their 

lambs 



1 1 o Agricultural Survey of Peeblesflnre. 

is but the mean to impart command of the foil for converfion 
to agricultural improvements : If the expence of the execution 
of the mean {hall deprive us of the power of accomplifhing the 
end, our county proverbial ftory will become applicable ; — of the 
boy ivho had got a peuuy t and laid it all out in the purchafe of a 
purfe to keep it in. 

Such, then, are the exertions which, in this county, have 
been excited, upon the fecurity of the fifty-feven years leafes. 
From the agricultural report of Berwickfhire, it would appear, 
that this pattern county of Scotland has alfo owed its fuperior 
improvement chiefly to the flrenuous and ceconomical exertions 
of the tenantry, under the excitement of the fecurity of leafes 
of long endurance. 

In fo far as I can obtain information, we have had no expe- 
rience in this county, of the effect of the thirty years leafes, 

which, 



lambs are always of lefs fize ; but Mr Alexander perfuaded himfclf, from anato- 
mical reafons, as well as from analogy to what takes place in the human fpecies, 
and other animals, that, though the firft-born of the mother is the lead, as an in- 
fant, this prevents it not, at mature age, from attaining to the nfual fize of the 
animal of that fpecies. 

Such are the general outlines of Mr Alexander's practice. He writes me, 
that, of late, he has altered, in fome refpetts, his original fyftem. His rearing 
bullocks, being kept on improved pafture in Summer, did not Winter fo well 
mon ftraw as thofe from coarfer Summer pafture ; he therefore now buys in win- 
terers to carry on to, or half fed beads, for immediate Winter houfe-feeding upon 
turnip. He fays he has alfo begun, fo far, to alter his fyftem as to fheep : He 
retains his former black-faced breed for his hills., but is getting a finer wooled kind 
for his low improved pafture ; and thefe two breeds he keeps perfectly diftinct : 
The kind he has chofen for his low pafture, is a mixture of the Mugg with the 
Bakewell, which he looks upon as the handfomeft fheep of any he has feen intro- 
duced into the country; the experiment is, however, but newly begun. The 
quantity of land annually teathed by 300 ewes with their lambs, paftmed in the 
enclofures on improved pafture, and folded on the outfields, as above explained, 
was eight acres ; and the profit of their dung, eftimated from the crops it enabled 
him to procure, in a fituution where no dung could otherwife be procured, he efti- 
iintcs at the rate of as. annually from each fheep. 

A ten courfc rotation of this kind, upon land, too, of which a great part had 
to be brought from a ftate of nature, at a great expence ; together with cnclofing, 
entirely at the farmer's expence; all this cpnftitutes a fcheme of farming which 
Mr Alexander thinks he could not have adopted, confidently with his iutcrcfl, 
upon a leafc of (horter endurance than the three nineteen years. 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlnre. in 

which, by act of Parliament, ioth of his prefent Majefty, pro- 
prietors of entailed eftates are empowered to grant, upon con- 
dition of the total enclofure of the farm on the part of the te- 
nant. In many inftances, the fee-fimple of the farm might 
not defray the expence of the enclofing ; or the expence might 
be altogether difproportionate to fuch additional benefit as is 
reaped through means of enclofure ; or enclofure (as in Carfe 
lands, where there is no pafturing of cattle) might be of pre- 
judice ; or univerfal enclofure might be ufelefs, though par- 
tial enclofure might be highly advantageous. In the aft, no 
modification is allowed, any way equal to the variety of 
differences that may occur; which, indeed, it is impofliblc 
to forefee, and provide for ; and, for which, a proper mo- 
dification of the general principle could alone be fettled, 
with propriety, by a Jury upon each particular cafe. Tenants, 
in moft cafes, it is faid, prefer a nineteen years leafe, with its 
ufual legal privileges, upon entailed eftates; rather than fub- 
jett themfelves to the legal preftations, fo often inexpedient, 
which they would be fubjected to, upon embracing the advan- 
tageous duration of leafe held out to them by this a£t. After 
fome inquiry among men of bufinefs, I have heard of few in- 
ftances of leafes taking the benefit of this ftatutory latitude. 
The bill, I have underftood, met with fuch clamorous oppofi- 
tion from eventual expectants upon entails, that its fupportevs 
were obliged to compromiie the matter ; and to content them- 
felves with what they could obtain, fince they could not obtain 
all they could have wifhed. If it is thought expedient, that, in 
this inftance, public utility fhculd interfere in counteracting the 
cramping influence upon improvement, produced through the 
policy of entail, it would feem that this a£t would need to un- 
dergo a revifion ; elfe it mult continue, as it hath hitherto re- 
mained, in a great meafure nugatory; 

In a country already improved, where the tenant enters 
upon immediate advantages, without neceflity of great advance 
of capital ; leafes may, with lefs inconvenience, be of fhorter 
duration : But in a county like Tweeddale — where fo little, till 
of late, ha tli been done — where fo very much remains to be 



112 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

done, to carry improvement to its attainable height ; particu- 
larly in rendering fheep and arable farming mutually fubfer- 
vient, by means of fubftantial enclofure, as well as of furfacc 
culture ; long leafes feem indifpenfable. Fifty-feven years may 
probably be more than neceffary, though thirty might not be 
fufficient ; unlefs, indeed, we were to fuppofe fuch permanent 
improvements to be univerfally executed by the pi-opvictors j 
which few of them could attempt, without borrowing money, 
which they would fcruple to riik ; and none could execute, 
but at almoft double expence at which they could be executed 
by tenants having fufficient intereft in the execution. 

Sect. VI. — Expence and Profit. 

It hath often been obferved, that agricultural calculations 
are extremely fallacious. In regard to moft of them, the pre- 
fumption is, that the refult is the firft thing determined, and 
that the data of the calculation are then fabricated to give that 
refult : The variations in the extent of crop, according to 
difference of feafons, with the variations in price both of corn 
and cattle, from the varying rate of markets, allow of great 
latitude of afiumption as to the data ; without incurring dan- 
ger of offence to probability : Befides, without any direct: in- 
tention to deceive, farmers are apt to be betrayed into extenua- 
tion of their profits, from anxiety to conceal them ; whilft pro- 
jectors, for the credit of their fchemes, and proprietors, in- 
dulging flattering imaginations of the value of their lands, are 
milled into exaggeration ; even the reporter of a county, 
through a confined fort of patriotifm, is tempted to give im- 
portance to the place of his nativity, by magnifying the value 
of its produce. Poffeffmg, myfelf, fmall knowledge of fuch de- 
tails, and aware of fuch multitudinous caufes of deception ; I 
have judged it unneceflary, either to fabricate detailed ftate- 
ments myfelf, or to procure fuch fabrications from other hands; 
in the conviction, that, notwithftanding the appearance of ac- 
curacy which they exhibit, nothing certain is to be learned 

from them. 

If 



Agricultural Survey of PceblesJIAre. 1 1 3 

If any one choofes to make calculations of the value of the 
produce of fheep farms, in order to afcertain what rent they 
may afford ; the data of fuch calculations are laid before him, in 
the tables already given, of the produce, and application of the 
produce, of fheep, in fheep farms, of different descriptions^ 
And if he confiders the rates of price, as they exifted at the 
end of the American war, whofe effett feemed to be the depre- 
ciation of every article of farm produce \ or as they exifted 
during this war, which feemed as much to augment their va- 
lue — if, in particular, he attends to the extravagant enhance- 
ment of die price of fheep in the feafons 1801-2,, apparently oc- 
cafioned by the diminution of the breed of black cattle, through 
hunger or the butcher, in confequence of the extreme dearth 
of fodder of crops 1799 and 1800 \ he will then find a latitude 
of fuppofition in refpect of prices, to the extent of difference 
of more than two to one. For example, he may ftate the price 
of the wedder hogs of Table I. at any price, from 7s. to 15s. 
apiece ; the caft-off breeding ewes, if fold to the butcher, or 
for farther feeding, at Martinmas, from 6s. 8d. to 16s. ; or, if 
kept through Winter, and fold heavy with lamb to the grazier, 
from 8s. to il. 4s., the wool from 2s. 6d. to ros. per ftone. 
The price of wedder lambs in Table IL might, in fame way, 
be ilated at from 3s. 6d. to 8s. ; the ewe lambs, from 3s. to 
7s. ; the caft-off breeders, and the wool, at the fame prices as 
in Table I. In Table IIL the fat lambs, from 4s. 6d. to 10s. ; 
the caft-off breeders, at Martinmas, from 8s. to 1 8s. ; wool, 
from 4s. 6d. to 12s. 

Having, from fuch data of what has been, ascertained what 
will be the probable price of the produce of the farm during 
the currency of the propofed leafe ; our calculator's next bu- 
fmefs will be, to ftate the charged that fall againft the produces 
and thefe are, the intcrdt of the capital advanced by the farmer, 
the guv-rent expences of management, together with that remu- 
neration to the farmer, above the mere interelt of his capital] 
which may induce him to take the trouble ot managing its ap- 
1 himfelf, rather than lend k . \ si who would 



1 14 Agricultural Survey of Feeble sjlnre. 

pay him intereft for it, without putting him to any manner of 
trouble. 

The capital advanced, in all breeding farms, is the purchafe- 
priee of the breeding flock, at Whitiunday, the common and 
proper term of entry to the farm. As the bringing of ftrange 
iheep into a farm, particularly from better and more fneltered 
paflure, to what is poorer and more expofed, is ever attended 
with rifk : As even, in many farms, ftrangers are apt to take 
difeafes which are not incident to the natives : As, in every de- 
fcription of farm, fheep, habituated to the ground and its 
boundaries, are eafily kept upon it, without need of much mo- 
leflation from the fhepherd's dog — a circumflance which, for 
the firft year, will make the farm fuflice to graze a considerably 
greater number of fheep that have been bred upon it, than of 
ftrangers brought from another farm : For thefe different rea- 
fons, the intrant tenant is willing to pay at the rate of ten or 
twelve per cent, more of price for the holding flock of breeders 
upon the farm, than any other defcription of purchafer could 
afford. The intrant tenant would be willing to give that price 
for the whole flock of breeding ewes (excluding merely the 
hogs retained to fupply the flock), which a grazier could afford 
for the ewes of full growth, and in full vigour ; that is, for the 
flock, exclufive of the hogs, the gimmers, and the crocks. 
Thus, the flock of farms (Tables I. & II.) might be eflimated, 
with the latitude already noticed, at from about 9s. 6d. to 
il. 8s. apiece; and the hogs retained for keeping up the flock, 
from 8s. to 17s. The flock ewes of Table III. at from us. to 
30s. •, and die hogs, generally bought in as lambs upon fuch 
farms, at the fame price as thofe of Tables I. & II. In Table I. 
the flaple difpofeable produce being hogs, and the time of mar- 
keting them being the beginning of July, the outgoing tenant 
muff make bargain with the intrant, to allow them to remain 
upon the farm from Whitfunday, the term of entry, to July ; 
or the intrant muft purchafe them at a price fomewhat infe- 
rior (fay by from 6d. to is.) per head cheaper, than what may 
be fuppofed will be the market price at the marketing feafon. 
In regard to all thefe farms in the Tables, as die bargain for the 

ftock 



Agricultural Survey of Peellesjl/ire. 1 1 5 

{lock is generally made fome months previous to "Whitfunday, 
the ewes are all fold under infurance of their being pregnant, 
and a fmall deduction of price is allowed in every inilance that 
mall afterwards occur of mifs of lamb. The deduction for mifs 
of lamb is not, however, confiderable ; becaufe the price fetch- 
ed by a barren (or yeald) ewe at Martinmas, will, from her iu- 
perior fattening, prove little inferior to what is fetched, upon 
the whole, from both a dam and her lamb for the fealbn ; the 
dam fattening lefs, from the exhauftion of fuckling her lamb. 
If there is no arable land upon the farm, family maintenance 
ought to be fhted to capital advanced, for the period interven- 
ing betwixt the term of entry and the commencement of the 
fales from the farms, as marked in the tables •, as alio, meal 
for the herdfmen, the reft of their fee being paid in the privi- 
lege of grazing a certain quantity of fheep along with the 
mafter's. If there is arable land attached to the farm, a fepa- 
rate account may be opened for it ; the family maintenance 
may be charged againfl it ; and will accordingly fall to be ftated 
to account of capital advanced for one year and an half, or till 
the fecond Martinmas after entry to the farm, when the in- 
trant reaps his crop. 

The current charges to be ftated againft the annual returns, 
where there is no arable land, are, maintenance for die farmer's 
family ; meal, at the rate of 6\ bolls of oat meal per annum to 
each, for his herdfmen, the reft of their maintenance being 
compenfated by privilege of grazing a cow, and her Winter's 
fodder, from coarfe natural hay of the farm j amount of falv- 
ing (or fmearing) with tar and butter, at the expence of about 
4d. each ; the expence of feeding the fheep, when neceftary, 
in fnow ftorms, at die rate of about i~ pound Englifh weight 
to each fheep through the 24 hours ; marketing expences, and 
allowance for incidents. 

After deducting thefe current charges, together with double 
intereft for the capital advanced, to compenfate the tenant's 
perfonal trouble for employing it himfelf, inftead of lending 
it out at intereft, with an allowance for tear and wear, and 

fur 



1 1 6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

for infurance, the remainder of the produce mould go for 
rent. 

The herdfmen, as obferved, are allowed, in general, to graze 
fo many fheep along with the matter's, in lieu of money-wage ; 
thus fecuring their diligence, by giving them a common interefl 
in the concern, as copartners ; though, in this way, there is a 
temptation to make all the incidents of mifs, or death of lambs, 
fall to the fhare of the mafter. The common extent of this al- 
lowance is, upon farms of the description of Tables I. & II., 
the grazing of from 45 to 50, including the hogs retained for 
keeping up the herdfmens flock ; and in the defcription of 
Table III. from 30 to 35, hogs alfo included. The Tables 
{how the flock kept by the mafter. 

The proportion of produce from the fheep, to that from the 
arable lands attached to the fheep farms, varies in every farm. 
In the greater part of Tweeddale fheep farms, the produce of 
the arable part, is accounted little enough to be allowed for 
family and herds maintenance, or a few more of the current 
charges •, and the rent is expected to be paid folely from the 
produce of the fheep. 



CHAP, 



Agricultural Survey of PeellesJIrire. J 1 J 



CHAP. V. 



IMPLEMENTS, 



Our improved implements being all derived from more ear* 
ly improved counties, in the furveys of which they are defcrib- 
ed, it would be fuperfluous to enter into minute defcriptions of 
them in a report of Tweeddale. 

Ploughs, ufed for land eaiily tilled, are, within thefe few 
years, almoit all of the conftruction introduced by Small, with 
knee'd coulter, and curved mouldboard, fuch as is recommended 
by Dalkeith Farmers Society, and double muzzle, to temper 
the direction, and regulate both the breadth and depth of the 
furrow-flice. The Scoti/h 'plough, of a light conftruction, is . 
preferred for lands abounding in {tones ^ its fuperior length of 
head, rendering it lefs liable to be joilled from its direction. 
This fame plough, of ftrong and weighty conffru£tion, is alio 
preferred for tearing up coarfe lands from a ltate of nature, 
when covered with heath, bent, whins or fprots ; in which 
cafe, oxen are commonly conjoined, in the draught, to hor- 
fes. The Scotifh plough, with mouldboard of ftraight deal, may 
probably anfwer nearly as well as any other, in land which is 
covered with firm fward, and where the furrow-flice turns over 
continuous, and without crumbling to pieces ; but, in finely 
pulverized foil, it can hardly be expected to effect more thaji 
merely pufhing the earth to one fide : In fuch foils, the curva- 
ture of Small's plough, continued from the very point of tho 
foci; to the extremity of the mouldboard, {cc.v\s indifpenfab 
:. : the plough carry on the fourfold operation of mid 

the 



1 1 8 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

the furrow-flice, rai/ing it up clean, removing it to one fide, 
and reverfing it, to expofe a new furface to the air. 

Cleaning ploughs, of various conftru£tions, are ufed for 
drefiing drilled crops, on green crop fallow j fuch as, the one 
with double mouldboard, for fetting up the earth to the drills. 
Very commonly, both procefTes, of paring earth from, and 
fetting it up to, the drills, are performed with a fingle mould- 
boarded plough j no doubt, with considerable lofs of time in 
the latter procefs. "We have a paring plough, of very light 
conftru&ion, Math a right-hand mouldboard fixed, and a left- 
hand one, which can be taken away at pleafure ; which laft 
one is alfo provided with a regulator, to fet it at a greater or 
lefs width, when the plough is ufed as a double mouldboarded 
plough. Two inltruments, for reverfe purpofes, are, thus, ce- 
oonomically comprehended in one, though the latter purpofe, 
may be a little more imperfectly performed. We have feen, in 
the neighbourhood, a double plough, with two diftin6t coulters 
and focks and mouldboards, (the two mouldboards placed, the 
one on the right-hand plough, upon its left fide •, the other, 
on the left-hand plough, upon its right fide — fo as to turn their 
furrows againft one another, into the interval betv/ixt the two 
ploughs.) It goes in the interval betwixt two ridges, and 
mull evidently appear a very imperfect inftrument, liable to be 
impeded by a very fmall (lone or clod [ticking betwixt the 
mouldboards, at the hindermoft ends, where they mull necef- 
farily approach very near to each other. We have heard, but 
have no experience, of another kind of double plough, which 
goes along a fingle ridge, paring both its fides at once, and 
throwing the earth oiF to right and left, the crop upon the 
middle of the ridge efcaping in the interval betwixt the two 
ploughs. A defcription, with a figure of this plough, is given 
in the Scotifh Farmer's Magazine, No. IV. — (a work which 
fcems to be ably conducted ; promifing to be of great ufe in 
di Geminating the knowledge of practical agriculture, particular- 
ly as, I am informed, its extent of circulation has already far 
exceeded the hopes of its molt fanguine fupporters.) A new mode 
of paring the drills of turnip fields with a fingle mouldboarded 

plough, 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. Up 

plough, lately fallen upon by Mr James M'Dougal at Linton, 
formerly mentioned, may probably fupcrfede, as to that fallow 
crop, the ufe of both thefe kinds of double ploughs. He pares 
only one fide of the ric'.ge, going as near as may be to the 
plants with the plough, and throwing the furrow-fiice (over- 
lapping and overwhelming the untouched weeds) clofe to the 
foot of the plants upon the ridge en the right hand. The ope- 
ration is reverfod, at next going over the field. The inconve- 
nience of obfhuction incident to the firft mentioned double 
plough, cannot here occur •, and the inconvenience of paring 
both, fides of a ridge at once, arifing from too much expoiure 
to drought, is alfo equally avoided ; while, at fame time, this 
half-paring fufiices equally well, and, in fome refpecls, better 
than the whole paring, in equal time, performed by the double 
plough. Sir George Montgomery of Magbiehill, (who is cu- 
rious in agricultural inftruments), has introduced a paring 
plough, upon the principle of the Dutch hoe, which, at one o- 
peration, cuts the weeds in the bottom of the furrow betwixt 
two ridges, paring or fcraping alfo the fides of both. * 

A draining plough , of his own invention, has been fuccefs- 
fully ufed by Mr Sanderfon upon his fmall fheep farm, which 
he rents near the village of Linton. It is drawn by fix horfes ; 
and, by means of one couker descending to the left from the 
beam, and of another coulter (or wing, like the cutting wing 
of a peat fpade) rifing up to the right from the fock, it cuts, and 
clears out, at once, a drain of two feet by eighteen inches. It 
might be of great ufe in many fheep farms, in draining foft boggy 
lands, where its operation would not be obftrucled by ftones. 
The miner, a kind of draining plough, has, very lately, been 
introduced by Sir George Montgomery. It hath a very ftrong 
beam, into which is fixed a long and ftrong coulter, to clear, 
in part, a paflage for the fock ; which is a pointed piece of call- 
iron, of about fifteen inches in length, round, about the thick- 

nefs 

* In No. X. of Farmer's Magazine, an account of a ploueh, with a coulter 
rifing upward from the fock, is fiven, which pron '.vantage a .. 

ing plough. 



12© Ag. Survey of Peebles/hire. 

nefs of a man's arm, and connected by a ftrong broad bar of 
iron to the beam. It is drawn by fix horfes. It is intended to 
fellow in the furrow after another plough, the fock going deep 
in the till, and forming, as it goes along, a conduit-pipe for 
the paflage of water. Even fuppofmg the conduit, fo formed, 
not to remain for any time permeable by water, the very break- 
ing of the till, fo as to allow more water to lodge in it, muft 
conftitute a very confiderable improvement in thin foils, upon 
a retentive till bottom, as, in this way, fuch foils may receive 
and hold more rain-water, without poaching ; nor will the 
moifture be fo fuddenly exhaled, as to caufe them cake in 
drought. 

Brill-ploughs, (or Barrows), for fowing turnip-feed, all 
agree, now, in this part of their conftruction, that the feed 
is made to pafs from a covered hopper, down a fpout, at the 
back cf the coulter, into the rut made in the ridge by the 
coulter ; thus fecuring the feed againll both wind and rain in 
time of fowing. The machine runs upon two wheels •, and, 
in one kind of conftruction, the wheels are made faft to the 
axle, which panes through a brafs nut, in which the hopper 
terminates, from whence the feed is received into dimples in 
the axle, which, as it turns round, delivers it into the fpout 
fixed to the back of the coulter. In another conftruction, the 
feed is put into a tin canifter with feme fmall holes in it, 

h is hung over a funnel connected with the fpout ; and a 
iron, attached to the canifter, is ftruck by the 

;s of one of the wheels fucceffively as the wheel turns 
round, in order to fhakd out the feed. In the fir ft conftruc- 
tion, the feed is fometimes apt to be bruifed betwixt the iron 
axle and the brafs mit, and to clog up the dimples ; tire laft 
conftruct.] tore fure in fowing, and is getting moft into 

ufe. A very Kmpl g fower, for fowing larger feeds un- 

der furrow, is ddferibed in No. VI. of the "Farmer's Maga- 
:j i. is fixed to a foremoft plough, dropping the feed into 

furrow made by it •, two other ploughs follow after ; fo 
every third & fown. This drlll-foii-er has been 

thus 



Agricultural Survey of Peehlesjlire. ill 

thus fatisfacrorily ufed, this Spring, by Captain M'Kay of Scotf- 
ton, and Mr Loch of Rachan, in fowing peas. 

Rollers are ufed of folid (lone, or of folid wood, generally 
beech or plane. Some gentlemen have had them of a hollow 
cylinder of call -iron. They are fcmetimes in two pieces, upon, 
a common axle, to prevent heaping of the earth in turning. 
Harroivs, in ordinary ufe, are the common ones mentioned in 
the report of Mid-Lothian. Break-harrows are ufed, with teeth 
of fquare iron, the corner of the iron going forernoft,. Flat 
coulter teeth, drawn edge forernoft, have been ufed ; but they 
do not feem to be confidered as of the beft conftru&ion, as, 
when the harrow is driven from its direction, by obftructions, 
(fo often occurring in the land to which it is applied), the flat 
fide of the teeth coming to be oppofed to the draught, creates 
a refiftance almoft infuperable.' 

One-horfe coup carts are almoft u'niveffally in ufe. The com- 
mon calculation is, that double-horfe carts carry a load in pro- 
portion to that of one-horfe carts, only as three to two. As it 
takes but one driver to manage two one-horfe carts, it is evi- 
dent that, with thefe, he could carry a load as four •, while, with 
two horfes in a double-horfe cart, he could only carry a load as 
three : not to mention the additional eafe t6 the horfes, which 
muft be both well broke and fkilfully drove, when acting in 
concert in the doubie-horfe cart, in order that they may (hare 
equal fatigue. 

Thefraw-cuttery confiding of an iron wheel, turned round 
by a handle, which is provided with fteel knives fcrewed into 
its periphery, and with rollers which feed in the ftraw to be 
fubjected to the operation of the knives, whofe motion is alio 
produced by the fame handle, has been recently introduced 
from England by Sir George Montgomery ; as alfo, a very Am- 
ple machine for cutting Swediflv turnips fqr horfes. 

Fanners, a winnowing machine, faid to be an invention of 
Papin a Dutchman,' are univerlVJly ufed through Scotland ; it 
is believed to be but of late, if this machine i J, as yet, fo uni- 
vcrfal in England. No farmer in Tweeddalc, renting to die 
extent of 2-oh, or wVen lefs, is unprovided of fanners. The 

R machine 



■ 122 Agricultural Survey of PeebhsJJjlre. 

"machine, even under the late dearth of wood, cofts not above 
2l. 1 os. Its principle is, the whirling round, with great velo- 
city, four flat boards or vanes fixed to an axis within a wooden 
frame, by means of a handle and multiplying wheels. The 
current of air thus generated, is confined by the frame, which 
covers the vanes all round, with an exception of an opening for 
admitting air, and directs the current to the further end of the 
frame, which is open. Meanwhile, from a hopper fixed upon 
the top of the frame with a loofe bottom, (which is agitated by 
the motion of the machine), the grain falls down through the 
frame, before the current of air ; the chaff is blown out at the 
further end of the frame ; the lighter grain goes over a parti- 
tion into a receptacle ; and the heavy grain, which the wind 
cannot force over the partition, falls nearly perpendicular into 
the bottom of the frame, whence it is difcharged by an aper- 
ture for the purpofe. Before the introduction of this molt ufe- 
ful machine, much time was loft at the barn, and at the mill, 
in waiting for the natural wind, to feparate the chaff from the 
corns, or the hufks from the (tripped kernel. Every barn was 
provided with two doors, oppofite to each other, to admit the 
wind, which, in thefe latitudes, is moft generally from the 
weft •, and cuftom has continued this fafhion of conftruction, 
though its reafon has ceafed. The Englifh practice of cleaning 
grain, by toffmg it from a fhovel, the heavieft flying fartheft, 
and the chaff and lighter grain falling at a nearer diftance, 
feems not to have been adverted to. By every corn-mill, a 
knoll top, on which the kernels were winnowed from the hufks, 
was defigned \hcj}jeelitig-hill. 

When fanners were firft introduced, upwards of 40 years 
ago, it is faid that fome of the difTenting clergy lifted up their 
teftimony againft fuch profane innovation ; as marking a mii- 
truft in Providence, in thus fending for a wind of our own, 
and not waiting for a commiffioned wind. It muft be confefT- 
ed, that a fimiiar religious prejudice has, in this country, been 
oppofed to the practice of inoculation for the fmall-pox : It has 
not militated againft the cow-pox ; becaufe that pox is not look- 
ed 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJjire. 123 

ed upon as a difeafe, and the infertion of it is, in courfe, con- 
fidered as an indifferent a£L 

The number of fanners in Tweeddale is nearly 350 j they 
are now an appendage of all the thrafhing-machines. 

Thrajliing-Mills. — The number of thcfe, as already obferv- 
cd, have greatly increafed, amounting at prefent to 18 going by 
water, and 24 driven by two horfes each. Though the arrange- 
ment of machinery can render the fmalleft power equal to the 
overcoming of the greateft refiftance, by multiplying propor- 
tionally the velocity of the agent's motion, over that to be ulti- 
mately communicated to the patient ; yet, where a given refift- 
ance is to be overcome, and a given velocity is at fame time to 
be preferved, no fuch aid can be derived from mechanical con- 
trivance ; but a flrong acting force is indifpenfably necefiary. 
Such is the cafe in the thrafhing-mill ; in regard to which, the 
moving power can probably admit of little aid from contrivance, 
excepting merely what may be given it by the diminution of 
friction. The only other contrivance I have ever yet heard of, 
which promifes to give aid to the moving force, is one men- 
tioned in the Addenda to Dr Douglas's Report of the Counties 
of Roxburgh and Selkirkfhires, page 369 •, and that is, the 
placing of the fwitchers, or beaters, upon the drum, in a line, 
croffing, at a fmall angle, that of the drum's axis, inftead of be- 
ing placed parallel to it, as has hitherto been their pofition. 
This will certainly diminifh the refiftance of the ftraw to the 
itroke of the fwitcher ; inafmuch, as the fwitcher, inftead of 
itriking, at once, the whole ftraw prefented to it over the fwitch- 
ing-ftock by the rollers, will ftrike it all in J'ucceJJion ; and will 
thus meet with a comparatively fmall refiftance, from the fmall 
portion of the ftraw ftruck at once, in each inftant of this fuc- 
ceffion : The advantage will be the fame as that of drawing a 
Jiroke, in cutting with a fabre, or in {having with a razor. If 
the fame number of fwitchers are applied to the drum as in 
the prefent conftrucrion, but placed allant, fo as to occupy, each, 
the precife place of the diagonal drawn betw : xt the oppofite 
ends of two fwitchers, lying parallel to the axis of the drum, as 
in the prefent conftruction -., it is evident, that the above Rated 

advantage 



J 24 -dg Acultural Survey of Peeblesjhke. 

advantage would be perfe&ly gained : And, at fame time, as 
there would be no intermiflion between the ftrokes of the fwitch- 
ers (the ftroke of the following fwitcher commencing at one end 
of the drum, in the very inftant that the ftroke of its predecef- 
for had finifhed off at the other end) ; it is alfo evident, that 
the motion of the machine would be perfectly equable and con- 
tinuous, without intermiflion or {hake. One objection I have 
heard dated to this conftru&ion is, that the flanting fwitchers 
would have a tendency to propel the ftraw before them to the 
farther end of the rollers, and to create additional refiftance, by 
collecting it there intq greater thicknefs : An objection which,-- 
feemingly, might be removed, by forming notches in the pro- 
jecting bars of the fluted rollers ; the notches in the one bar 
being always placed oppofite to the unnotched part of the one 
next to it. After all, the equability of the motion may, pro- 
bably, be considered as a matter of tafle, more than of real 
ufe ; otherwife, the diminution of the velocity of the ftroke, 
by its gradual flanting application, would (from the proportion- 
al diminution of the refiftance) admit of the redrefs of great- 
er multiplication, from the conftru&ion of the multiplying 
wheels— fo as to attain to nearly equal velocity in the beat, 
from die fame moving force : whilft, at fanie time, the equabi- 
lity of motion might be preferved, 

Intelligent practical mechanics are the beft judges of thefe 
matters, ^or would I have prefumed to ftate the above fug- 
geftions, had not the improvement been ftated, in the Report 
alluded to, as the invention of a practical mechanic. 

The fpeedy difFufion of fuch an expenfive machine, in fuch 
a poor county as Tweeddale, to the difference of from thirteen 
to forty-four in the fpace of three years, may be juftly held as 
a decifive proof of the great utility of the invention. The ex r 
tent of yield of grain, from this mode of thrafhing, above what 
is procured from thrafhing by flails, I have underftood, from 
thofe well acquainted with the fubjecl:, to amount to the odds 
of one in twenty ■, and that the wages of the labourers required 
to aflift, when the machine is at work, amount to no more 
than what\vould have been neceflary to merely winnow by the 

fanners 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/lire. 12? 

fanners the quantity of grain made entirely fit for market by 
this operation of the machine ; and that, upon a farm of any 
confiderable extent, the amount of this faying of ,hand-labour 
would readily repay the whole of the capital funk upon the ma- 
chine, in the fpace of three years. 

The thrafhing-machine is probably the mod ufeful inven- 
tion ever introduced into the mechanical j ?.rt of farming, next 
to that of ploughing with two horfes without a driver : And 
the profit, like that of every other invention by which increafe 
of product, and diminution of expence is procured, muft ulti- 
mately tend to the increafe ©f the value of lands. I am forry 
to be informed, that the ingenious inventor, Mr Andr<J|f Meikle, 
has not been able to derive fuch advantage from his invention, 
as is in any way adequate to his remuneration ; being, like mod 
great mechanics, fo abforbed in his favourite conteniplations, as 
to be incapable of paying that attention to his intereft which 
might enable him to turn his talents to his own advantage. 

Time was, when inventions for facilitating labour, through 
mechanical contrivance, were looked upon, by labourers, with 
an evil eye ; as tending to deprive them of employment and of 
bread : Political reafoners have alfo declaimed againft them, as 
tending to diminiih population. Thefe prejudices feem to have 
nearly vanifhed ; it being univerfaJIy underflood, that fuch in- 
ventions can never come to be generally adopted, but in pro- 
portion as they are found to enrich their employers, in faving 
the outlay of capital, or in rendering f,he outlay more produc- 
tive : But capital, faved or augmented by die addition of pro- 
duct, can yield no revenue to its proprietor, till it is confumed, 
in form of wages, by productive labourers — like, as ftraw can- 
not be converted into dung, till it has pafFed through the bellies 
of the c^tlfe 



HAP. 



1 26 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/lire. 



CHAP. VI. 



ENCLOSING. 



In hearing of the meafure, agitated in England, of a bill for 
general enclofure, it furprifes a Scotfman, when he is informed 
that the bill is intended for the purpofe of dividing into fepa- 
Tate diftinct properties, the lands held at prefent in conjunct 
property and poifeffion : He is led, neither by the laws nor the 
practice of his country, to confider the enclofure of common- 
lands, as infeparably connected with their divifion : He is there- 
fore difpofed to interpret enclofure in a metaphorical fenfe, as 
implying the mere ideal enclofure of the divided lands within 
the comprehenfion of feparate property. If in Scotland, as in 
England, actual enclofing were neceffarily to follow upon divi- 
fion ; this incurred obligation to enclofe, would have proved, in 
general, an abiolute bar to all application for divifion ; as, in 
mod of cafes, the fee-fimple of the commonties to be divided, 
would not have fufliced for the expence of feparate enclofure. 

There are, in Scotland, general laws relative to divifion, 
folely ; by which, upon application to the Court of Seflion, from 
any of the parties having intereft, a divifion, according to re- 
fpe&ive intereft in the fubjecT:, proceeds, after a manner both Am- 
ple and unexpenfive. But no obligation to enclofe refults from 
the act. of divifion : there are feparate laws for enclofure j and 
to thefe, recourfe may be had, when the intereft of thofe con- 
cerned fhall fuggeft to them the propriety of fuch a meafure. 

The Scots ftatute for divifion of commonties, is of the date 
of 1695 •, and for enclofure of feparate properties, the ftatutcs, 

enforcing 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblcsfljire. 127 

enforcing ftraighting of marches, and mutual expence of march- 
dikes, are of the earlier dates of 1661, 1669, 1685, 1686. As 
the Union of the two Crowns, and confequent intercourfe be- 
tween the two nations, has fubfifted of fo much longer date 
than the earlieft of thefe ftatutes, it is furprifmg, that the one 
nation mould have borrowed fo little from the inflitutions of 
the other. 

Almoft all common-lands in Scotland have been divided ; 
and, in few years, the pofleflion of land in common property, 
will be a fpecies of tenure unknown. I know of none fo held 
in Tweeddale •, with the exception of a fmall piece of muir- 
ground in the parifh of Eddleftone ; as alfo of fome few acres of 
village green, never ploughed, lying around fome of the vil- 
lages, and the town of Peebles ; upon which the houfe-fed 
cows and horfes are turned out for airing, and the children en- 
joy their out-of-door fports, and wallied clothes are dried, &c. 
&c. — Cateris paribus, a village green is a ftrong determining 
circumftance of preference in choofing a fite for a boarding- 
fchool. 

But, though commonties may be divided, and every fpecies 
of conjunct property in land (fuch as fervitudes of pafture) 
may be feparated, upon fetting apart an equivalent in land for 
the value of that fort of pofleflion of it which is given up ; 
the law of Scotland has recognized no necefTary connexion be- 
twixt diviiion and enclofure *. The parties dividing, may en- 

clofe, 

* The droit de parcour, or right of common hirtelling of cattle, to pafture in 
common at certain feafons, (a right complained of under the old regime of France, 
as totally ineonfiftent with every propofal of improvement of breeds), is unknovva 
almoft in Tweeddale, and will fbon be totally abolifhcd over Scotland. Winter 
herding has been enforced by laws of the fame date as thore referred to in the 
text. The proprietors of hill land pafturages would appear to have often ob- 
tained, through mere (utTcrance and etiftom ; the right of Winter downfall for their 
fheep, upon low lying contiguous ara'ole lands, belonging to other proprietors ; a 
cuftom which eafily crept in, when there were no Winter crops of grafs, turnip, 
&c. upon the low lands, worth prefer ving. 

In a cafe of this kind, at the village of Linton, where the right of Winter 
downfall was interpreted, in practice, as inferring ' that there was no obligation 

upon 



128 Agricultural Survey of Peebles /hire. 

clofe, if they will ; but are nbt neceflitated to enclofe, as ail 
implication from the divifion. 

Whatever may be the cafe in more fertile counties in Scot- 
land, a clauie, rendering rnclofure a neceflary confequence of 
divifion, would, in many inftances, prove an effectual bax 
againft any application for divifion. 

Where enclofure is wanted, it is provided for, by fpecial acl; 
for that purpofe, that the conterminous proprietor fhall bear 
one half of the expence of the march-dike, prefumed to be mu- 
tually beneficial : And this aid may be obtained by application 
to the Sheriff of the county, who is alfo authorifed to ftraight 
vn arches. Upon fuch application, thefe advantages of mutual 
aid are invariably obtained ; excepting in fome fpecified in- 
ftances, where the other party is conceived not to have equal, 
or equally permanent, intereft in the enclofing, and where the 
enforcing of this privilege would be a hardfhip ; unlefs that o- 
ther party, ipfo fac7o, (hews that it is no hardfhip, by taking 
advantage of the march-dike in making enclofures of his own 
— when, though not originally bound, he binds himfelf by his 
own deed, and is liable to aclion of recovery. 

It 



\5pon the proprietor of the dominant tenement, to herd his fheep from any Winter 
crop upon the fervient one; and where (from extenfion of the analogy of paftur- 
ing upon the grafs of the (rubbles) it was alfo inferred, that the dominant pro- 
pnetor had a right t6 all the graft growing upon the fervient tenement, even m 
Summer ; * the proprietor of the fervient tenement brought an aclion before the 
Court of Seffion, for a declarator of the extent of this right of fervitude ; which, 
after fuch interpretation, condemned his land to a comparative fterility, by ex- 
cluding every attempt at the 'improved hnfbandry. The Court found, that the 
dominant proprietor could not (through mere toleration of the other party of a 
practice whilft it did him no damage) eftablilh a right defh uctible of all farther 
improvement of the other's fubjecl ; they found the dominant proprietor obliged to 
herd his cattle from all Winter crops upon the fervient's lands ; alfo, from all fown 
prafs, for two years, both in Winter and Summer : So that, for a rotation of 
four or five fhifts, to which it is applied by the villagers who rent it, the land< 
are as effectually protected by this decifion, as if they were completely enclofcd by 
a fence. — "Such i< the favour fliown to improvement by the Scots law and its inter- 
preters. — The cafe is tbat of Chatto v. Lockhart, decided about twelve or four*- 
tecn years ajr 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjfj'ire. 1 29 

It might, indeed, probably, be a difputeable point, how 
far a permanent proprietor, from fuch advantage being taken 
of his march-dike, might be entitled to compel a mere life- 
renter to pay half its expence ; to which he could not other- 
wife be compelled. 

In the cafe of a liferenter enclofing, it might alfo be dif- 
puteable, how far he could compel a conterminous perpetual 
proprietor to bear half expence of march-fences. It may be 
refufed on the one hand, upon the maxim, for moft part juft, 
that there can be no obligation where it is not mutual : It 
may be contended, on the other hand, that the law, impofing 
half expence upon a conterminous perpetual proprietor, has 
refpe£t merely to his permanent intereft as fuch ; and that, 
his intereft being ever the fame, it mould make no difference, 
in the eye of law, whether he is called upon by one having a 
perpetual, or merely a tranfient intereft ; particularly, in point 
of utility, in the cafe of unalienable corporation lands, whofe 
fituation, in refpect to his lands, cannot alter, and which could 
not therefore, otherwife, have ever a chance of being enclofed. 

The penalties decerned by law for trefpafs upon inclofed 
lands, are perhaps more fevere than neceffary in certain cafes : 
their over-proportioned feverity prevents their fo frequent ex- 
action, whilft their effect: in terrorem may be the more pow- 
erful. 

The only enclofures to be depended upon, for confining 
our Tweeddale breed of fheep for fattening, (particularly, 
when it is alfo neceffary to exclude thofe which are upon 
coarfer fare and fhorter allowance on the outfide), are ftone- 
dikes. The (tone enclofures generally ufed in this county, for 
. that purpofe, are what are called Galloway dikes. They are of 
dry ftone, built firm, fmooth, and folid, till about 34 feet 
from the ground, when large projecting (tones are laid acrofs, 
upon which a conical cope is erected, compofed of ftones, laid 
with fuch interftices as can be feen through ; but, at fame 
time, clofely locked together : the whole height of the dike is 
generally five feet : the cope, from its tumbling appearance, 
intimidates every fpecies of animal j whilft, from its loofe 

S contexture, 



J30 Agricultural Survey of ' PceblesJIjire. 

contexture, it can be executed at lefs expence of materials. 
Thefe dikes are built at all prices, (according to the eafe or 
difficulty of procuring ftones, or, as they are built at the expence 
of an eafy proprietor, or of an intelligent and Jharp firmer), from, 
perhaps, four fliillings to ten (hillings per rood of fix yards, 
building and materials both included. 

In feparating hill flieep-walks of (lock flieep from the a- 
rabJe part of fuch fheep farms, fences of the above defcrip- 
tion are the pnly ones which promife to give the fmalleft. fatis- 
faction. In effecting this purpofe, it mud be confidered, that 
a great variety of foils muft be encountered ; and that, though 
thorn hedges may be reared upon old croft foil, or what natu- 
rally has the appearance of loam, or upon rich clay foil ; yet 
they cannot be raifed upon fand foil, mofs foil, moorifh, or 
hazel : the probability is, therefore, that in very few places 
will the hedge ever grow to the drength of a fence •, and 
there is alfo a certainty, that, let the hedge grow fo as to 
prove a fence againft any other fpecies of cattle, it will never 
prove a fence againft a Tweeddale fheep ; when tempted by a 
ilrong incitement to break through it, they will contrive to 
wriggle their bodies through any interftice that gives admiffion 
to their heads ; and as, in fuch efforts, the wool is torn from 
the fheep, fo the flieep obtains ample revenge upon the hedge, 
as its wool will infallibly canker and dellroy the bed grown 
hedges. Infiead of helps-meet, hedges and Tweeddale fheep are 
mutual plagues and curfts ; they are confidered by Tweeddale 
flieep farmers as mere vexatious baubles : and certainly more 
money has been unprofitably thrown away, in this county, in 
attempting to make fences of thorn hedge, than upon any o- 
ther abortive attempt at improvement. The flieep farmers up- 
on Neidpath, enclosing at their own expence, have univerfally 
had recourfe to Galloway done dikes, in cutting oft" their a- 
rable land from the fheep hill padure ; and even for the fub- 
diviCons of the arable land, fo cut off, thefe dikes are almod 
univerfally employed ; although, in many inftances, the foil 
may have been perfectly fit to carry thorns to their full growth. 
Such men will certainly be held adequate judges of the mod 

profitable 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hi i f. * 3 l 

profitable outlay of their own money; and their praaice I 
mould be inclined to hold as decifive of the general expedi- 
ency. 

Live hedges are unqueftionably a much more beautiful 
fence than a dead Hone wall ; they alfo afford more fhelter ; 
the ditch alfo, upon the face of which they are planted, ads 
as a drain : As, however, they are utterly inadmiflible as 
fences, where Tweeddale fheep are concerned, thefe advan- 
tages muft be obtained by other means. Trees, in a few 
years, rife above the reach of fheep ; and, probably, the mod 
fatisfaftory mode of obtaining both (helter, beauty, and drain- 
ing, in the enclofures on fheep farms, would be, to drive 
ditches parallel to the (tone fences, at fuch diftance as to ad- 
mit a ftripe of planting ; the fide of the ditch next the planting 
to be faced up with the fod raifed in forming the ditch, and 
what is taken out of the ditch (vernacularly the deeds) thrown 
behind this facing, to fupport it ; the top of this facing to be 
defended by pegs, or paling, without which, no earth fence is 
in any degree a fence againft Tweeddale fheep : Such a fence, 
with a few repairs, might proted the trees till above reach of 

the fheep. 

It may be noticed, as a proper piece of ceconortiy pradifed 
by the Neidpath farmers, in their enterprizes of enclofmg, that 
they never enclofe till the field is, by culture, brought into a 
ftate worth enclofmg, fo as to yield immediate intereft for the 
enclofmg money. They therefore enclofe in that feafon when 
the field is in preparatory fallow ; by which means, the Hones 
removed from the field affift in building the dikes, laving both 
materials and carriage ; and the enclofure is of profitable ad- 
vantage the very firft year of its erection. 

In fituations where Hones are at a very great diftance, it 
might probably be ineligible to attempt at all the enclofure of 
the arable part of fheep farms. Perhaps, in fuch fituations, beech 
hedges might be more feafibly attempted, than thofe of thorn, 
from a few indications in Tweeddale of the hardinefs of that plant. 
The larix, to judge from their appearance, in our wood planta- 
tinns.feems remarkable for thriving, better than any other tree, in 

poor 



132 Agricultural Survey of Peehlesjlnre. 

poor foils arid expofed fituations. Some trials are juft now 
making, of applying them to enclofure. They are planted upon 
a border, in two rows, at eighteen inches diftance betwixt the 
rows, and the fame diftance betwixt plant and plant ; the plants 
of the one row placed oppofite to the intervals betwixt the 
plants in the other row. A double ditch, with the bank be- 
twixt the ditches fown with furze (ivhins), might probably 
anfwer, in fome degree, for the purpofe of a fence. As to the 
Abjection of the fhedding of the feed, this might be obviated, by 
conftant application of the fciffars, a dipt whin having probably 
no more tendency to produce feed, than a dipt hawthorn •, the 
thick matting of fmall lateral twigs, produced from clipping, 
alfo protecting the roots from the action of fevere frofts *. I 
know of no plant fufficiently aquatic, to promife to become a 
fence in undrained mofs. Probably mofs muft be kept in a 
middle ftate, betwixt wet and dry, in order to raife any vege- 
table production. When laid up in a bank, with double ditch 
and hedge, thorns will thrive for an year or two, fo long as the 
bank retains moifture ; but when the bank becomes dry, (and 
it will become fo dry, that, in Summer's drought, it would 
burn down to the water's edge, almoft, in the ditches), the 
thorns decay and foon die. Of this, we have had fome expe- 
rience in this county. 

In the fmall arable dairy farms, thorn hedges are more ad- 
mimble as a fence \ becaufe they are protected from the wild 
fheep of the hills, by the interpofition, generally, of the arable 
part of the fheep farms betwixt them and the fheep ; and the 
tamer animals of the dairy are by no means fo impatient of re- 
flraint. Considering the variety of foil which muft be gone 
through, (a circumftance not eafily avoidable in conducting a 

thorn 



* In the ftvere Winter of 1779-80, when the violence of the froft deflroyed 
moil of the whins, T perfectly recoiled, that the whin bufhes upon the north end 
of the Pentland Hills near Edinburgh, which furvived the froft, were the low 
matted bufhes which had been cropped over, both fides and top, by the fheep. 
The fheep may thus inftrudl us in the proper management of the whin, as the afs 
did the ancients in the management of the vine 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/lure. 1 33 

thorn hedge enclofure), the probability of its never becoming 
fencible in many parts of its courfe, together with the conti- 
nued care and attention of probably fix or feven years, before a 
thorn hedge will become in any degree a fence, even in our belt 
foils, it is not furprifing that the Tweeddale tenantry, in general, 
manifeft that reluctance they do againft becoming bound to 
protect, and rear, and leave them fencible, upon a leafe of 
nineteen years. There is good reafon to conclude, that the 
thorn fences which have thriven bed in Tweeddale, are thofe 
which the refident proprietor has taken entirely under his own 
protection, even while the lands were under leafe, without en- 
trusting them to any obligation impofed upon the tenant. 

The enclofing of the arable part of fheep farms, in order to 
render fheep and arable farming mutually fubfervient, is the chief 
improvement of which this county is fufceptible. In regard to 
the expediency of enclofing the hill pajlure of fheep farms, the 
following is the refult of information or reflection. 

A mere ring fence around the boundary of an extenfive 
fheep farm, could not fave the fmalleft expence of herding- * ; 
not even although only one kind of fheep (hogs for inftance) 
are kept upon it, and where, of courfe, the whole flock go to- 
gether in one body (or hirfel) : Becaufe, even under this moft 
fimple mode of occupation, the grafs of the low parts of the 
farm muft, at one feafon, be faved (babied), for provifion for 
the Winter months, after all fpringing of grafs has ceafed: 
As alfo, becaufe, through the Spring, Summer, and Autumn, 
the fheep muft, at different periods, be kept more to one divi- 
fion of the grounds than another ; in order that all the varieties 
of graffes, fpringing at their different feafons, in all varieties of 
foil, and of elevation, may be all confumed in their proper fea- 
fons, fo that the full benefit of the whole may be reaped. Far 
lefs could a mere ring fence foperfede any necdfity of herding, 
in an extenfive breeding farm, where various kinds of fheep 
are kept, afforted into different flocks or hirfels, according to 

their 

• I fpeak not hare of a mere park, in which ewes and Iambs, or wedders, are 

fattened through Summer, and none, or very few, kept in Winter. 



134 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire, 

their kinds. Were even a diftinc~f. enclofure formed for each 
diftindl hirfel, (againft which there would, too, be often un- 
furmountable objections), this would ferve no purpofe, for the 
reafons juft ftated ; unlefs there were alfo fubdividing enclo- 
fures, comprehending each diftinct. ipecies of pafture ; as the 
fheep would often rather linger upon the fweeteft pafture, how- 
ever bare, than betake themfelves (without the compulfion of 
herding) to lefs palatable, though more abundant food. It 
would be giving too much credit to their inftinc~tive difcretion, 
to fuppofe them capable of the felf-denial of making any reser- 
vation of Summer's food for their Winter's provifion. 

From all this, it appears that a fcheme of fuch complete en- 
clofure of fheep farms, as would fuperfede herding, even fup- 
pofing the fcheme of fubdivifion in itfelf otherwife unobjection- 
able (which is a problematical fuppofition), would require fuch 
multiplied expence, as the advantage gained could never re- 
pay. 

A pafture enclofure, to ferve occafionally as an hofpital, and 
to confine the rams till the proper feafon of admiffion, would, 
however, be advantageous in every fheep farm. 

It appears improbable, that a demand for the enclofure of 
the mountains of Tweeddale, fhall ever arife for any other pur- 
pofe than its fubferviency to fheep. Were we, indeed, to fup- 
pofe the population of Scotland to arrive to the fame extent as 
is attributed to China, by the moil exaggerated accounts, (a 
fuppofition not ablblutely impoffible, bating accidents of war, 
famine, peftilence, inundation, fansculottes maffacre, or the fi- 
nal diflblution of the mundane fyftem) ; it may fo happen, that 
the demand for even the meaneft productions, that can in any 
way tend to the fupport of human life, may lead the hand of 
induftry, with propriety, to extend itfelf to the minute furface 
culture of the higheft Tweeddale mountain ; were it even 
merely to meliorate the quality, or augment the quantity of 
produce of crow-crops and bilberries. Till fuch an sera arrive, 
it would be abfurd, in point of private intereft, and ruinous 
as to that of the public, to kick againft the pricks, in throwing 
away ftock upon cultivation fo little productive j while there 

remain 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 1 35 

remain fo many fubjeas of cultivation, capable of yielding 
fuch returns of profit, as might fpeedlly accumulate into new 
capitals. The enclofure of the arable farms, and of the arable 
part of fheep farms, may give profitable occupation to the 
whole agricultural capital that lhall arife in Tweeddale, for 
more than half a century to come. 

Gates.— Larix, from its toughnefs and incorruptibility, re- 
quiring lefs weight of wood, and, confequently, admitting of 
diminution of expence in the fupporting gate-pofts of mafonry, 
has been lately ufed by John Lock, Efq. of Rachan, in gates, 
for fheep enclofures, of exceeding light conftrudion, 



CHAT. 



135 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



CHAP. VII. 

ARABLE LANDS. 

iimiHIWi 

Sect. I.— Tillage. 

The two-horfe plough, directed entirely by the ploughman, 
without a driver, was introduced, about thirty years ago, into 
this county, and the pra£tice has become univerfal in all lands 
of eafy tillage. Very ftrong land, or coarfe land newly broken 
up from its natural ftate (of, perhaps, heath, furze, bent, or 
rufhes), are tilled by four horfes, or four oxen, or by two horfes 
and two oxen, and with a ftrong Scots plough. Mofs foil, when 
deep, is generally tilled by oxen alone. The cattle are univer- 
fally yoked two a-breaft. 

In fome inftances of fleep declivity, a furrow flice is turned 
over by the horfes going down hill, the plough returning empty 
to the top of the afcent. 

Sect. II. — Fallowing. 

Coarse land, broken up from a ftate of nature, is fometimes 
left unftirred for twelve months, to allow the fod to rot, and is 
fallowed with bare fallow, and limed the enfuing feafon. Mofs 
foil, when fallow comes round in the courfe of cropping, is not 
unfrequently fallowed with bare fallow, to allow opportunity 
of frequent and deep ploughings, in order to make the mofs 
fubfide and confolidatc, and to incorporate it thoroughly (for 
that purpofe) with the dung and lime laid upon it, and with 
fuch of the fubfoil as can be reached and raifed by the plough. 
Deep clays (of which there is little in the county), unfit for tur- 
nip or potato crops, may alfo be fallowed bare. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 137 

Ail land, fit for thefe crops juft mentioned, are fallowed 
with them, as green crop in drills. Land of this defcription, 
intended for fallow, is ploughed from the Hubble as foon after 
harveft as poffible : If foul, it is clean ploughed, that all the 
roots of the weeds may be loofened : If it is clean, the very old 
Scots practice of ribing, is now beginning to be revived j that 
is, the furrow railed by the plough is turned over upon an e- 
qual fuperficies of land, left firm — a practice feemingly worth 
attention, as, by this mean, a furface is expofed to the adtion 
of the froft, greater than that prefented by clean ploughing, in 
nearly the proportion of three fides of a cube, to two fides of a 
triangle, of equal altitude, and upon the fame bafe. It feems 
to be a good maxim in tillage, to plough rather fhallow for all 
the fucceffive crops that enfue after manuring, in order to keep 
the manure near the furface j and to plough deep, in Harveft, 
the land to be fallowed the enfuing Summer, that new foil may 
be expofed to the Winter's froft. 

Sect. III. — Rotation of Crops. 

After what hath been faid upon this fubject (p. 70, 71, 85), 
it may be fufficient here to obferve, in general, That the admif- 
fion, or non-admiffion, of pafture into the fyftem of rotation 
(where the whole farm is under regular rotation of culture), 
muft depend upon the means of procuring dung — whether it 
muft be made by cattle kept upon the farm, or whether it can 
be otherwife procured, without neceffity of keeping cattle for 
the purpofe. 

Near a great town, fuch as Edinburgh, there is always fuch 
high demand for pafture for milk cows and horfes, that no mode 
of culture (except the raifing of garden Huffs or nurfery) can 
compete with pafture in point of profit. At a little greater dis- 
tance, a large quantity of land may be kept under conftant crop, 
without intervention of pafture in the rotation ; the dung pro* 
curable from the town fuperfeding the neceffity of keeping cat- 
tle to produce dung: In fuch Situations, there may be no necef- 
fitv for keeping anv cattle, except labouring horfes, and cows, 

T for 



138 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlnrt. 

for the mere fupply of the farmer's family ; thefe may be main^ 
tained, through Summer, on green houfe feeding ; and no pafture" 
may be needed, but fome fmall patch for mere airing for health 
to the cattle. At fuch diftance as precludes the purchafe of 
dung from a great town, cattle muft be kept, in order to create 
it. If there is hill land, fitter for pafture than aration, that may 
be either paftured in its natural ft ate, or may be improved and 
laid down in permanent pafture ; and the low land may be kept 
under conftant rotation culture, without neceftky of the inter- 
vention of pafturage . If the land is all equally fit for aration, it 
would be, probably, moft advifeable to cultivate regularly the 
whole, admitting pafture into the fyftem of rotation y as this is 
probably the beft mode of preventing the land from tiring of 
thofe crops to which it hath been too long familiarized *. In a 
farm of this latter description, fuppofing it divided into equal 
breaks, it might be a curious queftion, to afcertain how many 
of thefe breaks it would be neceffary to have at once in pafture, 
in order to fupport fufficiency of cattle (fuppofing they could 
not be got elfewhere) to yield dung fufficient to keep the reft 
under crop ? or whether, if cattle can always be got to pur- 
chafe from mere pasturing counties, the cattle bought at har- 
veft, fufficient to confume through Winter the ftraw and turnip 
produced upon the farm, would yield fuffkiency of dung to 
keep the whole farm under conftant cropping, without the in* 
rervention of pafture ? 

From very limited, and not very accurately obferved expe- 
rience, I have been led to imagine,, that a cow of about 2£ 
ftone Dutch in weight, though even houfed nightly in Sum- 
mer, and fed alfo in the houfe hi mid-day Summer heats, will 
not produce above 12 or 14 fingle-horfe carts of dung annual- 
ly ; and a plough-horfe, much of whofe dung is neceffarily loft 
at work, about the fame quantity. Now, 50 or 60 fuch cart 

loads 

* In Norfolk, where the cultivation of clover has been of fuch long Handing:, 
\ye hear of fields Co tired of clover, that they will not now produce it. About,, 
perhaps, 30 years ago, Meflrs Stodhart and Prentice, in the parifll of Pcttymain, in 
Clydefdalc, introduced the culture of potatoes upon a large fcale : Thoir common 
return was then 80 bolls, per acre—it does not now exceed 40. 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJInre. 139 

loads are but a moderate dunging for one acre under green 
fallow crop : four fuch animals would, therefore, dung one 
acre annually ; or four would keep four acres agoing under a 
rotation of four, needing one acre only dunged each feafon. 
This ftatement pretends not to any thing like accuracy ; but 
fuch feem to be the nature of the data upon which fuch cal- 
culations fhould proceed. 

Sir George Staunton informs us, that through the whole 
route of the embaffy to China, along its eaft fide, by the Yellow 
Sea, to Pekin ; and thence to Canton, through the greater! 
length of the empire in the interior ; the whole country, fo far 
as the eye could reach, was found under crop, without the leaft 
intermixture of pafture •, and that animals feemed rarely ufed, 
even for the purpofes of tilling or carriages. It is a curious 
queftion, how the lands were kept in heart, without animals to 
yield dung : for the crops were obferved to be univerfally luxu- 
riant. Sir George, from information and conjecture, fuggefts 
irrigation, mixture of the foils of different fields, and human 
excrement, as the means of manure. What becomes of the 
ftraw of their crops ? Is it chopped, or otherwife comminuted, 
and mixed with meals or roots, to pafs, in this fhape, through 
the bellies of the lower orders ? or are thev littered with it ? 
An agricultural furvey of China would form a moft interefting 
work. They furely excel the Europeans in practical agricuk 
ture, as much as they are inferior in moft other things. 

Sect. IV. — Crops commonly cultivate.!, 

The crops falling under this defcription, are ; f>f> the me- 
liorating green crops of turnip, potato, peas, artificial graffes ; 
fccond, the exhaufting white crops of oats, bigg, barley. 

Turnip and potato are chiefly ufed as the green-fallow crop. 
The land allotted for fallow, which is generally ploughed im- 
mediately after harveft, is, after related ploughings and har- 
rowings in Spring, laid into ridges, the crowns of which are 
iX the diftance of from two and an half to three feet of diftanc* 

from 



146 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

from each other ; dung is then emptied from carts into every 
third furrow, in fmall heaps (or hutches), five or fix of luch 
hutches being contained in a fingle-horfe cart ; the dung is then 
fpread by a three-pronged fork (or grope) from the hutch, 
along the furrow in which the hutch lies, and the furrow on 
either fide. 

For turnip, the ridges are immediately fplit by the plough, 
which reverfes the pofition of the furrows and ridges, covering 
up the dung in the furrows, and making the ridge occupy the 
former place of the furrow. The feed is immediately iown 
upon the frefh mould by turnip barrows, formerly defcribed. 
The feed is not raifed in the county, but purchafed in the 
{hops. The turnip are white, red, or green, topt. The red pro- 
bably grows to the largeft fize, but the green feem more hardy j 
whence the propriety of part of each •, the firft for a bulky crop 
to be firft confumed, the other for food later in the feafon *. 
From two to three pounds weight of feed are fown upon a 
Scots acre ; the abundance of plants being reckoned the beft 
fecurity againft the devaluations of the fnail or fly. The firft 
culture they receive, is to thin the plants in the row, by hand- 
hoes ; and the fooner this operation is performed, fo much the 
better ; the weeds are then often hafhed down, in the intervals 
betwixt the rows of plants, by the hand-hoe •, the fides of the 
ridges are then pared by a paring-plough drawn by one horfe, 
and the earth afterwards fet up to the plants by a double mould- 
boarded plough. A great part of this culture, while growing, 
has of late been much fimplified by Mr James M'Dougal in 
Linton. Immediately after the plants are fingled in the row 

(wlu<: ! 



• The frequent lofs of turnip crop from ieverity of Winters, is introdikii j, 
f.ift the practice of pulling all the turnips about Martinmas, laying them up in 
Jung narrow ri'lges, and covering them (as thty ate to he confumed (boner o. 
later) with merely their own (haws, or with a flight covering of turf : i\i prtferved, 
they arc found to feed well throng the whole of April — which will render, t! e 
hardindf of kinds of lefs confequence. Turnip mny thus be raifed even on fl.t! 
clays, as they maybe taken off' before the Winter rains, without injury to the lr.:,d. 
The ftiu'.vs and roots are both cut off when the turnips are pul!ed< 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 141 

/'which he is careful to have executed before the weeds in the 
intervals of the ridges have come to any fize), he pares one fide 
of all the ridges, taking care fe to temper his plough that the 
furrow thrown from it overlaps, and whelms up all the weeds 
in the interval, and is laid ciofe to the plants upon the right- 
hand ridge ; after an interval furhxient to rot the buried weeds, 
he pares the other fide of all the ridges, laying the furrow as 
before ; and this operation he repeats fo long as the plants will 
admit of the paflage of the plough without injury j nor does; 
he fet up the earth to them at all It is evident, that, under 
this mode of management, the plough, in paring, can be car- 
ried much nearer to the plants ; as, on one fide of them, the 
earth is firm ; as alfo, that the plants are much lefs expofed to 
drought, than when they ftand with the earth pared from both 
their fides at once. In the fheep farms, the turnip is applied 
to the feeding of caft-off breeding ewes ; in arable farms, to 
the milk cows, or rearing flock, or feeding ofF-caft cows, or 
fometimes bullocks. The Ruta baga, or Swedifh turnip, is 
coming into repute, as the fureft Spring food : its cultivation 
is the fame as that of the common turnip ; only they are fowa 
in the beginning of May, while the common are fown in the 
latter end of May, or before the middle of June. They pro- 
mife to fupply the great def deration of fucculent Winter food 
to lad till the grafs feafon. Lad Spring my own crop of 
them, pulled early in Winter, topped and tailed, and laid up 
in a ridge upon the furface of the ground, and thatched with 
rufhes, ferved as food to milk cows till the 1 ith day of June \ 
very few of them being damaged by keeping. 

For potato^ the land is prepared and dunged as for turnip. 
The potato fets are then laid upon the dung, and the ridges 
are fplit by the plough to cover the potato ; or, fometimes, the 
field is juft harrowed acrefs for this purpofe. A late practice 
is, to cover them with a garden-rake ; then to cover them fur- 
ther by a flight plough, paring off one f do of all the ridges j 
then, after fome time, by another paring off the other fide of 
all the ridges j with the intention of thus covering them 
Hightly with loofe earth, fo as not to exclude fo totally the in- 
fluence 



142 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

fluence of the air, fun, and dew, as is apprehended to bo 
done by fplitting the ridges at once, and thus covering the po- 
tato deep by two furrows comprefled againft each other by the 
action of the plough f. If the horfe is made to walk upon 
the top of the ridge in covering the potatoes, this prevents the 
earth from being comprefTed upon them by the trampling of 
the horfe. Jull before the plants appear above ground, the 
land is generally harrowed : when they diftinctly appear, a 
furrow flice is taken from both fides of the row of plants by 
the plough, and the plants are cleared of weeds by the hand- 
hoe j and, as foon as poflible thereafter, the earth is laid up 
by the double mouldboarded plough to the plants, and then 
drawn clofe to their Herns by hand-hoes *. The time of 
planting potatoes, is as early as may be in the month of April ; 
on this account the fallow given with potatoes is more imper- 
fect: than that with turnip, there being lefs time for prepara- 
tory cleaning before the infertion of the crop. The feed ap- 
parently moll in requeft, from being moft prolific, is the 
Apple or Jonadab potato ; it is a round-fhaped potato with light 
purple clouds upon a white ground ; it is very lately intro- 
duced, 1 do not know whence ; and perhaps its fuperior pro-* 
lific quality depends merely upon the principle which caufes 
every change of feed to be an improvement : "When beat, 
after boiling, it is faid to produce more meal from the fame 
■fneafure than any potato hitherto known. Tarns are fometimes 
planted for cows and horfes ; it feems a late plant, and pro* 
bably is therefore lefs nutritious than the common potato, 
which we can ripen to perfection. Hays are affuredly moft 
jiutritious when cut before the ripening of the plant : in this 

refpe&, 



4 By following this method, I had a crop, in the unfavourable feafon 1795^ 
fully equal to that of the very favourable feafon 1794- 

* It is of importance to be expeditious in the operations of the plough, left 
the tendrils thrown out by the plant fhould be torn by its action : from not at- 
tending to this circumftance, 1 ruined a moft promifing crop in 1793. The 
ploughman, in the laft operation of the plough, obferved the bottom of the ftu-i 
■ ■ ■ led with torn tendrils, appearing as maggots. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 143 

fcfpect, however, roots bear, more probably, an analogy to 
corns. I know not if this analogy holds in every refpe£t ; in 
that cafe, abundance of root, like length of ear, fhould de- 
pend upon ftrength of ftem, which is promoted by late fow- 
ing ; but fuperior ripening, accompanied with lefs ftrength of 
ftem, and proportional diminution of bulk of root and of grain, 
fhould be promoted by early fowing; and each fituation fhould 
ftrike the medium that bed counterbalances the difadvan- 
tages to which it is moft liable. Early potatoes are raifed in 
gardens : it feems particular, that this plant fhould bear nei- 
ther flowers nor feed. It is needlefs to defcant upon the ufe- 
fulnefs of potatoes, fo univerfally acknowledged, as food for 
man and beaft. As the curl is hardly known in Tweeddale, a 
good number of potatoes are annually difpofed of for feed to 
the Lothians. 

Peas are fometimes fown upon part of the break intended 
for green crop fallow : They are very feldom drilled ; indeed 
the rapid growth of the plant will admit of very little horfe- 
hoeing. When the farmer cannot reach his whole fallow- 
break with turnip and potato, for want of dung ; he fows peas 
upon the refidue, without dung ; and next feafon gives that part 
a little fpring-fallowing with dung, in preparation of beinp- 
fown out with bear and grafs feeds along with the part that 
had carried turnip and potato : At next return of fallow, he 
takes care to turn that part, which had bore peas, into turnip 
and potato. Peas are moft generally fown upon outfields, (as 
mentioned page .) : They conftitute a regular crop upon ro- 
tation land, where the rotation contains five or fix fliifts, 
(page .) In the higher parifhes they are a very uncertain 
crop. They are fown in February, March, or April ; and 
are frequently fown under furrow. Two kinds only are in 
ufe; the Peebles pea, of a grey colour, fpeckled with dark 
fpots ; and the Magbiehill> a ftill earlier kind, of much the 
fame appearance, and growing lefs to ftraw : A ftill earlier 
kind was picked out by myfelf from a field of Magbiehill peas, 
by marking the earlieft bloflbmed (talks, (the way in which Mr 
Montgomery of Magbiehill, father to Sir James Montgomery of 

Stanhope, 



144 Agricultural Survey of Peellesjtjire* 

Stanhope, late Lord Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer, 
is faid to have difcovered the Magbiehill). The experiment 
hath been dill further profecuted by Mr Aitken, proprietor of 
Callends in Newlands parifh, who has difcovered two kinds in 
thefe peas j one kind with ftraw of a purpleifh caft, with 
naughty fhort pods j the other longer podded, with ftraw of 
a yellowifh fhade. 

In proportion to the earlinefs of ripening, all our kinds are 
refpe£tively lefs abundant in ftraw > but this deficiency is part- 
ly remediable by late fowing : In fome of our foils and fitua- 
tions, there is no danger to be apprehended from deficiency of 
luxuriance in ftraw, however early the kind, or however early 
the fowing ; there, this earlieft kind of pea is advantageous : 
In different fituatious, where peas are ufed as an eke to the 
turnip and potato fallow crop, the adoption of this early kind 
might afford time for fome preparatory fpring-fallowing of the 
ground, previous to fowing. 

Artificial Graffes. (See Chap. VIII.) 

Second, White crops in common ufe. 

Oats, always fown after clover, upon rotation land under 
rotation of four fhifts, and fometimes with grafs feeds after 
green crop fallow ; or in a rotation of fix fhifts, after peas ; 
and the only grain cultivated upon outfields, bating fometimes 
the interpolition of peas. Of this grain, we have three diftinct 
fpecies. 

The Blainjlie, or Tnveed/ide ivhite, is the Iateft, and is found 
to fuit the loweft lying pavifhes better than any other. 

The Carmvath is about ten days earlier than the laft, and 
grows to ftraw, in thin poor foils, better than any other fpe- 
cies. It is procured from the high lying moor farms in the 
parifh of Carnwath in Clydefdale ; the belt from Barbachlec, in 
Whitburn parifh. It is (proportionally to the bleaknefs of the 
fituation and poverty of foil it grows in) a long, thin-bodied, 
ill-filled oat, with a baird or awn. 

The Magbiehill, earlier, by eight or ten days, than the laft. 
It was introduced, from Ayrlhire, in the beginning of laft cen- 
tury, 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 14 5 

fury, by Mr Montgomery of Magbiehill, in Newlands parifh, 
father to Sir James Montgomery of Stanhope ; and has conti- 
nued, without degeneracy, in the upper parifhes of Tweeddale. 
It is more fhort and plump, on equal land, than the two pre- 
ceding ; and is hence known by the name alio of barley oat, 
impofed upon it from its figure. It was introduced into Rox- 
burghfhire, by Mr Dawfon of Frogden, about fifteen years 
fince, and there obtained the name of red oat. It is eafier 
fhaked than the two preceding fpecies -, though, in fa£t, (el- 
domer fhaked, from being oftener cut down before the fetting 
in of the equinoctial florms. It fuits not the lower parifhes, 
where, from fharpnefs of foils and drier climate, fhortnefs of 
ftraw is apprehended. In the higher parifhes, it is fown upon 
deep mofs, or reclaimed clay morafs, where there would be 
danger of other fpecies lodging ; in dry land, it is never fown, 
but where the ground is in good heart, as upon clover lea, or 
after turnip and potato fallow. 

Rough beer, or big, is reckoned the befl grain to fow along 
with grafs feeds in rotation lands ; it is fometimes fown under 
furrow, though rarely. — Blended beer, that is, a mixture of 
rough beer and of barley (fo common in Fifefhire), is not ufed 
in this county. The hiftory of this practice is curious : It 
would feem, that, by the intermixture of the farime of thefe 
earlier and later ripening fpecies, the whole field ripens at one 
time, probably in the intermediate period of the ripening of 
each of thefe grains. Captain MacKay of Scotfton carefully 
picked out fome of the barley from a field he had of blended 
beer ; and this barley he finds more early than any other bar- 
ley he has fince procured for feed. Experiments ought to be 
made in regard to this fubjecr, ; as, 1. Whether barley and 
big, when fown together for the firfl time, would ripen equal- 
ly, as the blended beer does in Fifefhire ; or whether it re- 
quires fucceflive growing together, to accomplifh this inter- 
change of properties ? 2. It might be worth afcertaining, by 
the experiment of feparating the two grains, whether the pe- 
culiarity each had attained in growing blended together, would 

iin as a permanent diftintHon ? Alfo, whether the big had 

U gained, 



t^6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

gained, in improvement of quality, from having obtained fome- 
what of the latenefs of barley ; and whether the barley had de- 
generated fomewhat to the inferiority of big, from having had 
imparted to it fomewhat of its quality of more early ripening ? 

Sect. V. — Crops not commonly cultivated, or in fmall quantity, 
are, of green crops. 

Beans, fometimes tried in drills, but quite difufed, from the 
impoflibility of faving them in our wet harvefts. 

Tares, fometimes a few fown as green food for horfes : The 
purpofe, however, is more certainly fecured by cutting part of the 
hay field very early, that the fecond crop may come in before 
the general fpringing of the aftermath of the hay field. 

Cabbages, fometimes ufed as part of the green fallow crop. 

Carrots muft be fown fo early, and muft consequently be 
fo much overtopt by weeds, before they appear through the 
ground, that little preparatory cleaning can be given to the land 
before fowing ; and the fubfequent weeding muft be a very te- 
dious labour. For thefe reafons, as alfo from the difficulty of 
raifing them in frofl, they feem unfit for a general fallow green 
crop. If any, induced by the rhodomontade defcriptions of 
their profit, to be found in books of agriculture, were to choofe 
to rifk them as a crop, it feems probable, that the fecureft me- 
thod of rearing them, would be to fow them (as has been fuggefl- 
ed to me by the venerable Countefs -Dowager of Dundonald ) upon 
land that had previoufly carried a crop of drilled turnip with dung ; 
preparing the land, by merely fplitting the ridges, and fowing them 
on the top of the new ridge formed by this operation. At Mr 
Henderfon's, in Kirkurd parifh, I have eaten butter, in Win- 
ter, from the milk of cows fed upon carrots and hay, which, 
for richnefs of colour and of tafte, feemed to come nothing 
fhort of that made upon grafs in Summer. 

Lint is fc^jvn, in inconfiderable quantity, and merely for 
family ufe, upon land previoufly fallowed, along with grafs 
feeds ; or on clover lea. The Truftees premium (whether from 
the good fenfe of the farmers, or from fome new meafure as to 

tllQ 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 147 

the locality of its diftribution) feems not now to hate the ef- 
fect of making it be (own, as a gambling fpeculation *. 

Of white crops, thofe not commonly cultivated, or not to 
any great extent, are, 

Wheat, not cultivated, in the higher parifhes, for want of 
climate •, nor, in the lower, as too exhaufting to the foil. 

Rye ufed formerly to be fown on the outer ridge of corn- 
fields next to dwellings, to defend them from poultry, which 
would appear to diflike the grain. None is now fown, even for 
that purpofe. 

Potato crops may average between thirty and forty bolls per 
acre, (nineteen or twenty ftone per boll, feventeen and a halt 
pounds to. the ftone). Sixty boils per acre is held a very great 

crop. 

Turnips 



* A bounty, or premium, feems ufeful to induce the trial of fomething new. 
If, upon fufficient trial, it is found profitable, it will force its own way. If it 
cannot ftand upon its own legs, why tempt people to what is unprofitable, in let- 
ting them a-gambling for a prize? More than twenty years fince : I was apprifed 
of the following incident : — At a time when the Truftces for encouraging arts, 
manufactures, &c. held out a premium to encourage the growth of lintfeed, the 
minifter of Humby, in Eaft Lothian, was in ufe to fow lint upon land in his farm, 
which was in fit condition to have carried wheat ; finding that, from the premi- 
um of one (lulling per peck allowed by the Truftces for feed, when adjudged fit 
for the purpofe by their appointed judges, and from the od. per peck, the real 
price given for it at the oil mills, the only market where there was a demand for 
it, he could, upon the whole, make more from his crop of lintfeed, than what he 
could obtain from a crop of wheat. As for the lint itfelf, it always was difpofed 
of, unmanufactured, as thatch, to the villagers of Humby. 

A patent for a new invention has this in it, preferable to the encouragement 
of a bounty or premium, that the public have nothing to tempt them to put in 
life the practice, hut the profit found to refult from it. Every thing has two 
handles. The profpect of obtaining the advantages of a patent, may give great 
encouragement to the genius of invention : But when it is considered that this re- 
liance, after one invention hath been fallen upon, has a tendency to fopite all 
farther efforts at invention in him who has thus mown himfelf poiTelTed of a geni- 
us for it ; perhaps the effect of patents may appear more ambiguous. Patents 
can never be applied to agricultuial practice, which cannot, like thofe of manu- 
facture, be proved in fecret; they would tend only to encourage invention in the 
contraction of new implements of husbandry. 



148 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhtre. 

Turnips may feed towards fourfcore Tweeddale fheep per 
acre, from Martinmas till Newyear's day ; or may feed a cou- 
ple of bullocks, of thirty ftones each, Dutch weight, for be- 
tween three and four months, if the crop is tolerably good. 

Big or Barley, fown always upon well-dreffed land, may a- 
verage eight bolls per acre over the county. 

Oats, where fown as part of rotation, may produce nearly 
the fame return as beer. Confidering, however, the poor re- 
turns from fuch of the lands upon which this grain is fown, 
the average of return over the county may probably not exceed 
four, or four and a half bolls per acre. 

Peas, as they are not fown in fuch quantity, upon poor foil, 
as oats, and are pretty much difufed in the higher parifhes, 
may probably average about fix bolls per acre in their return. 

The above ftate of returns is, hqwever, mere vague con-* 
je&ure. 



CHAP. 



Agricultural Survey of Peehlesfi/ire. 1 4$ 



CHAP. VIII. 



GRASS. 



Sect. I. — Natural Meadows and Pajlures. (See p. 85.) 

Engltsh meadow, or dry land in natural grafs, which is 
conftantly faved for hay, receiving every fecond or third year a 
top-drefling of dung, is unknown in Tweeddale : Scotifh farmers 
would confider fuch a mode of obtaining hay, as very unoeco- 
nomical, and would expecl: to obtain it much more advantage- 
oufly from land kept in rotation tillage. Scotifh meadow hay is 
obtained only from wet boggy land -, confifting (according to the 
nature of the foil, difference of degree of wet, or difference of 
expofure) of coarfe fprot grafs, or grafles of finer quality. 

Sect. II. — Artificial Grafts. 

These constitute the Scotifh dependence for hay, entering 
into every improved fyftem of rotation culture. 

They are fown in Tweeddale, generally with barley or big, 
though fometimes with oats, upon land that had previoufly car- 
ried a green fallow crop. Where the land is dry, and of free 
mould, and well defended, lefs feed is neceffary ; becaufe lefs 
of the feed and fewer of the plants perifh, than where the foil 
is ftiff, or inclined to wet, or open to the trampling of cattle in 
Winter. In the firft cafe, about a bufhcl of Englifh rye grafs, 
with ten pounds weight of Dutch red clover, fuffice for a Scot- 
ifh acre j in the laft, nearly a bufhel and an half of the former* 

with. 



fcjcJi Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

with fourteen or fifteen pounds of the latter, are requilitc. 
When paflure conftitutes part of the rotation, fome pounds of 
white clover, and of rib grafs, are added ; a part of the rye 
grafs, and of the red clover, being kept back *. 

Hill paflure grafs receives little improvement, except the ac- 
cidental one received from the refrefhment of the tillage, infli- 
tuted, with a view to corn, after lime or folding, as already 
fpecified in pointing out the treatment of the outfield arable 
land of fheep farms. This fort of tillage is beginning, how- 
ever, to be modulated into a greater correfpondence with the 
intereft of the fubfequent paflure. In outfields, of clay or mofs 
foil, at 1000 feet elevation, wet from the continual moiflure 
of the air, alternate oats and natural paflure are the only ad- 
miiTible modes of cultivation. 

Sect. HI.— Hay Harvef. 

The harveft of meadow hay commences at Lammas ; fome- 
times interfering, towards its conclufion, with the commence- 
ment of corn harveil : That of hay, from fown grafles, about 
the middle of July. 

In 



* According to Captain Mackay's experience at Scotflon, in Newlands pariftl, 
yellow or bop clover did not grow at all; neither when fown upon old croft land, 
of deep free foil; nor when fown on light free foil, to the extent of 8 lb. per acre, 
YorlfrAre for (fold under that name in Edinburgh feed Chops, and feeminely a cul- 
miferous grafs, that is natural to our bed leas) produced, with him, upon the laft 
mentioned foil, a tolerable crop of hay ; but, lor two or three years that the field 
was continued in pafhirc, every fpecies of cattle feemed to naufcate the two or 
three experimenting ridges bearing Yorkfhire Tog ; or, at leaft, fo much to prefer 
the other gralTes of the field, that thefe ridges had to be cut for hay, from among 
the feet of the pafluring cattle. He tried alfo, upon a field of the fame fort of 
foil, in a fmall patch of the field, a fpecies of clover called cow grafs (very fimilar 
in appearance to the red clover, with a da.k green leaf, which grows fpontaneoufly 
under our hedges) ; it yielded a very weighty firft cutting of hay, feemingly very 
palatable to horfe's ; the aftermath was inferior to that of the reft of the field, 
probably from the exhauflion of the roots in the weighty firft growth. In fubfe- 
quent paflure, all animals fetmed fond of the cow grafs ; and it remained an yea* 
cv two long" hi the ground., than the Dutch ved clover. 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlnre. l$i 

In making hay from fown grafs, every precaution is taken 
to prevent the exhalation, or warning out of the juices, by the. 
un, air, or rains : It is therefore never, mw t fpread out (or 
ieaded) ; but lies fome time in the fwath, which is alfo turned 
whole ; and, in this ftate of unbroken fwath, is found to fhoot 
off the rain : It is then put up in large cocks, and thence into 
tramped ricks, (that is, ricks built by a perfon who (lands upon 
the rick in building it) ; whence it is carried, at convenience, 
into the Winter ftack, or fold to the confumer. It is faved 
with all that precaution againft exhalation, or fermentation, 
which an apothecary ufes in curing his medicinal herbs, to pre- 
vent wafte or degeneracy. 

In making meadow hay ; from die more advanced period of 
of the feafon, and more foft and fucculent nature of the grafs, 
oppofite maxims of management are adopted ; and every ad- 
vantage, of teading before the fun and wind, is taken, in order 
to procure as much drynefs, as will make it keep in the Win- 
ter ftack. 

Heating the hay in the Winter ftack, would be confidered 
as a deterioration, except in regard to fprot hay, for the pur- 
pofe of making it more eafily chewed. 

The aftermath of clover is fometimes ftacked with dry ftraw 
for fodder. 

Almoft no farmer, now, cuts hay for two fucceffive 
from his field of fown grafs. 

Sect. IV. — Feed:/.'?, 

Turnip is applied to feeding crock fheep, or to the milk 
cows of the dairy ; a few bullocks are alfo fed upon them, be- 
sides the caft-offs of the dairy. Potatoes are very much given 
to hori'es. A fmall quantity of hay is always reierved in the 
arable dairy farms, for new-calved cows in Spring, though the 
greater part is fold. The provident fheep farmers fell no hay, 
till their fheep are enfured againft Winter ftorms. Peas ftraw 
was the great feed of fheep in ftorms,, till fuperfeded by hay ; 

it 



1 5 2 Agricultu ral Survey of Peebles/hire, 

it was always accounted our beft fodder, for horfes working 
hard in Spring ; there is either a prejudice, or experience, a- 
gainft giving it to cows. Oat-ftraw is our next beft draw fod- 
der. Straw of big is dangerous for horfes, exciting inflamma- 
tion ; though this tendency feems corrected by potatoes. It is 
given to milk cows eating turnip ; though chaff of beer, fteep- 
ed in boiling water, is the great dependence of cottagers, 
for their new-calved cows in Spring. 



CHAP. 



Agricultural Survey cf Peellesfhlrt. 153 



CHAP. IX. 

GARDENS, ORCHARDS', 



There are three hot-houfes in Tweeddale ; at "Whim, Kirk- 
urd, now Caftlecraig, and Darnhall ; another is begun at Kingf- 
rneadows, and another probably in contemplation at Kailzie. 
A botanic garden, with fuch exotics as could live in our climate, 
either in the green-houfe or open air, was kept up by the late 
Sir James Nafmyth at New Poflb. 

In hill countries, great heat is often produced, in particular 
fpots, from reverberation. The reflection from a rocky hill 
upon the garden of Pirn, in Inverieithan parifh, is the reafon 
that, in that garden, two crops of peas, fit for the table, have 
been often fucceflively raifed in one feafon from the fame plot 
of ground. I do not however imagine the gardeners' boait, in. 
fome better climates in Scotland, could there be exhibited, of 
fowing peas, reaping their produce, fowing this produce, and 
having eatable peas from that fowing, within the feafon. 



CHAP, 



I ?4 Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJI/ire. 



CHAP. X. 



WOODS AND PLANTATIONS. 



The natural wood is inconfiderable. (See article Surface.) 
The extent of artificial wood, I am apt to think, may amount 
to rather more than two thoufand acres ; but my data can af- 
ford room for only vague conjecture. 

The practice of fallowing, liming, and laying the ground in 
proper ridges, where neceflary for draining, previous to plant- 
ing, has been fometimes ufed ; and ought probably to be ufed 
more frequently. From various quarters, I am affured that it 
contributes aftonilhingly to the quick growth of trees, to keep 
the earth around them in cultivation of fallow for a fuccefiion 
of years. This practice might be worth inflituting, in planta- 
tions in the immediate vicinity of houfes erected in fituations 
that have not the immediate advantage of ready grown fhelter 
of trees. 

The following facts are ascertained in experience by Joh« 
Loch Efq. in his plantations of Rachan. Trees, when not de- 
prived of their lateral branches by pruning, naturally grow with 
their boles of a conical form, correfponding to the general out- 
line figure of the whole tree : After ceafmg to grow fo fall to 
height, the top gets gradually rounded, from the dropping off 
of the under branches through rottennefs, occafioned by the 
overfhadowing of the upper branches : After this period, the 
bole advances lefs in girth at the root, but more in girth to- 
wards the top, lofing more and more its corneal fliape, and 
approaching nearer to a cylindrical form. For experiment's 
fake, he early pruned a parcel of trees in the plantation, by 

rubbing 



Agricultural Survey of PeellesJlAre. 1 55 

rubbing off the lateral buds as they began to fhcot : Thefe trees 
are at prefent, and have been, for many years, of a cylindrical 
form in the bole, from the root up to thole lateral branches 
which had not been difplaced ; whilft thofe, of like age, which 
had never been pruned, ftill retain their boles of a conical 
fhape. Hence, one of two conclufions feems neceffarily to fol- 
low : either, firjly that the upper part of the boles of the prun- 
ed trees has been accelerated in growth, without retardment of 
growth in the under part of the bole : or, fecondly, that the up- 
per part of the boles has made merely, or little more than, the 
ordinary advance •, whilft their under part has been retarded, 
from the abftra&ion of the branches, whofe office it is, proba- 
bly, to attract the fap in greater quantity to the parts of the bole 
contiguous to their infertion. From the general appearance of the 
pruned and unpruned trees, the laft conclufion appears the pro- 
per inference. Whence, it would appear, that pruning is un- 
favourable to the growth of trees \ at leaft, in fo far as to pre- 
vent them from attaining to the fame content of folid wood in 
the bole, in equal time. 

From Dr Anderfon's reafonings, (in the third volume of his 
Agricultural Effays), it would neverthelefs feem probable, that, 
in order to obtain good wood free of notches, the arrangement 
of nature muft be followed in plantations •, that the trees muft 
be planted fo thick, as that the exclufion of air muft fpeedily 
prune off the lower branches, in making them die and drop 
through rottennefs •, or, if not fo thick planted as to produce 
this effect, that they fhould be timeoufly pruned. 

In one part of Mr Loch's plantations (where the furface foil 
is very poor, producing but dwarfifh heath, and incrufted with 
a white coloured lichen, as with a leprofy), it is evident (from 
the firs, in which the length of each year's growth is feen, in the 
length of bole intervening betwixt the off-fets of lateral branch- 
es), that the trees had at firit languifhed, whilft their roots 
were confined to the ungeuial furface foil ; but that, apparent- 
ly, upon their roots piercing into a fubftratum of better mould, 
they had taken on more vigorous growths. 

The 



156 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

The Radian plantations exhibit a linking inftance of beauiyy 
incidentally obtained as an acceflory, where utility was purfued 
as the primary obje£t — the moft fatisfa&ory mode, furely, in 
which it can be obtained. In picking out the good foil, worth 
improving, from the bad, and in enclofing it t the bad was, of 
courfe, endofed \ fo that no farther expence was incurred, in 
planting up the bad foil, but the mere purchafe and infertion of 
the trees : And fuch, happily, is the fituation of the grounds, 
that the plantations are difpofed in all the wild irregularity of 
nature. 

T\\q greateft extent of healthy thriving plantation is, perhaps, 
to be found at New Poflb, and at Stobo, upon the oppofite 
fides of Tweed, in Stobo parifh ; where the foil or climate feem 
peculiarly favourable to the growth of trees. There they hard- 
ly contract mofs, fo incident to trees in the upper parifhes. 

Larix has been experienced to thrive better than any other 
wood, upon our pooreft foils, and in our moft expofed fitua- 
tions. We have ftrong proofs of its fuperior durability in pal- 
ing, even of the fliort age of twenty years growth. It is be- 
come a favourite tree. Hitherto, it has been thinly interfperfed 
among other trees in plantations ; and, from fo fpeedily over- 
topping all others, it is wind-waved, for want of melter. 
This has lately introduced the pra&ice of planting them by 
themfelves, in thickets, that they may {belter one another. 



CHAP. 



Agricultural Survey of PeeklesJIjire. T 5 7 



CHAR XL 



WASTES OK COMMONS. 
(See Enclosing, Page ia6.) 



CHAP. XII. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

Sect. I. — Draining. 

The generality of the cultivated foil in Tweeddale, being 
ligfrt, draining is not of fuch general indifpenfaBility, as in 
counties of more retentive foil: The greater part of it, too, 
lies upon fuch declivity, as affords a ready defcent for the fur- 
face water. Where neceffary, draining has been generally at- 
tempted, either by open ditches, or by covered drains, pretty 
deep and wide, filled with flones, at fuch expence and difficul- 
ty of procuring materials, as precludes any great extenfion of 
them : It m thus attempted, often, at great expence, and, nof 
unfrequently, to very little purpofe. 

Elkington's mode of draining, as defcribed in Mr Jphnfton's 
book upon that fubjedr, viz. " the tapping of the (fuppofed) re~ 
fcrvoirs in hills y by boring auger holes into them> fo as to procure 
a free iffuc for their waters, which are received into, and car- 
ried away by, proper ditches, prepared for their reception ; pre- 
venting, thus, the water from oozing out, from want of pro- 
per vent, in ajl directions, over the edges of theft fuppofed re- 

fcrvoirdj 



1 5 8 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfjire. 

fervoirs, through large tracts of fuperincumbent furface, and 
wetting the land, to a great extent, below : " As alfo, his mode 
of draining land-locked bogs, from whence there is no outlet for 
the water, " by boring through the impervious Jlrata, in the bot- 
tom of the bog, upon which the water rejls, into fuch pervious Jl ra- 
ta as may (very probably) be found to exifl below. " Thefe com- 
pendious modes of draining (when they fhall be perfectly un- 
derftood) promife to be both the molt extenfively ufeful, and 
the leaft expenfive, that can pofhbly be adopted, in all cafes to 
which they fhall be found applicable. In all the fuppofed cafes 
put by Mr Johnfton (in regard to the pofition of the ftrata, 
and of the receptacles where the water fupplying the fprings is 
contained in hills), the remedies fuggefled mult infallibly prove 
effectual : The fuppofition, however, of tke exiftence of fuch 
bowl-fhaped cavities, where the water overflows the edges of 
the bowl all around, and which, inftead of being allowed to 
overflow the edges, might all be drawn off by an auger hole, 
bored into the bottom of the bowl, would, it is feared, be fel- 
dom found realized in the hills of Tweeddale ; where the ftrata 
mere generally affume an oblique pofition, than one any way 
tending to horizontal. It is evident, that the practitioner, up- 
on this method, mud ever proceed merely upon fuppoftion ; 
which may or may not be realized. Long experience would 
feem neceffary to enable him to form probable conjectures. 

But, be fides that wetnefs, arifmg from water-refervoirs in 
hills, and from collections of water in land-locked bogs, there 
are many tracts of land kept in an inferior ftate of production, 
from a thin furface foil incumbent upon a till impervious bot- 
tom ; where, from the incapacity of the foil to abforb any con^ 
fiderable quantity of water, the land is put into a poachy ftate 
by every heavy fhower of rain. Mr Johnfton (in his account 
already quoted) has given a molt perfpicuous and well reafoned 
defcription of the modes adopted in England (particularly in 
the county of Effex), to remedy this evil, by means of a very 
ccconomical fpecies of covered drains. 

Sir George Montgomery of Magbiehill introduced this mode 
of draining, in 179", with molt complete effect, in his parks 

of 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 159 

of Sunnyfide, in Newlands parifh. The foil of thefe paifca 
was of that thin, black, moorifh nature, upon a retentive til!, 
bottom, already defcribed (p. 14.) ; to poachy, in Winter, 
that, when pulverized by fallow, it, in Winter wet, prefented 
no more refinance to the foot of the paffenger (which plumped 
down to the fubfoil), than what would have been prefented by 
a- bowl of rice and milk : Even when in pafcure, and the fur- 
face firmed by grafs fward, the parks were extremely fubjecl 
to Winter poaching ; and, upon the fecond or third year of 
pafturage, the furrows betwixt the ridges ufed to be complete- 
ly grown up with rufhes. The firft park, drained after the 
method defcribed by Mr Johnfton, had been paftured one year 
previous to the draining procefs : In an hour or two after the 
heavieft rains, a horfe may now gallop over this, without al- 
moft leaving the impreffion of his feet 5 and the rufhes, which 
were beginning to take poffeffion of the furrows, have literally 
all perifhed for want of moifture : I have, indeed, never ob- 
ferved fuch a total change of die nature of any foil. The mo- 
derate expence of the execution, would feem to render this 
mode of draining an undertaking fuited to the tranfitory interefr, 
in the foil, of even a tenant upon a leafe of nineteen years j 
provided, at leaft, he is not fubjedted to the rifle of forfeiture^ 
during its currency, from the injudicious retention of the de- 
lectus perftt*, through the conftrudible, or expreffed condi- 
tions of the leafe. The expence would, in few inftances, ex- 
ceed thirty {hillings per Scots acre. 

Inftead of detailing the pradice at Sunnyfide, it may be of 
more ufe to ftate, in general, the mode of forming thefe drains; 
atid the general principles of the practice. 

The eeconomical mode of forming thefe drains/is, FirJI, to 
open up a trench by the plough where the drain is to be drawn, 
throwing off a furrow flice to either hand, in going and returnl 
ing ; if the plough is not ufed, the earth muft be dug out by a 
common garden fpadc, one fading deep. Skandty, Another 
fpading is dug out by a fpade, 12 in.: >, and 3 inches in 

breadth at top, tapering to 5 inches in breadth at bottom ; this 
fecond fpade is pwmdsdrwifch m iron 1 ■■ 1 its-ffiaft, by 

which 



1 66 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

which the digger, Handing on the furface, forces it with his 
foot into the ground, it being impoffible for the operator to Hand 
within the narrow trench, previoufly formed by the common 
garden fpade : the mouldery earth, falling from this fecond fpade, 
is cleared out by a correfponding fhovel, which, for the reafon 
already affigned, is bent a little upwards in the neck. Thirdly 
Another fpading is taken out of the trench, thus formed, by a 
fpade (furnifhed with an iron wing for the foot, a little farther 
up the {haft) of 16 inches in depth, and 3^ inches in breadth 
at top, tapering to 2^ inches at bottom : This fpade is formed 
very ftrong, and rounded confiderably in the back, to afford the 
better prife ; and is, in fhort, pretty fimilar to the inftrument 
ufed in this county, under the name of the foot-pick ^ or pick-ax 
for the foot : The mouldery earth, falling into the bottom of 
the narrow rut formed by this third fpade, is then fcraped out 
by an iron fcoop, attached to a wooden fhaft \ the fcoop is like 
to the one half of a tube divided longitudinally, or to the bor- 
ing part of an auger or wimble ; it is about a foot in length, 
l\ inches in width at the neck, tapering to i£ inch at the 
mouth ; its iron neck is bent, fo that the fcoop forms an angle 
of about 45 degrees with its fhaft, enabling the operator, (land- 
ing with a foot on each fide of the trench, eafily to fcrape out, 
and throw afide, all the loofe earth from the bottom of the rut. 

The bottom of the drain, fo formed, fhould be 26, or,Jset- 
ter, 30 inches below the furface. 

The drain is then fluffed with wood prunings, cuttings of 
hedges, weedings of fir plantations fplit, or with heath or 
whins, or with flraw or rufhes ; which two lafl, when ufed, 
are directed to be twilled into ropes, of the fize of a man's arm, 
and three fuch ropes to be put into the drain, one fingly, the 
other two along-fide of each other. The fluffing is put in, in" 
fuch bulk, as to flick fa ft before reaching the very bottom of 
the rut, fo as to leave a paffage of 2 or 3 inches clear at bot- 
tom, for paffage to the water ; though, when die materials are 
of loofe contexture, this is of Jefs confequence ; the water per- 
colating through their interflices, and finding always more 
room from that decrcafe in bulk, which enfues upon the decay 

of 



Agr'iraltitral Survey of PeeblesJI/ire. i<5l 

of fuch perifhable materials. A perfon, with the fcoop, goes 
immediately before the one putting in the fluffing, to fcrape 
out any loofe fluff that may have tumbled into the rut. It is 
almoft fuperfiuous to mention the propriety of beginning the 
operation of Huffing, at the head or higheft part of the drain. 
The Huffing being put in, and, if it is of very open mate- 
rials, a little flraw or rufhes being laid a-top, to prevent earth 
from running through it — and the drain being fluffed to the 
height of 10 inches, or a foot, from the bottom — the earth 
taken from the drain is returned above the fluffing ; care being 
taken to lay the mofl free and loofe earth immediately upon the 
fluffing, that the water, oozing from the foil, may find ready 
admiffion into the drain : For this purpofe, the fluffing is 
fometimes covered with fand or gravel. 

Where the drains are conducted in the fame direction with 
the declivity of the field (that is, flraight up and down), they 
will draw water laterally to the diflance of two yards and an 
half from their fides, in very retentive foils ; and, by confe- 
quence, they ought to be made parallel to each other, at every 
five yards diflance. They are, in no foil, found to draw to a 
greater lateral diflance than three yards and an half; and, of 
courfe, ought never to be placed at a greater diflance than fe- 
ven yards afunder. The lefs declivity fuch drains have, they 
are, in Effex, accounted the more permanent *, becaufe, where 
the water has a quick run, it is ready to abrade earth from the 
fides, or raife it from the bottom of the rut, fo as to oCcafion 
obftruclions. On this account, where the land lies on a fleep 
declivity, it may be proper to carry the drains Hoping acrofs 
the declivity, in order to diminifh the velocity of the run of 
water ; in this cafe, the drain can only catch the water from 
its upper fide, and can draw none from the other fide ; though, 
perhaps, it may draw to double diflance from land above it, 
than from land upon the fame level ; fo that, probably, the 
drains need not be made more frequent in this direction, than 
when the courfe of the drain follows the natural decline of the 
field, and, cf courfe, draws from both fides. 

Y Drains 



i6i Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

Drains of this kind, fluffed merely with draw, have been 
known, according to Mr Johnfton, to laft twenty years, with- 
out exhibiting the fmalleft fymptom of decay •, and it is not 
known how long they may Itill endure. Stuffed with brufiV 
wood, they have been known to laft forty years, with little or 
no repair. It is judged, that frefh cut green branches are the 
moft durable fluffing, particularly thofe of the willow and the 
beech. Stones are confidered as the very worfl of fluffing for 
fuch drains ; as, whenever an obftruc~lion is once formed, it 
muft remain : "Whereas, when the fluffing is of wood, heath, 
flraw, rufhes, &c. even when fmall obflruclions are formed, 
new vent is foon found for the water, in the vacuities formed 
by the decay of the fluffing materials. 

Where a drain is obftruc~led, the water rifes to the furface, 
immediately above the obftru£lion •■, and the remedy is, either 
to clear out the drain at the fpot, or, which is eafier, to cut a 
new drain from above the obftru£lion into the next drain. 

When obflruclions become fo numerous, as to require the 
field being drained anew, the approved method is to conduct 
the new drains, fo as to cut acrofs the old ones, making them 
alfo a little deeper ; by which means, the field is more effectu- 
ally drained than at fir ft. In cutting acrofs thefe drains, the 
whole fluffing has been found entirely confumed ; but the earth 
fo perfectly arched over the place originally occupied by the 
fluffing, that the paffage for the water remained clear, and the 
drain was found (in the Effex phrafe) to bleed freely. 

Thefe drains can only prove effectual, where the rut, form- 
ed by the laft narrow fpade, is cut into an impervious till bot- 
tom ; as, where the bottom is of fand or gravel, the water e- 
fcapes from the rut, to rife again in fome other part of the 
field. Where there are only partial fpots of this open bottom, 
the Effex practice is, to conduct the water in the rut over thefe 
open-bottomed patches, in a pipe formed of puddled clay. 

The whole drains of the field may be conducted, either in- 
to a receiving open ditch, at the bottom of the field, or into a 
covered drain : in the laft cafe, this receiving drain fliould have 
a flagged or caufewayed bottom, built fides, and covering flags. 

Iu 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfljire. 163 

In very fliff clays, the furface water might be incapable of 
percolating into fuch drains ; in which cafe, crowned ridging is 
the only remedy. 

In fheep-walks, never intended to He ploughed, fuch drains, 
formed much more (hallow, and fluffed or covered, by merely 
inverting the furface turf, might often be of e Hernial benefit. 

Sect. II. — Paring and Burning. 

Vert little ufed in this county ; apparently ruinous in thin 
foils ; might be ufed advantageoufly in deep mofs foils ; were 
it not that not one feafon in ten gives drought enough for the 
operation, and that the preparatory fteps (in cafe of failure) 
v/ould be very obftru&ive to other modes of culture. 

SECT. III. — Manuring. 

Teat/ping, by folded fheep or black cattle, has already been 
noticed. 

The other manures ufed, are, the dung of cattle from the 
farm-houfes, lime, compoft of lime and mofs, or of lime and 
fcourings of ditches *. 

Dung of caltle collected in farm-ofHces, feems too little at- 
tended to, in regard to the mod proper mode of ftoring it up, 
for proper fermentation, and for prefervation. The dungflead 
is often found fituated upon a declivity, allowing the juices to 
run off; or upon a bottom of loofe gravel, unfecured, by 
caufeway, above clay, to prevent the juices from being ab- 
forbed ; or fo placed, that the rain water from the roofs of 
the houfes runs into it, and from it, warning out and carrying 
away the foluble and moft nutritious particles of the dung. 
Little confideration feems paid to the principles, that, too 

Y 2 much, 

• In a comparative experiment of Captain Mackay's at Scotrton, betwixt the 
effects of the pure dung of cattle and thofe of comport of fcourings of ditches 
with lime, both applied to old croft of deep rich loam, the refult turned out in 
favour of the comport, for three or four fucceffive crops. Perhaps in fuch foil there 
plight be much matter for the lime of the compoft to convert info vegetable foo4, 



164 Agricultural Survey of PccblcsJJ/tre. 

much, as well as too little moifture, and too much exclufion 
ef air by over consolidation, as well as the too free admiflion 
of it, are all equally unfavourable to a proper fermentation. 

Lime is, "ft ill, fometimes, injudicioufly applied to the fward 
immediately before ploughing, fo as to fall to the bottom of 
the furrow when the field is ploughed; the practice of letting 
it lye upon the fward for an year or two before ploughing, 
that it may incorporate with the grafs roots, is however more 
approved : It is generally efteemed beft to apply it, new flack- 
ed, in its hi^heft ftate of pulverization, to fallow previoufly 
harrowed fmooth; then to harrow in the lime after it is 
fpread, and afterwards to plough the land with a fhallow and 
narrow furrow. 

Whether, upon land kept in conftant rotation culture, it is 
beft to lime fully at once, or to lime flightly at fhort intervals, 
feems not well decided in this county. 

The theory of lime feems not at all well underftood : And 
it would feem prudent, to keep the theory ft ill open, that it 
may be accommodated to fuch facts as fhall prefent themfelves 
in experience, rather than (hut it up definitively, to their ex- 
clufion — the common effect of theory when embraced as com- 
plete, and adhered to with bigotry *. That its cauftic alkaline 
nature, when applied quick, fhould diffolve the fmall feeds in 
the foil, or the live roots, converting their oils into foap fo- 
luble in water, and fitted to enter the capillary vefTels of the 
roots of growing vegetables, feems contradicted in experience. 
Lime, fpread quick upon growing plants, never has been 
found to diffolve them : whence then fhould it be fuppofed 
deftru&ive of the organization of live roots ? In drying 

pickled 



* Witliout forming a theory, knowledge would be a mere procefs of memory, 
and would confift of a mere lumber load of disjointed, unconnected facts, inca- 
pable of inference or application. It is wifely ordered, for the increafe of uftful 
knowledge, that man mould delight in fyftem j and mould in general feel a mental 
want, till the facts which have reached his knowledge are fyftematically arranged ; 
ivbeii, alone, he can fay, that he under/lands or can explain. Every thitfjj, how- 
ever, has its extremes : fyftematic inference ought never to be implicitly truftcd, 
without verifying its conclufions by experience, where attainable. 



Agricultural Survey of PceUesJfjire. 1 65 

pickled wheat, by dufting it with quicklime, more of that 
fubftance is furely brought into contact, with the grains of 
wheat, than what can be fuppofed to fall to the fhare of the 
feeds of weeds in the foil, ifyen upon a ftrong liming : and why 
fhould what is found beneficial in the one cafe, be fuppofed 
noxious in the other ? Or, if this is fuppofed one of its princi- 
pal effects, beat unburnt limeftone, or flacked lime become 
neutralized or effete by the reabforption of fixed air, fhould at 
leaft be incapable of producing thofe effects ; though it would 
appear doubtful whether its effects have not been obferved 
equally good, when applied in thefe ftates, as when applied 
in its quick or cauftic alkaline ftate. 

From a large tract of land in Lyne parifh, which had never 
been at all cultivated, the farmer reaped a long fucceflion of 
weighty crops of oats, after liming. Upon a renewal of leafe, 
he thought he might apply to this land for a repetition of the 
fame crops, upon a frefh application of lime. He limed a part 
which had lain in pafture for fourteen years ; but his crop was 
worth nothing : And he is convinced, that no return is to be 
expected from this land, but by the application of dung, in 
teathfolding or otherwife. 

In a field in the parifh of Skirling, which was fuppofed to 
have been limed long ago, the tenant had reccurfe to complete 
fallow, as a preparation for laying down in grafs. The field 
was limed upon the fallow ; and a few ridges were left unlim- 
ed, in order to obferve the difference. No difference was ob- 
fervable in the crop laft feafon, nor is obfervable in the grafs this 
Spring. 

Thefe facts feem to indicate, that lime fertilizes, by acting 
upon pre-exifting materials in the foil ; whether, by neutral- 
izing acids inimical to vegetation, and thus removing obftruc- 
tions impeding the operation of its vegetative powers ; or whe- 
ther, by ftimulating, by direct influence, thefe powers into ac- 
tion. 

In Dr Anderfon's eflays on lime, as a cement and a manure, 
fome experiments are detailed, which would indicate its effects 
j$ a manure. And many years ago, I recollect to have heard 

faOs, 



1 66 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

fads, adduced by a Mr Smith (which occurred in his improve- 
ment of the eftate of Mr Glafsford, the great Glafgow mer- 
chant) and by Mr Pitlo, (as refults occurring to him in improv- 
ing farms of Sir William Cunningham's of Livingfton), which 
feemed to point to the fame conclufion. 

Whatever may be the juft theory of the modus operandi of 
lime, its application muft be found, in general, advantageous 
in this county, as may be inferred from the increafing demand 
for it among the farmers. 

From fome experiments we have heard of in Yorkfhire, it 
would appear, that lime laid upon grafs, without being mixed 
with the foil by ploughing, had no perceptible efFecl. At Mag- 
biehill in this county, a grafs park was limed, without being 
ploughed, to the extent of three times the rate of ordinary 
liming ; to the very great improvement of the grafs, and pro- 
portional increafe of the rent. 

The common rate of liming, near to the limekilns, is from 
twenty to twenty-five bolls of fhells, or from ten to twelve fin- 
gle-horfe cartloads per Scotifh acre : though, at the remotefl 
diftance, where the fhells (carriage included) cofl from four 
fhillings to four {hillings and fixpence per boll, even the low 
rate of fifteen bolls of (hells per acre, is found evidently benefi- 
cial upon unreclaimed land newly broken up. Indeed, at thefe 
diflances, the foil is found, generally, more light and fharp. 

Mofs is fometimes applied, even in a raw ftate, and frefh 
dug, to light foils, apparently with good effects. I have feen 
it thus applied at Blyth, in Linton parifh, in fupplement to 
tea thing, upon the ends of ridges, over which the fold-dike 
enclofure could not be conveniently extended. 

Some burn it, after drying it, in open fire ; alleging that 
the fire only diffipates the aqueous moifture, and ufe the allies 
fo procured. Others burn it in a fmothered fire, keeping the 
flame from burfling out, by the addition of wet mofs, frefh dug, 
to prevent the efcape of volatile particles. 

It is very commonly made into compoft with lime, with or 
without a proportion of the dung of cattle. Made into com- 
poft 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 1^7 

poft with lime alone, it would appear, from Lord Meadow- 
bank's experiment, of very little value. 

Mofs, in fome Englifh counties, would appear to conflitute 
a moft powerful manure, even when merely dried, pulverized, 
and fown on the field by the hand. It may, no doubt, vary in 
quality, in different fituations •, and is probably of fuperior qua- 
lity, in proportion to fuperiority of climate. We are led fo to 
judge, in comparing the aftonifhing returns from rnolTes culti- 
vated according to Smith's recent method, in the low-lying 
county of Ayr, with the effects produced in this county, by a 
fimilar mode of treatment, which hath long been pradifed, with 
very little advantage, by Sir James Montgomery of Stanhope, 

at the Whim. 

From Lord Dundonald's experiments, mofs would appear 
convertible into very rich manure, when treated with fuch fu- 
perabundance of alkaline falts as fhall fuffice, not only to dif- 
engage the acid, by which the large portion of oil contained in 
it is bound up, but alfo to convert that oil into foluble foap. 
Lime is our cheapeft alkaline fubftance •, and yet Lord Mea- 
dowbank experienced no valuable refult from the mixture of 
mofs and lime in compoft •, although Smith's improvement of 
mofs in Ayrfhire, feems to depend upon the large application of 
lime to mofs foil, drained with fhallow drains, fo as not to 
dry it to withering. It is afcertained alfo, by late experiments, 
that the alkali of potafhes is obtained, in incomparably greater- 
quantity, from almoft every fpecies of weed dried and bumf, 
than from the burning of wood, whence alone it was in u\'c 
to be procured. His Lordiliip's brother, the Reverend James 
Athol Cochrane, has, this feafon, been inftituting a variety of 
experiments upon mofs, as a manure, and for other purpoks, 
at Lamancha, in this county ; the refult of which will probably 
be laid before the public. 

Lord Meadowbank, in his publication, December 1801, re- 
commends the following method of forming compoft ol mofs, 
the good effr&s of which he conceives as fufficiently vouched 
from his fix laft years experience of its application. 

Let. 



l6"8 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

Let a row of cart loads of new made dung be laid out a- 
long the crown of a dry ridge, on which the midden is to be 
formed, clofe to one another : Let two rows of mofs be then 
depofited, one on each fide of the row of dung. The mid- 
den is then thus formed : The workman begins at one end of 
the rows j he throws forward fo much from the rows of mofs 
as fhall make a bottom of fix inches thick ; he then throws, 
upon this bottom, dung, from the dung row, to cover it ten 
inches thick ; then, above this, fix inches of mofs ; then four 
or five of dung ; then fix more of mofs ; then a thin layer of 
dung : He then covers the outward end, and the two fides, 
with mofs, and lays on mofs a-top till it is raifed to the height 
of four feet, or four and an half. Having thus completed this 
part, he proceeds, as before, till the whole is formed. Afhes 
of coal, peat, or wood, fhould then be fpread over the top of 
the midden, at the rate of about one cart load to twenty-eight 
carts of comport ; or, if thefe are not be had, about half the 
quantity of finely powdered flacked lime. 

The mofs ufed fhould be thrown out of the mofs-pits weeks 
or months before being depofited for the midden ; that, by 
draining and drying, it may not check the fermentation intend- 
ed to be produced, through its excefs of preflure, or of moif- 
ture. Care mufl be taken, for the fame reafon, not to fet a 
foot upon the compoft when making up. And if the dung 
ufed has little litter in it, frefh weeds, potato fhaws, &c. or 
even fawings of timber, muft be added in making the compoft, 
to keep it open. 

In mild weather, feven carts of common farm dung is fuf- 
flcient for twenty-one of mofs. In proportion to the cold, 
more dung is necefiary for proper fermentation. In Summer, 
the fermentation may come on in ten days, or fooner ; it is apt 
to exceed, and to firefang the materials ; a flick fhould be kept 
in it, to try the heat ; and if it arifes to near blood heat, it 
fhould either be watered, or turned over, when frefh mofs may 
alfo be added. It fhould thus remain untouched, till three 
weeks before ufing ; when it fhould be all turned over, upfide 
down, and infidc out. This compoft is equal, weight for weight, 

to 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 160 

|6 the beft dung. "When the mofs is ufed raw, it mould be 
laid upon the midden lumpy, to admit air. 

More experiments ought to be made in regard to a fpecies 
of manure fo frequently obtainable in this county. 

Urine of cattle, till of late too much' neglected, is now more 
attended to : It is collected by earth laid down to abforb it (as 
are alio the juices running off from dungfteads) ; or it is re- 
ceived into a pit furnilhed with a pump. Mr Stewart, at 
Efhields, a farm below Peebles, belonging to James Hay Efq. of 
Hayfton, collects the urine in the way laft mentioned, and ap- 
plies it to the land by putting it into a puncheon, furnilhed, at 
the hindermoft end, with a pipe, terminating in a large rofe 
like that of a watering pan ; the puncheon is fixed upon a 
wheel carriage, drawn over the ' field by one horfe, and the u- 
rine from the rofe befprinkles to the breadth of nine feet ; fo 
that an eighteen- feet ridge is watered in the going and return- 
ing cf the carriage. He obferves, " That as urine is of a 
fcorching quality, it is unfafe to apply it to any growing crop, 
in great heat or drought ; fo that, in general, it is unadvile- 
able fo to apply it, after the month of May : That it ought not 
to be applied to any land in Winter, from its being fo eafily 
wafhed away by rains j and never, on wet lands, earlier than 
the month of March ; and then, only in dry weather : That it 
may be laid upon fallow, at any time when it is dry enough to 
abforb it readily : That, in dry warm weather, it is advanta- 
geoufly laid upon dunghills, particularly thofe of compoft. " 

The modes of applying dung have already been explained. 
Perhaps the mode of applying it, in top dnffngy has not been 
attended to fo much as it deferves. This mode is feldom prac- 
tifed, except for pafture parks, with compoft ; or with cornpoit 
gr afhes, to forward a fecond growth of clover. 

If well prepared dung were fpread upon crops in a grow- 
ing fate, in Spring, it would feem probable that every nutri- 
tious particle, wafhed in by the rains, would be greedily ab- 
forbed by the roots, now in an active bibulous fate : But when 
manure is ploughed in, it feems probable that much of it is 
placed too deep, to be reached by the plants , and, particularly, 

Z when 



f]0 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

when it is ploughed in before Winter for a Winter crop, drat 
much of thofe juices, diluted by Winter rains, paffes by the 
roots, without being appropriated by them, which they would 
have readily abforbed, if in an active vigorous ftate of growth* 
If fuch application were ufed, when the weather is not as yet 
fo hot as to occafion evaporation, or when the plants fo far 
cover the foil as to prevent it ; it feems feafible to fuppofe, that 
a much lefs quantity of manure would produce a much greater 
efFe£t. This mode of application feems to be ui^d, to much 
advantage, in feveral Englifh diftricl:s. I have had occafion to 
obferve, this Spring, great fuperiority of effect from afhes har- 
rowed in with the feed j probably the effect may not be lading- 

Sect. IV .— Weeding. 

The larger weeds only (fuch as docks, thiftles, and mug--* 
wort) are pulled from the corns. Lint alone is carefully hand- 
weeded. Green fallow crops are weeded by hand and horfc- 
hoeing. In an experiment of hand-weeding oats, by James 
Reid Efq. of Peebles, at the expence of about a crown per 
acre, the additional return, above the yield of the unweeded 
part of the field, was eftimated at about one boll per acre : the 
fallow green crop cleaning husbandry being then, however, 
fcarcely in practice, the difference would be the more remark- 
able. Hands could not be procured to carry on this operation 
to any great extent ; and the new hufbandry feems, in a great 
meafure, to fuperfede its ufe. 

Sect. V. — Watering. 

Formerly this fpecies of improvement feems to have been 
pretty much in practice, in the parifh of Dolphington, in the 
Contiguous county of Clydefdale. It feems to have fallen into 
difufc, probably from never having been fcientifically con- 
dueled. 

In the year 1707, a float meadotUy and a catch meadow, 
were formed upon the farm of Kirkhoufe, in Traquair parifh, 

' (belonging 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJ/ire. 171 

(belonging to the Duke of Buccleugh, and rented by Mr Currer), 
by Mr Stevens, the perfon fent to Scotland for that purpofe by 
the Board of Agriculture. 

The fuccefs attending the watering, in thefe inftances, has 
difFufed the practice. A farmer, on Traquair eftate, has got 
one executed by Stevens, which is flooded by the water of 
Quair j being contented to lay out the principal, and to fore- 
go the intereft, during the currency of his tack, upon condi- 
tion of being reiniburfed the principal at the expiry. Robert 
Campbell Efq. has had one formed at Kailzie, to which he is 
intending to make additions ; and feveral more are in contem- 
plation. 

I find no better way of explaining the fubjecl, than by in- 
ferring the following account and plan, which I fent to the 
Farmer's Magazine, and which is inferted in No. X. That 
account was chiefly fuggefted from what I had found in a 
pamphlet, publiihed by Mr Wright in 1798-99, upon the me* 
thod of floating land in Gloucefterfhire. I have added notes, 
from what occurred from the perufal of a pamphlet of Boi- 
jvell's, in Dorfetihire, pubiifhed in 1790. 

Explanation of the Plates. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 3. reprefents a float meadow, under irrigation j the dark 
ihading reprelenting the water. 

When the hatch of the water dam-dike * (marked H) is 
lifted up, the water runs in the natural channel of the river *, 
when the hatch is fliut, as reprefented in the figures, the na* 
tural channel is laid dry below it, and the water runs laterally 
along the main feeder •)• in the direction of the arrows, and is 
from it diftributed into the floating gutters % {g g g g), which 

are 

* Where there is but one outlet (or thorough) in the dam-dike, the dam-dike 
is defigned, by Boftvcll, a Jiuiee. Where there are more than one outlet or tho- 
rough, with correfponding hatches, the dam-dike is defigned a w#/f . 

•J- The main feeder is defigned, by Bofwell, the head mgin. 

\ Bpfwdl (Jefigns the floating gutters trtncLit. 



Tj2 Agricultural Survey of Pt\\ 

are formed along the crowns of the ridges into which the me«J 
dow is arranged, overflowing on both fides of faid gutters, and 
running down the fides of the ridges into the furrows or 
drains § betwixt the ridges (d d a d) \ which drains discharge 
it into the main drain ||, whereby it is returned into its natu- 
ral channel at the foot of the meadow. 

The marks (o o, or a a), and the tufts, in the rmin feeder 
and the floating gutters, denote — Thzjirj}, obftruclions (called 
bends by Bofwell) made by Hakes, or fods, or ftones, in order 
to raife the water, and make it flew over from the main feeder 
into the floating gutters, or from the latter over the panes •, the 
fecond, notches cut in their fides, Math a fimilar intention. If, 
however, the main feeder and floating gutters are properly con- 
ftru£led at their firft formation, thefe fupplementary aids will 
be, in a great meafure, unnecefTary ; for the main feeder ought, 
at its entrance, to be of dimensions juft fufEcient to admit the 
quantity of water which is to be conveyed to the meadow; and 
gradually to contract its fize as it goes along, in order that the 
water, for want of room, may be forced into the floating gut- 
ters, dribbling al'fo over every point of its own fides : The float- 
ing gutters ought to be formed after the lame model, that, by 
their primary conltruclicn, the water may, in like manner, 
overflow their fides through their whole courfe. That as little 
as pofTible of furface may be taken up in unproductive v 
courfes, a fimilar mode of conftruclicn muff, be adopted r 
drains j they ought to be narrow, neareft to the main feeder, 
where they receive little water ;• and to diverge, in proportion 
to the greater quantity of water they have to carrv, as they ap- 
proach nearer to the main drain : This lafl is, for fimilar rea- 
fon, firruhrly conftrudlcd. In the three plate,*, this mode of 
construction is made obvious to the eye. 

The 



$ The furrow drains bet wixl the ridges, K-fw;!l dtfigjis trcr-b drains; and the 
piece of grafs furfuce, over which the water floats, lyhjg betw 
•. he defigns a pane- 
j| The main drain is called, by Bofwell, (A! drain. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/bin. 773 

The meadow, in this plate, mull be conceived to lye" in a 
regular and very gentle flope, from the main feeder to the 
main drain. 

Fig. I. and fig. 2. prefent a view of the ridges cut acrofs, 
with each its feeding gutter (g) upon its crown, with two dif- 
charging drains (del) along their fides. When they are form- 
ed in grafs land, with the intention of preferring the grafs 
fward whole for immediate watering, they may, moft cheaply, 
though more roughly, be formed, as represented in fig. i. ; 
the floating gutter being merely bulked up into its proper fhap -, 
by the foil and fward taken from iffelf and from the receiving 
drains, in forming them j when, the depofitions of fediment 
from the floating water, will gradually fill the moulders of the 
floating gutter, up to die dotted line, moulding the ridge at 
length into the ihape of fig. 2. Were it not for the greater ex- 
pence, it would be better to make them of the ihape of fig. 2. 
at their original formation. It comes more cheap, though it 
occafions more delay, to plough the land into proper ridges, 
and, after completing the formation by the fpade, to fow it 
off with grafs feeds, and to delay the flooding till the fward has 
attained to a proper confidence *. 

In the formation of the meadow, particularly if the dccli-, 
vity is very fmall, care fhould be taken to lofc as little as pof- 
(ible of the level, in the main jfeedier and floating gutters, by 
giving them fuch fmall defcent as fliall barely fuffice to make 
the water run ; in order that the greater defcent may be afford- 
ed to the water, do vm the fides of the ridges from the floating 

gutters 



* It would appear probable, from Tome experiments in Twerddale, that wa- 
ter admitted over recently /own artificial grafts, makes the land throw them out. 
Perhaps, indeed, fuflirient care had not been taken to let the water off as readily 
as it came on : Upon fuppofition, however, that natural graflcs would prove more 
hardy, an intelligent farmer in Dunfyre parilh, Ihire of Ciydcfdalc, who is form- 
ing a water meadow, propofes to take a crop of oats, after a fir ft rough formation 
by the plough ; then to let the land lye in pafhire one feafon, for the further efta- 
Llifliment of the natural grafs roots; then to plough into the full ihape, affifring 
the formation by the fpadc, and to take a fecorjd crop of oats; after which, either 
to water immediately, or pafture another feafon, as the fwaid lhall or (hal! nc* 
appear to have a proper confluence, 



XJ4 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

gutters to the receiving drains j that thus the water may float 
over the grafs panes, with the greater rapidity, and in more 
quick fucceffion — the principles upon which fuccefsful water- 
ing, in a great meafure, depends *. 

The narrower the ridge is formed, the greater defcent can 
be given from the gutter on its crown to the drain in its fur- 
row, fo as to make more water pafs, in a given time, over the 
grafs-bearing pane ; but, at fame time, the more furface muft 
be unprofitably occupied in unproductive gutters and drains. 
A balance medium muft be attempted betwixt thefe advantages 
and difadvantages. Mr Wright expreffes the opinion, * that 
the breadth of the ridge ought never to exceed eleven yards, 
nor to fall fhort of eight. ' Mr Bofweil is not explicit as to the 
breadth of ridge ; he, however, incidentally, in treating of the 
formation of a particular defcription of meadow, in dry ground, 
mentions ten or twelve yards : In general, he obferves, that, 
upon light channelly or fandy foil, the breadth of the ridges 
may be extended, and more meadow may be watered by lefs 
power of water ; and that, in ftrong clay, or moffy [corky) foils, 
more water at a time, and Longer continued, is requifite ; and 
the ridges muft be narrower : In thefe laft foils, the heavier 
and more rapid the body of water which is made to pafs over 
them, fo much the more of beneficial effe£t is to be expected j 
unlefs, indeed, the current is fo unmanageably rapid and weighty 
as to endanger the tearing off the fward, 

It is evident, from the infpe£tion of this plate, that, if the 
meadow has been properly formed according to the foregoing 
defcription, the hatch (H) is no fooner lifted up, than the water 
refumes its natural channel, and the meadow becomes imme- 
diately dry > its figure immediately freeing it of all furface 

water, 
— 1 . ■ 

* In a meadow, formed Spring J 797, by Mr Talbot of Penrick Caftle, the 
defcent of water, in the floating flutters, is at the rate of one inch in nine yards; 
and of two inches in one yard, over the fides of the ridges ; the difhnce betwixt 
the floating gutters and receiving drains being five yards, or the whole breadth of 
the ridge ten yards. This formation, Mr Wright commends as nearly perfect ; 
though, in refpeel of breadth of ridge, he prefers that adopted in the Duke ci 
Bedford's meadow, where, from more abundant water, it is fixe«Vat eight yards* 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. J '} $ 

water. To prevent the poflibility of any water getting into the 
meadow, when intended to be laid dry, Mr Bofwell takes notice 
of the trunk ; which may be a log of wood bored like a pump 
ftalk, and is buried under ground at the entrance of the main 
feeder ; one end (which is flmt with a hatch or plug when the 
meadow is to be flooded) opening in the bottom of the main 
feeder, the other into the channel of the river below the hatch 
(H). The fame efTec} is produced, either by prolonging the 
firft floating gutter into the main drain, with a hatch to fliut it, 
at proper diltance from the main drain, when the water is 
turned upon the meadow •, or by carrying up the firft drain to 
the main feeder, with a hatch to fhut it when the meadow is 
under water, and to be raifed up when the meadow is laid 
dry. 

The convenient contrivance of the way-pane, noticed by Mr 
Bofwell, may here be explained. 

Suppofe, then, the meadow of this plate 1. to be enclofed, 

on one fide by the natural channel of the river, on the other 

three by hedge and ditch, with the ditches next to the meadow, 

and the hedges on the other fide of the ditch ; it is evident, 

that advantage may be taken of the ditches, at the head and 

foot of the meadow, for the main feeder and the main drain ; 

and that the ditch on the fide of the meadow oppofite to the 

channel of the river, may ferve the purpofe of the lefTer drain 

(d) on that fide. Bofwell has no objections to this ufe of any 

of the ditches, but to that of the head ditch, for the purpofe of 

a main feeder : Not only would the roots of the thorns breed 

obftru&ions in the main feeder ; but, which is of more difad- 

vantageous confequence, rats and moles, working in the bank, 

would make holes in it, by which the water would be carried 

off". To remedy this, befides other advantages, Bofwell advifes 

the forming of the main feeder parallel to the head ditch, but 

at the diftance of a half ridge, or pane, below it *. This pane is 

formed to Hope properly from the main feeder into the head 

ditch, and is floated immediately from the main feeder. This 

pane is called the way-pane ; becaufe carriages for carrying off 

the 

• Or at fui : d ■■ • as ilia.ll fufEce to turn a hay cart 



f]6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire* 

the hay are admitted upon no other part of the meadow ; which 
faves the damage that would accrue from wheels eroding the 
floating gutters and fmaller drains ; the hay, in making, being 
all carried up, in courfe, to the edge of the main feeder. 

This meadow is all flooded at one time j or, as Bofwell ex- 
preffes it, by one turn of water, 

Plate II. 

This plate reprefents a float meadow, lying in different de- 
clivities : It may be floated all at once •, or, if the water is de- 
ficient, at all times, or, in time of droughts, any one, or any 
two of the three compartments into which it is divided, may be 
fmgly watered, while the remainder is kept dry : It is a mea- 
dow with three turns of M'ater. 

In this meadow, it is fuppofed that the ground rifes from 
the natural channel of the river up to (F i.), which is a feeder 
with its correfponding floating gutters (g g g g) ; and thence 
defcends to the hollow along which is conducted the drain 
(D i.), which receives the water from the lefTer drains (d d d) } 
and difcharges it into the main drain. It is fuppofed, that the 
ground rifes again from (D r.) up to the fecond feeder (F 2.), 
and thence defcends to the hollow, along which is conducted 
the receiving drain (D 2.) The remainder of the meadow is 
fuppofed to lye in a regular Hope, from the main feeder to the 
main drain, or laft mentioned receiving drain. The letter (r), 
in this and the former plate, marks a fmall rut or gutter, form- 
ed by a fpade or triangular hoe, for conducting water to places 
upon which it does not appear to fcatter regularly. 

The hatch upon the river's natural channel, and the one 
upon the feeder (F 2.), arc reprefentcd as fhut ; and, confe- 
quently, the natural channel, together with that part of the 
meadow which is floated from the feeder (F 2.) as dry. The 
hatches, upon the feeder (F 1.), and upon the main feeder, are 
reprefentcd as drawn up ; and, confequently, the two parts of 
the meadow, floated from them, are reprefentcd as under wa- 
ter. 

In 



I ' i n i > ]..\tj; r.s s vkv r. v 
i> 




"Idle HI. 




n^ 



Agricultural Survey of Peebksjlnre. 1 77 

In the confirmation of float meadows, the floating gutters 
die away to nothing within four or five yards of the main drain ; 
the water from the extremity of the gutter eaiily fpreading over 
that fpace ; or, where ready to collect into a ftrtam before 
falling into the main drain, being made to fpread properly by 
the fmall ruts marked (r) : The fmall receiving drains, for like 
reafon, may be made to die away before reaching the feeders. 
This is reprefented in the plan. 

In forming meadow, Gloucefterfhire flooders make no ac- 
count (according to Mr Wright) of the original quality of the 
foil or fubfoil ; the meadow will, in all cafes, come in time to 
be equally good ; the goodnefs depending entirely upon the 
quality of the water, which foon creates, of itielf, foil enough 
for the plants. The fubfoil is of no account, whether pervious 
or impervious to water \ as it is found (after fufficient time for 
the water depofiting fufficiency of fediment), that the water 
difcharged by the main drain, is, in every meadow, nearly 
equal in quantity to that admitted by the main feeder, any ap- 
parent diminution being no more than what might be fairly at- 
tributed to evaporation, from fuch an extent of furface, with- 
out fuppofing any of it to have funk through the foil *. If, 
however, there are fprings in the meadow, thefe mud be car- 
ried ofF by underdraining j for every meadow muii firit be 
thoroughly drained, before you can drown it to good effetl. 

Ufed water is confidered as of very little ufe ; hence, mea- 
dows formed below another meadow, to be watered by the 
fame water that hath, immediately before, watered the meadow 
above, are confidered of very inferior value. Hence ariLs the 
propriety of making the watered panes narrow 5 as, even in 
meadows where the ridges are the moft narrow, the part of 

A a the 



* Mr Bofwell takes notice of a meadow of thin moorifli foij, upon an imper- 
vious bottom of clay till, watered from a faring near to its, lource. It. proved per- 
ftdly barren : When the meadow was laid dry, a yellowilh-coloun d v.'.itcr ooztd 
through the foil (probably from ochiy impregnation of the fubfpil) : It was /co- 
vered with chalk and other manures, and *11 to no purpo£s ; At length it vi»S 
thoroughly underdrained, when it inn. • ' : ' -■ prpdutSive. 



178 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire* 

the pane neareft to the floating gutter bears more grafs than 
the parts farther off; becaufe the former firft filter the water, 
and tranfmit it ufed, in fome degree ; to the latter : The balance of 
difadvantages, however, forbid too great narrowing of the 
panes, that fufBciency of productive furface may remain un- 
broken. 

Even fimple clear water, taken off for the meadow near to 
the fource of the fpring, and where no extent of furface is 
wafhed by rains to render the water turbid even in the wetteft 
feafon— evenfuch water enriches meadow ; with the exception, 
probably, of fprings impregnated ftrongly with minerals, which 
might prove destructive to vegetation : The beft effects are, 
neverthelefs, to be expected from waters draining a good ex- 
tent of fertile lands, or receiving the drainings of great towns. 

Water is fuppofed to act both as an enricher, and as a Winter 
jheker to the grafs plants. In the former view, the quality of 
its depofitions will afcertain its value ; though (as even the 
water from a fpring enriches, and as this too is deteriorated 
by being ufed), it is not improbable that pure water, in filtering 
through the grafs, undergoes fome kind of decompofition ; in 
the courfe of which it is deprived of fome vegetable pabulum, 
which the plants of grafs affimilate to their own fubftance, 
and which it cannot again render out in the fame quantity, 
to the plants it next paffes over in fucceffion*. As a mere 
Winter fnelter, water fhould have the fame effects, ufed, as un- 
vfcd. For both purpofes, it would appear eligible that the wa- 
ter fhould cover the panes in a fheet of one inch of thick- 
nefs ; and moving in a fucceffion, of the quicknefs given by a 
defcent of two inches to the yard, from the edge of the float- 
ing 

• By Count Romford's experiments on food, particularly in making foups 
from vegetables after long boiling, it would appear that water properly decom- 
piled forms a chief article in animal nutrition. Six or feven ounces of a mix- 
ture of peas, potatoes, and barley, weighed dry, will, after long boiling with 
furticiency of water, furnifh food for twenty-four hours to a hard working man ; 
although it is certain, that a man perfectly idle would abfoluuly Oarve upon fiich 
an allowance, if adminiftered to him under any other form, and though he fhould 
drink along with it the fame quantity of water. 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJIj'tre. 1 79 

ing gutters, upon the crown of the ridge, to the edge of the 
drain along its fides. To cover the meadow with a fheet of 
water exceeding an inch and half in thicknefs, would, it is 
fuppofed, rot out the roots, from the too entire exclufion of 
the air : for the fame reafon, the water mull, at longer or 
fhorter intervals, be turned off the meadow, that the plants 
may get air. Considering the depth and rapidity of water re- 
quired in floating, a confiderable command of water is necef* 
fary for no great extent of meadow. It is always better to 
contract the extent of meadow, than overftretch the power of 
the water. 

Flate III. 

This plate reprefents catch meadow for the fide of a hill, or 
deep declivity It is called catch, becaufe, when the whole is 
watered at once, the water, floating over the upper moii pitch- 
es*, is catchedm the floating gutters, which diftribute it over 
the inferior pitches f. 

The lateral horizontal feeding gutters, which fcatter the wa- 
ter over the firft and fecond pitches, are reprefented as fhut 
by fods, or ftones, &c. (8) ; and, confequently, thefe firft and 
fecond pitches appear dry : The whole water is reprefented as 
palling down the main feeder into the lowed floating gutter 5 
whence it floats the lowed, or third pitch, and is received into 
the drain at the foot of the meadew, to be returned by it into 
the natural channel. 

When the whole is to be floated at once, the ob ft ructions 
(8) are taken from the lateral floating gutters : obstructions, 
meantime, are placed in the main feeder, immediately under the 
floating gutters, to force the water into faid gutters : thefe ob- 
structions muft not, however, entirely obftruct the main feeder, 
but muft allow feme unufed water to proceed to the lower pitch- 
es. 



* I am (uQmciocs that the word pitch is here improperly ufed : I believe a pilch 
of tvork is the tech Die floater's phrafe to denote the portion of a meadow watered 
by one turn of water. It may anf*er wel! enough here as a reference to the plate, 

■(■ Meadow watered by water ctetehed fioru a higher lying tr.e.idew after having 
floated it, is called cat I ...... ■;- EoUe^i. 



1 Bo Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhlrt. 

es. The breadth of the pitches, in catch meadow, I have not 
found ascertained \ they may, no doubt, confiderably exceed 
that of a pane in a float meadow •, becaufe, from the more ra- 
pid defcent of the water over the ground, it may run farther, 
without being fo much impoverifhed by fo much fhorter con- 
tinued ufe. 

Bofwell propofes a different form for catch meadow. The 
main feeder, in this plate, he carries on, along the head of the 
meadow, and down the fide oppofite to that bounded by the 
water's natural courfe. Drains, of fimilar form to thofe mark- 
ed (a d d) in the two preceding plates, but of larger fize, are 
drawn, in the place occupied by the floating gutters of this 
plate, with their fmalier end approaching near to the natural 
channel, and diverging towards (in order to discharge them- 
felves into) the main feeder, on the oppofite fide of the mea- 
dow. Hatches are placed upon the main feeder, immediately 
below its turn down hill, and immediately below the discharg- 
ing mouths of each of the drains. If you chufe to water the 
jirj} pitch by itfelf, fliut the hatch immediately under the turn 
downwards of the main feeder ; the water then accumulates in 
the horizontal part of the main feeder, and it floats over its 
bank upon the firft pitch : meanwhile, all the other hatches 
being opened, the water floating over the firft pitch, is catched 
in the firft drain below it, and difcharged into the perpendicular 
part of the main feeder. To water the fecond pitch by itfelf, 
open the hatch immediately below the turn downwards of the 
main feeder, and (hut the hatch upon the main feeder imme- 
diately below the diverging mouth of the drain lying under 
Jirji pitch ; the water then runs along the main feeder, without 
floating over, till it comes to this fhut hatch j when it runs up 
the drain along the head of fecond pitch, overflows its fides, and 
waters that pitch \ and, the hatches below being opened, the 
drain at the foot of fecond pitch difcharges the water into the 
main feeder. By this ingenious contrivance, the feeders and 
drains fcrve the double purpofe of drains and feeders, into 
which they are alternately converted. 

Catch meadow, on the face of hills, is not fo much prized 
as float meadow upon flat lying land. 

Catch 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesffnre. 1 8 r 

Bofwell propofes, as advantageous, the formation of land 
Into water meadow, even ivhere there is no perenni.il run of wa- 
ter ; if, only, it be fo fituated, that, in wet weather, the draw- 
ings of any large tra£V. of cultivated rich land can be collected 
into a main feeder, and brought over it. This he calls water- 
ing by land flood;-!. 

After what has been fuggefted, as to the formation of wa- 
ter meadows, nothing more feems requifite, on this part of the 
fubjeel:, but the explanation of Rafter Levelling. When mea- 
dow is formed from grafs land, preferving the fward, inequali- 
ties of fmaU account are equalized by this mode : The fmall 
heights are deeply rutted by the fpade into narrow parallel 
{tripes ; one {tripe is taken out, and another left remaining, al- 
ternately ; thofe left, are beaten down by the heel or a mallet ; 
thofe taken out, are chopped and fpread in the little hollows, 
p.nd beaten down : The levelling thus proceeds in double ratio ; 
the heights being lowered down, and the hollows elevated. 



Watered meadows are expected to yield, firft, a Spring 
feed, coming in by the middle of March, or beginning of A- 
pril : This may be paftured till the beginning of May. If a 
crop of hay is next intended, the pafturing muft ceafe then ; 
as, if continued for a Angle week in May, the hay would be 
ruined in quality (according to Wright) ; as it will be foft, 
woolly, and unfubltantial, like a crop of aftermath. Second, 
The pafture having been eaten quite bare, the meadow is wa- 
tered for a few days, (the fewer, in proportion to the heat of 
the weather) ; and, in fix weeks or fo, a crop of hay will be 
in readinefs for cutting. Third, After the hay is removed, 
the water, again turned over the meadow, for a few days, will 
produce a crop of aftermath, for paflure or for green houfe 
feeding : A fecond aftermath, or even a third, is procured, 
fometimes, in the fame manner. 

The Spring feetl, raifed by the Winter watering, is a 
wholefome food for every kind of pafturing animal. No fact, 
however, is better .ascertained in agriculture, than, that paf- 

tuti/ic 



1 82 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

turingjheep on grafs, raifed by Summer watering, infallibly rots 
them. They mud never, therefore, be allowed to tafte the 
aftermath ; unlefs it has been allowed to grow after the hay 
crop, without watering. 

In Scotland, it is not to be expected that watering will 
produce either fuch early, or fuch abundant vegetation, as 
under the fuperior climates of Gloucefter or Dorfet (hires. 

One general rule in watering is — never to admit the water, 
when there is growth upon the meadow, fit for either pafture 
or cutting, as the fediment of the water would make the crop 
naufeous or uneatable — and to admit the water at the time the 
meadow is quite bare. 

Another general rule is, to proportion the continuance of 
the water upon the meadow, to the heat of the weather, con- 
tinuing it longeft when the weather is coldeft. In hot wea- 
ther, too long watering is Did to produce a fcum of a white- 
ifh colour, which is deftructive of vegetation ; and whofe cure 
is, inftantly to lay dry. Hot foil needs fhorte ft j cold, longeft 
watering. 

The meadows ought to be eaten bare in the middle of Oc- 
tober, that they may receive the benefit of the water from 
the firft floods after Summer, which muft necefTarily have the 
richeft depofitions ; and this firft flooding may be continued 
for five or fix weeks. 

In November, December, January and February, the flood- 
ing may be continued ; firft, for five or fix weeks at a time, 
and then, gradually for lefs fpace at a time, with intervals of 
laving dry gradually increating. From Michaelmas to Can- 
dlemas, no flood fhould be allowed to pafs, without its waters 
being thrown over the meadow, to obtain the fediment. In Scot- 
land, the watering may probably be continued through March. 

That the benefit of the water may never be loft, it is pro- 
per to have a meadow with different turns of water j or fepa- 
rate meadows, to be alternately watered, and laid dry. This is 
alfo peculiarly advantageous in procuring an uninterrupted 
fucceffion of aftermath pafture, or green houfe feeding. 

By continued courfe of watering, meadow is not only fer- 
tilized for grafsj but enriched for tillage. 

A 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 183 

A Scotifh farmer is aftonifhed at the accounts of the return 
of meadow, as ftated by Mr Wright. For inftance, in South 
Cerne in Gloucefterfhire, the rent obtained from one of the 
beft meadows, per Scots acre, for five weeks pafture from 
the fecond day of Aprils amounted to no lefs than 5I. 9s. ^d. 
The fubfequent hay crop amounted to 230 Tweeddale ftones 
per acre, at 22 Englifh pounds to the ftone, befides the after 
foggage, whofe value is not ftated. The number of cattle 
maintained per Scots acre, for the above five weeks pafturing, 
amounted nearly to feventeen wedders, one and a fourth cow, 
together with one colt. 

The average value of meadow in Dorfetfhire, is ftated, by 
Bofwell, at a much lower rate. Meadows are let, by them- 
felves, at from 30s. to near 3I. per Scots acre; or, if the crops 
are let feparately, the Spring feeding till the ifl of May is let 
at about 12s. and the aftermath at from 12s. to 18s. per Scots 
acre ; the price of the hay crop varying, according to crop and 
markets, from il. 18s. to 3I. 5s. per Scots acre. 

The expence of forming water meadow, every thing in- 
cluded, Bofwell eftimates at from 5I. to 7I. tos. per Scots 
acre, according to the favourable or unfavourable predifpofi- 
tion of the grounds. 

In high lying fheep farms, where the returns from tillage 
are not adequate to its expence, water meadow feems to pro- 
mife a mode of obtaining an early Spring food for ewes, and 
Winter fodder for milk cows, and horfes kept for carriage of 
fuel and riding, at a cheaper rate than, in fuch fitnations, 
they could any other way be procured. Mr Anderfon has, I 
underftand, introduced watering in his fheep farm of Cramalt, 
in the high lying parifh of Meggot. Our Scotifh experience is 
?£ yet too limited, to decide upon, 



CHAP. 



1 84 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhire. 



CHAP. XIII. 



LIVE STOCK. 



Sect. I. — Cattle. 

The average fize of milk cows may be about twenty-five 
{tones Dutch weight, when moderately fat. The farmer en- 
deavours to fuit the fize of his cows to their pafture. He 
efteems it much more fafe to have them under, than over* 
fized. 

Mr Mackie, in his fecond letter to Colonel Dirom, relative 
to the corn laws, obferves, that fmall animals take on fat 
more readily than large ones, in proportion to their feeding, 
for two reafons : Jirft, Becaufe the furface of the bodies of 
fmall animals is much greater, in proportion to their folid 
contents or weight, than that of large ones ; and, as fat is 
moftly depofited upon the furface of the body, they have, 
confequently, a larger fpace to lay it upon : fecondl^ Becaufe 
the mufcular fibres of fmall animals are lefs tenfe, and more 
eafily admit that fat, which, in the fattening procefs, infin ur- 
ates itfelf into the interior veficles of the mufcular fibres. 
He takes notice of a comparative experiment of fattening large 
and fmall oxen upon turnip and hay ; in courfe of which, it 
was found, that each large ox ate double of what was con- 
fumed by the fmall one. When both were fold, the large 
oxen fetched 12I, each of price, and each pair of fmall ones 

1 61. 

Mr 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjl/ire. 185 

Mr Loch of Rachan fpeaks highly of a breed of cows he 
lias got from Kyle, recommended in Colonel Fullarton's Re- 
port of Ayrfliire. 

Mr Stewart has a breed at Efheilds, picked up in Berwick- 
fhire. Two kinds of them he wifhes to propagate as flock : 
The one, of a dark red colour ; face, bread and legs, white ; 
horns fmall, long, and well fet ; bones fmall for their weight; 
body round ; legs fhort, but well fet on them : The other* 
of a paler red colour, with more of white ; the bones fmall 
alfo, but not fo handfomely fet, nor the horns fo handfome. 
The firfl, are the mod kindly feeders; the fecond, the bed 
milkers: the firft, when fattened, of fuperior beef; the fe- 
cond, yielding mod tallow. 

It feems probable, that a great range of well obferved ex- 
perience is dill neceffary, before any thing very decifive can 
be pronounced, as to the indications in black cattle, that prog- 
nodicate fuperiority, as to the diftinct properties of feeding or 
milking. 

Sect. IE— Sheep. 

There feems to be no clear tradition, nor even plaufible 
conjecture, as to nuhen, or whence, fheep were fird introduced 
into this county, or whether the prefent breed are indige- 
nous, or from another country. There is, indeed, an obfcure 
tradition, that, previous to the introduction, or general pre- 
valence of fheep in the parifh of Tweedfmuir, the farmers in 
that parifh paid their rents, by grazing, for hire, through 
Summer, the oxen then generally ufed by Lothian farmers 
for their Winter ploughing. 

The native Tweeddale breed, which has continued the 
fame as far back as memory or tradition extends, are all horn- 
ed, with black faces, and black legs, and coarfe wool. Their 
fhape, to which alone attention has been paid in fele&ing the 
breeders, is compact, fhort-coupled, fhort-legged, round-bo- 
died, with a riling forehead ; in fhort, pofiefling thofe quali- 
ties, which, in every other fpecies of animal, has hitherto 

B b been 



1 86 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

been confidered as indicative of kindly feeding and eafy 
keep *. 

Sir John Sinclair, to whom his native country {lands 
highly indebted on various accounts, has, feemingly with 
great propriety, recommended the Cheviot breed, as the bed 
adapted of any known fpecies of fine-ivooled Jbeep, for high, 
bleak fituatiens. They are in the courfe of being fairly tried 
ir. Tweeddale. Nothing, however, decifive can as yet be faid 
in regard to the experiment. 

They are hardy and vivacious, and no more liable to difeafes 
or death, than our native kind ; excepting, merely, in a fevere 
feaforij at the time of lambing, when the lambs are more rea- 
dy to perifli from inclemency of weather, being more naked at 
the time of birth. 

Their longer back, longer legs, lower forehand, and more 
lank flvape, would indicate their being lefs kindly feeders : 
they are acknowledged, indeed, to be lb, by thofe who are 
propagating that kind. It is pretty generally fuppofed, that the 
lands, which would fuffice to maintain fl/ty fcores of the na- 
tive breed, would maintain only forty-five fcores of the Che-r 
viotj and that, not from fuperior weight of carcafe, but mere 
unkindlinefs in feeding. 

There is no judging, as yet, of the profit from the fales ; 
as the price has not, as yet, come to its level. Whilft the rage 
for this ipecies of improvement continues, and till once the 
country is fully flocked, the ewe lambs draw a preihnn ajf^clloius 
for breeders ; and even the wedder lambs draw the fame kind 
of price, on account of the wool, from thofe whole farms are 

adapted 



* Mr Stewart, upon Mi- Hay of Hay (ton's farms of Efhields, or Hay (ton, has 
liro-'ght our native breed to bring lambs in January ; from the very plaufible no- 
tion, that they will feed their lambs at ltfs expence than any other breed yet 
known, in that very e>>penfivc fealbn of keeping. The practice was once very 
profitable; but, as in all finailar cafes, the fuperior profit attracts capital to the 
fame employment, till the profits arc beat down, by competition, to the level of 
that obtained in other employments; the only difference remaining, being that 
y/hich confifls in natural advantages for the practice ; for which, proportional kp. 1 . 
jftufl be paid againfl a new Ic 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfbire. 187 

adapted for carrying on this kind of ftock fheep. Meanwhile, 
an adequate price is not obtained from the Edinburgh butcher, 
for the fkins and wool of the lambs, or old flieep difpofed of to 
him ; becaufe he contracts with a dealer, through the feafon, 
for the lkins of all the flieep he fhall kill, at an average price ; 
and he cannot, as yet, fay before-hand, what number uf fine 
fkins he fhall have in his parcel. He reckons the carcafe infe- 
rior, both or lamb and mutton. 

Fine wool, like every other article in commerce, niuft fall 
in price, as it becomes lefs fcarce. There is, too, no reafon, in 
the nature of the thing, why fuch as can afford it, fhould not 
give a proportionably higher price for delicate mutton, as for 
fine wool ; it being juft as reafonable to wifh to be delicately 
fed, as to be foftly clothed : Nor is it perfectly afcertained, that 
the mutton of the Cheviot breed conies up to the acknowledged 
delicacy of that of our native breed. 

It remains, then, as yet, to be determined, by fair experi- 
ment, whether, in point of profit, the acknowledged fuperiori- 
ty of the black-faced breed, in regard to feeding and carcafe, 
and the lefs rifk of death of lambs, fhall furpafs, or equal, or 
come fhort of, the acknowledged fuperiority of the Cheviot 
breed, in regard to wool. The experiment will be completely 
tried ; and, if fuccefsful, the change of breed will be as com- 
pletely effected : For the Tweeddale farmers are certainly as 
much fet upon their own intereft as any other clafs of men, 
when, only, it is clearly afcertained to them where their inte- 
reft lies. 

In regard to agricultural improvements, the higher ranks of 
fociety are ready to difplay too much of the Ipirit which ani- 
mates the democrats of the day ; their notions of improvement, 
haftily embraced from mere partial views of the fubjecl:, mult 
be inftantjy adopted, and every ancient fyftcm mult be over- 
turned, to make way for them ; their abitract reafonings, ,} 
priori, mult be implicitly confided in ; pa ft experience is un- 
worthy of atteiitioni and future experience nor worth wai 
for'; innovation is reform; a cau 11 it) ainil chaj 

-1 • ' ■':• il ' ' \udke t hvi'T. . 

ef 



1 88 Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJInfe. 

of mental energy, and of directing itfelf by the polarity of rea* 
fon *. The fame zeal leads, in both inftances, to the fame 
difregard of veracity ; and the report of an infuriated reform- 
ing gentleman farmer, as to agricultural fa£r.s, deferves as little 
credit, as that of a democrat in regard to public events. 

In gentlemens parks, different kinds of fine-wooled fheep 
have been kept ; particularly the Bakewell breed, with long 
combing wool : The South Down have, of late, been adopted, 
by Sir James and Sir George Montgomery, at Whim and Mag- 
biehill j and by the Countefs Dowager of Dundonald, at La- 
mancha. Their wool, though lefs in quantity, may, from fu- 
perior price, render them equally profitable with the Bakewell ; 
while their fmaller fize would indicate their flefh to be more 
delicate, though not comparable to that of the black-faced 
breed. 

The idea which has been fuggefted, of dividing, univerfally 
through this county, the high lying coarfe pafture from the 
lower and more fine, appropriating the former to the coarfer 
wooled, and more eafily kept breeds, and the latter to the lefs 
kindly feeding, but finer wooled, would be found inadmiflible ; 
the coarfe-wooled kinds requiring lower pafture for Winter. 
Even where old wedders (the hardieft of all fheep) are kept, 
there muft be varieties of pafture, to fuit the changes of fea- 
fon. 

The period of geftation, with fheep, being twenty-one weeks, 
the general term of the admiffion of the tups to the ewes is 
the 2 2d November ; fo as that the lambing may commence by 
the 1 8th of April. In lower fituations, where tire grafs fprings 
earlier, the tup is admitted perhaps ten days fooner. Except- 
ing 



* Mr Chatto of Mainhoufc, near Kelfb, at one time, followed farming as a 
profeffion. When he commenced practice, Jlraight ridges were the order of the 
day ; every one was branded, as prejudiced to antiquated abfurd cufbm, who had 
not ftra'iglu ridges, at all events : He, too, therefore had his ridges ftraightened. 
He has afTurcd me, however, that of all other errors in farming, he never fo 
heartily repented of any one, as of ftraightening ridges in wet land ; the former 
high crowns, now levelled, remaining for years perfectly barren ; and the old fur- 
rows, now filled up, bci»g converted, into mire. 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfjire. itg 

ing in two or three very high-lying farms, the tup is admitted 
to the gimmers, as well as to the older ewes. According to 
the poverty or richnefs of the pafture, and confequent more 
enlarged, or more circumfcribed ipreading of the fheep in their 
feeding, one tup fuffices for forty, or for fifty ewes : And no 
more than what are neceffary are kept of fuch an unprofitable 
flock. An enclofure would feem highly neceiTary in every fheep 
farm, in which to confine the tups for fome weeks, previous 
to their admiffion to the ewes, in order to fuperfede the awk- 
ward contrivance ot a cloth fewed over their bellies, which, 
though it prevents the premature impregnation of the ewer, 
does net prevent exhauftion — not to mention the excoriating 
effect of the confinement of the urine. 

The lambs intended for wedders, are caftrated as late as can 
be hazarded, that they may fliow better in the forehand, and 
in the born * ; but early enough to avoid the great Summer's 
heats, which would render the operation dangerous : The u- 
fual feafon is fome time in June. Thunder or froft, immedi- 
ately after the operation, are both highly dangerous. The 
mode of operating is this : One perfon, commonly a maid-fer- 
vant, holds up the lamb, with its back againft the holder';, 
breaft ; the operator, ftanding before the lamb, cuts off a part 
of xhefcrotum with a fharp knife, then fqueezing out the tefti- 
cles, he catches them betwixt his fore-teeth, and draws them 
away, with all their vefTels attached to them. 

Lambs are not fhorn till the fecond July from their being 
lambed. 

The 



* It feems odd, that caftration mould produce fuch oppof:te effects in the bull 
and the ram, increasing the growth of horn in the former, and diminilhing it in 
the latter. This is one, of various inftances, in which analogy does not hold. 
We mud have recon rfe to analogical reafoning, in fubjefts inaceeffible to expc;i- 
ence: It is, however, idle to reft upon analogy, where we have accefs to confirm 
or annul the eonclufion by experiment. That like events Iriall take place in like 
circnmftances, is the fundamental principle of all reafoning, as to caufe and ef- 
feft; but circumftancet wilt appear alike, upon a fuperficia! view, where a 
difference may he dimmed upon mere minute e- amination. 



ipo Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJj'irc. 

The breeding ewes are cafl off at the ages of four, five, or 
fix years ; requiring, proportionally, the retention of a greater 
or lefs number of lambs, annually, to keep up the flock. Some- 
times particular ewes will mew iymptoms of failure more ear- 
ly, or will retain their vigour longer than any of thefe allotted 
periods : Their ftate is examined once a year, and is judged 
of by the appearance of their eyes, and the condition of their 
teeth, when thofe to be call off are diftinguifhed by fome vifible 
mark of heel (an iron ore which makes a red mark) or of tar. 
It is judged belt to caft them while yet in full vigour, as they 
draw the better price. From the retained name of crocks, or 
decript, the old practice had been different. 

The fheep are all fmeared, or falved, at Martinmas, with 
a mixture of tar and butter : twelve Scots pints (twenty- 
four Englifh quarts) of Norway tar, with one and a quarter 
Hones (16 lb. of 22 oz. going to the Hone) of Orkney butter, 
fuffice for fifty lambs, or for fixty fmeared for the fecond time : 
The fame tar, with a ftone and an half of butter, fuffice for 
eighty older fheep. The young fheep require more tar, in pro- 
portion, in order to kill the vermin, to which they are more 
fubject. Smearing is farther judged neceffary to keep the wool 
in better quality, and in greater quantity ; as, alfo, for a de- 
fence againft cold and wet. It, no doubt, difcolours the wool ; 
and the reprobation cf this long-conftituted practice, furnifhes 
a theme for declamation to our ignorant, inexperienced, revo- 
lutionary, reforming farmers *'. 

About the beginning, or towards the middle of July, the 
lambs, intended for holding flock, are weaned ; when they re- 
ceive 



* Mr Loch of Rachar, obferves, that a fmear, which fliall, at once, fhoct the 
rain, kill vermin, and defend the wool from the withering efftd of weather with- 
out difcolouring it, feems to be, hitherto, a dtfiicrat.im in fheep farming. He 
propofes a fmear compofed of butter, train oil, and turpentine. 

Ik informs me, that, ten or twelve years ago, on obferving a recommenda- 
tion to that effefl; from the Wool Society, he clothed fixteen of his flock, from 
the neck to the tail, with cerecloths of a foot in breadth, as a fubftitute for fmear- 
ing: But, at hearing time, the wool below the cloths was fo padded and glued 
together, by the viicid clammy pcrlpiration from the animals body, as to be good 
i'jr nothing. 



Agricultural Survey of PecbtesJJjlre. 191 

1 1 
Ceive the artificial marks to diftinguifh to whom they belong; 

which are, the farmer's initial, ftamped upon their nofe with a 
hot iron, prcvincialiy defigned the barn ; and alfo marks cut in- 
to the ear with a knife, defigned lug mark. Head mark, or, 
in other words, that characteriilic of individuality ftamped by 
the hand of Nature upon every individual of her numerous 
progeny (and which we learn fo readily to difcern, in all thofe 
fpecies with which we are moft familiarly converfant) is, how- 
ever, efteemed, by every fheep farmer, as the mod certain and 
unequivocal mark of the identity of a fheep : It is a mark with 
which no coincidence can take place (as in artificial ones), 
through either accident or purpofe. An intelligent fhepherd, 
whofe perceptions are fharpened by habitual attention, can rea- 
dily diftinguifh every individual of his flock, independent of 
any artificial mark ; jail as he could recognize a fellow fervant, 
upon perfonal acquaintance, whether he were drefled in a long, 
or fhort, or black, or white coat, or wore no coat at all. A 
perfon, remarkable for his quicknefs in diftinguifhing fheep, has 
been known, for a wager, to put threefcore of ewes and lambs, 
of a flock he had never before feen, all higgledy-piggledy, into a 
houfe, and immediately to go in himfelf, and to turn them all 
out one by one •, firft, a ewe, and then her own lamlx, without 
committing a fingle miftake ; although the only means required 
by him, to enable him to diftinguifh fo accurately, was to be 
allowed to obferve them for half an hour quietly feeding, each 
ewe with her lamb alongfidt; of her, previous to their being 
driven into the houfe *. 

After 



* It is exceedingly probable that the individual, in every fpecies of animals, 
is perfectly diftinguilhed from every other individual of the fame fpecies, by dm-, 
raaeriftic marks of individuality : How ell'e, indeed, cou!d matfcs diflingiiilh cadi 
ether at the pairing feafon ? But, from want of habitual and minute attention, 
the general uiemblancc alone (hikes us ; whilft the minute differences efcape our 
obfervation. To one unaccufromed to fheep, a Tweeddale flock (ail of one make 
of body, and lame texture of wool, all homed, uiih black facts and legs'! would, 
upon a curfory view, appear as perfcdly alike, and tcu:aiiy iiiuliltingiiiuYible from 

one another, as a flock of crous. I qr.cfiion not but a crow herd svoultf I ; 

learn to di.linguifli individuals as perfcft!) as a Jhcpherd. I rccollal h . 

whew 



192 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesf/ire. 

After rearing the Iambs, the ewes were wont to be milked 
foe fix or feven, or even to the length of ten weeks. The 
practice is, in fome farms, totally difcontinued, to prevent 
weakening the ewes ; where continued, it is ufed in modera- 
tion. 

The lambs, for holding flock, immediately upon their be- 
ing weaned, were in ufe to be fent, often to great diftances, 
to be fummered (as it is called) for fix weeks, upon barren 
heathy land, in fome cold, bleak lituation ; from a notion that 
fuch rugged treatment had a tendency to harden their con- 
ftitution. Very violent tranfitions of this nature, from the 
molt palatable and nutritious of food, the mother's milk, to 
fuch unpalatable, innutritious, and hardly digeftible pafture, 
aie, however, now generally condemned. The lambs arc 
indeed fent to the higher parts of the farm, whofe grafies 
are, at this feafon, in their higheft ftate of perfection ; care, 
however, is taken that their food {hall be both copious and pa- 
latable. Meanwhile, fome better and lower lying pafture is 
faved (hained) for them, for their Winter's provifion : what is 
thus hained, is called the hog fence. Formerly, the hog fence 
was referved exclufively for the lambs, which were admitted 
to it at Lammas 5 but, from the obfervation made in farms 
fo fmall, as not to admit feparation of hirfels, that the hogs 
were much lefs fubjecl to the fcknefs (a difeaie often ex- 
tremely £ata! to hogs), it has, of late, come pretty much into 
practice, to allow the old {heep and the hogs to pafture indif- 
criminately together. 

The earlieft fpringing food of flieep, is a plant, bearing a 
white cotton head upon its feed-ftalk, vulgarly defigned Mojf- 
crop : It begins to fpring about Candlemas, if the weather 
proves frefli : It grows in mofies. Draiv-ling fucceeds it, in 
the month of March ; fo defigned, becaufe the (heep feize, 

tenderly, 



where met with a remark, that a painter, in drawing a foreigner, is much more 
apt to hit off the general national appearance, than the individual refemblancc. 
Fpr this rcafon, county reports might he bell made up from the reports of two, 
a foreigner and a native; the fitft for the general features, the latter for minute 
differences. 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjljire. 193 

tenderly, with their teeth, the part of the plant appearing 
above ground ; and, inftead of biting it over, they draw up a 
long white part of the plant from a focket under ground. The 
latefl fpringing plant is faath, which yields its flower to the 
bee, after all other flowers have decayed. A proper fuccef- 
fion of earlier and later fpringing heath, is a matter of efl'en- 
tial confequence in mod Tweeddale fheep farms, (and indeed 
in all fheep diftri£ts where heath abounds), in order that the 
range of this fpecies of food, in its mod eatable ftate, may ex- 
tend through the greater* poflible portion of the feafon. This 
fucceflion is obtained by burning a certain portion of heath, 
each Spring, before the rifing of the fap j fo as to have heath, 
upon the farm, of one, two, three, or four years growth from 
the root. As in all plants of a fhrubby nature, the heath 
plants mod recent from the root, fend forth their fhoots 
moft early in Spring, and the oldeft later in the feafon. 
When the game laws were, of late, altered, by protrading 
the commencement of partridge mooting, in favour of late 
corns, it is pity but the legal feafon for muirburn had alfo 
been prolonged, in favour of the fheep. There is not one 
year in ten, in which the proper quantity of heath can be 
burnt within the time limited by law, which extends from 
Michaelmas to the end of March : Burning in Winter ha$ 
been found deftruclive of the heath, in fome inftances of trial. 
Old heath, or whins, or broom, are the great refource of 
fheep in Winter fnow ftorms, as they keep the fnow afloat, 
and allow the fheep to come to the grafs growing about their 
roots. I have never heard of any attempt to cultivate any of 
thefe plants for fheep, but whin and broom. 

Prejudices continued long in Tweeddale againft artificial 
fhelters and Winter feeding for fheep, upon fuppofition that 
they rendered them too lazy to dig the fnow with their feet, 
in order to come at their natural food : Both thefe prejudices 
have nearly vanifhed, being expelled by experience. Trees 
are, in various inftances, planted for fhelters. It would be 
for the intereft of ev?ry proprietor of fheep farms, to encou- 
,. Cc rage 



I £4 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

rage the farmer to rear fhelter of trees, by allowing him the 
V/eedings of the plantation, and becoming bound to pay the 
farmer, at the rate of perhaps 8d. or iod. apiece for every tree 
left (landing at fpecified didances, at the expiry of his leafe : 
Such an intereft communicated to the farmer, would give the 
mod effectual fecurity for the protection of the trees. Shel- 
ters are alfo procured by buildings, enclofing a fquare open 
area in the middle, furnifhed with (hades on every fide. Stells 
(that is, circular fpaces of area, proportioned to the fize of 
the flock, enclofed by a five or fix feet wall of done or fod, 
without any roof) were the primeval fhelters invented by our 
forefathers : The circular figure of the building caufes the 
drifting wind, in fnow dorms, to wheel round it, without 
rifmg over it, and depofiting the fnow in the calm region 
within. The Iheep are fed, in Winter dorms, with fuch 
provifion as can be procured, under the trees, in the (hades, 
and within the circles : Even where no feeding is adminider- 
ed, much advantage refults to the animals from mere defence 
againd the weather ; and they are much the more alert in 
iearching for natural food, fo foon as the dorm ceafes. The 
mode of acting of the fheep, gives a pretty certain indication 
of the weather to be expected : Upon the near approach of 
a fnow dorm, thofe accudomed to (helters, are obferved to 
make for their (helter : Upon the near approach of thaw, their 
prefentiment leads them to be lefs indudrious in digging the 
fnow for food, as if confcious that fuch labour was no longer 
neceflary. 

When fnow drift unexpectedly arifes, and the depth of 
fnow on the grounds prevents the poflibility of driving the 
iheep to fhelter, the herdfmen gather them together in a body, 
and keep them in condant motion, that they may tread down 
the fnow as it falls, and may not be whelmed up by it. The 
natural fhelters are the leeward fides of hills of Jleep declivity 
(or Jlrait hields) \ a calm is formed immediately under their 
brow, where the drifted fnow is depofited and accumulated, 
whilft the flieep red, unmoleded by it, farther down the hill. 

When 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 195 

When thaw comes, the fheep are carefully guarded againft 
refting upon thefe bields, where they formerly found fhelter ; 
as the heat of the earth, melting the under furface of the ac- 
cumulated mow under the brow of the hill, caufes the wreath 
(called, from its figure, a combed wreath) to Aide down in a 
body, like an avalanche in the Alps, crufhing to pieces every 
thing it meets in its courfe ; the very weight of the wreath, 
when long accumulated by drift-winds blowing from the fame 
quarter, expofes the fheep to the fame rilk, in their bields, even 
in time of froft. 

The proper hirfeling and herding of the fheep, in claffing them 
into diftinct flocks or hirfels, and in allocating to each flock 
its proper walk for the different feafons of the year, are mat- 
ters much attended to. A proper management in thefe re- 
fpects, is held as the diftinclive mark of fuperiority in fheep 
farming. 

The principles of hirfeling are, to clafs into fepaTate flocks 
fuch fheep as are endowed with different abilities of fearching 
for food ; and to have all that are in one flock, as nearly as 
poffible, upon a par, in this refpecl. For inftance, ewes far 
gone with lamb, or fuckling their lambs, muft not be clafTed 
with fheep unclogged with fuch incumbrances, who would al- 
ways get the ftart of them in running to the beft bites. Hogs, 
too, mould be kept feparate from the older fheep, who would 
intimidate them ; and mull alfo be provided, if poffible, with 
more delicate and more plentiful food ; though, as already ob- 
ferved, this advantage to the hogs is now beginning to be in 
fome meafure relinquifhed, on account of the diminution of 
the rifle of their death refulting from their pafturing in com- 
mon with older fheep— whether this diminution of rifle arifes 
from prevention of over eating, or is owing alfo to fom? 
other undifcovered caufe.. 

The principles of herding are, to allocate, to each particular 
flock, feparate walks upon the farm for each feafon of the 
year ; fo as that all the different kinds of herbage may be com- 
pletely ufed, in their refpedive proper feafon, and a fuilicien- 

cy 



ir>6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

cy be left, in a proper eatable ftate, for Winter proviGon, after 
all frefh fpringing of grafs is over *. 

Such are the general principles kept in view, in regard to 
hirfeling and herding : Their proper practical application de- 
pends upon profeffional fkill ; or may be neceffarily determin- 
ed by the peculiar circumftances of the farm, which may ren- 
der it neceffary to be contented merely with what \:- pvndicable\ 
inftead of what would be more eligible. In very fmall fheep 
farms, hirfeling cannot be attended to, the rninutenefs of each 
diftincl hirfel, into which they muft fall to be claffcd, being 
unable to afford the expence of feparate herdfmen. 

It 



* Many intelligent farmers are of opinion, that the whole of hirfeling and 
herding refolyes it fell into the fimple principles following, viz. to have no more 
frock upon the farm, than what can be abundantly fnpplicd with food ; to keep 
the whole pafiure in its higheft eatable ftate, by fhifting the flocks gradually over 
the whole in fucceffion, fo as that none of it (ball have fprung to feed-ftalk, or 
fhall have withered or rotted, before the fheep are admitted to it ; and, that after 
having eaten up what they have been laft admitted to, they fhall always have ano- 
ther fpaee in readinefs, which fhall have lain vacant for perhaps three weeks, and 
no more than three weeks, for freshening and taking on a new growth; and, that 
as to Winter provifion of grafs, after all fpringing of grafs has ceafed, it is in vain 
to think of fupplying this, by referring a part, till it has grown withered, rotten, 
and uneatable ; for that faid reftrvation would have done them more good by 
putting it previously into their bellies and upon their backs, when it afforded nou- 
l.ifliing food, than by preftnting it to them in Winter, when unpalatable, innu- 
tritive, and unwholefome. The dependence of fheep againft fuflering in the un- 
productive months of Winter, muft be chiefly fought in their good habit of body 
before Winter fets in; as then they muft depend, for immediate food, upon 
Inch fcanty picking as can be got from heath, whins, or hardy coarfe grafles, 
which they rejected in Summer, and which (land through Winter ; and hay in 
: irms. 

They account nothing more nccifUry, in regard to feparation into difti'ncl hir- 
fels, than to keep the lambs, after weaning, upon the lower part of the paf.uiv, 
fiom Auguft till December ; after which, all gr> mixed over every part of the farm 
till March, when the heavy ewes arc Separated from the barren fheep, and feed, 
mbs, upon the lower pafhire, till the time that this paflure is again 
lit ap; new-weaned lambs. They judge, that more depends, in j . 

f fickneTs, upon tiie grafs being always in an eatable ftate, than up< n mix- 

the old witfi tlie young fheep upon the hog fence. Where a breeding farm 

. hogs, the heavy <:•■>.?$ arc worft cflin Spiing, the hog* getting the Iomt 

■ Is to fit them fooner for the market 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/litre. '\ty) 

It is a fact afcertained, that fat fheep, from farms of dif- 
ferent .qualities in Tweeddale, fhail appear equally fat to thd 
handling of the butcher; yet the one kind fhall yield perhaps 
one third more of tallow, in proportion to weight of carcafe, 
than the other kind. Here, the locality of the depofition of 
the fat depends upon the pafture, and not the breed. May 
there not be fufpicion of quackery, in the reports of breeders, 
as to the propenfity of peculiar breeds to depofit fat on parti- 
cular quarters ? 

Sect. III. — Horfes compared to Oxen. 

Where arable farms are of fufficient extent to admit of 
fubdivifion of labour among the labouring cattle ; fo as that a 
fufficiency of heavy, flow work, requiring mere ftrength and 
fteadinefs, could be entirely appropriated to one clafs ; whilffc 
another clafs could always be employed in work requiring 
chiefly agility and expedition ; it would then, evidently, be 
advantageous to keep two diilincl fets of cattle, for thefe di- 
ftin£t fets of operations. But as almoft none of the Tweed- 
dale farms are of fuch extent as to admit of this diftinct ap- 
propriation of different kinds of labour, cattle muft be kept 
which will equally anfwer all kinds of labour. In this view, 
the horfe will be found a much more univerfal animal than 
the ox : and the horfes fitted for Tweeddale, muft be fuch as. 
poffefs a confiderable degree both of ftrength and of mettle. 

The breed of horfes has been confiderably improved, fincc 
the introduction of two-horfe ploughs. 

Oxen, once univerfally ufed in ail kinds of tilth, are now 
as univerfally laid afide ; a fact, clearly decifive of the inutility 
of ufing oxen for labour. Could the farmer, by ufing oxen 
inftead of horfes, fend more produce to market of beef or 
corns from his farm, would any thing elfe be necefiary to in- 
duce him to adopt the change ? An intcreft may not be pur- 
fued when it hath never been clearly feen ; but nothing will 
induce the dereliction of an intereft, already feen and reaped^ 
but the difcovery of a fuperior intcreft arifing from a differ- 
ent management. 

The 



Ip8 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

The fubftitution of oxen for horfes in labour, is, never- 
theless, the theme of popular declamation ; and it would not 
be at all furprifing, if fome of the wife city committees, fit- 
ting in profound inveftigation of the caufes of the high prices 
of provifions, fhould bethink themfelves of applying to the 
Legiflature to enforce this fubftitution by compulfion. We 
would rather recommend it to them, to get over their preju- 
dice againft the ufe of horfes flefh as food : No defcription of 
pafturing animal will take on flefh more fpeedily than the 
horfe ; and, if his flefh fhould become palatable, he would be, 
in this refpe£t aifo, much more ceconomically kept than the 
ox. We have heard of dogs having been ferved up at table, 
in this country, after the manner of Otaheite : It would be 
much more patriotic, to introduce the Tartar fafhion, of eat- 
ing old horfes well fattened : Indeed, after overcoming the 
repugnance arifing from the hideous and difgufting appear- 
ance of that undiftinguifhingly voracious and fcrophulous-look- 
ing animal, the fow, repugnance to the flefh of horfes would 
appear a mere prejudice of education — like the prejudice a- 
gainft potatoes entertained, according to Count Rumford, by 
the Bavarians, which obliged him to introduce them by 
ftealth, a6 an article of food, into the poors-houfe at Mu- 
nich. 

Sect. IV.— Hogs. 

Swine are kept at corn-mills, and upon the offal of dairy 
farms : There is a prejudice againft the ufe of their flefh, 
which is daily giving way. 

Sect. V. ^-Rabbits. 

They are found wild in the fand-hills of Linton parifh v 
fometimes kept tame in houfes ; but are not an article in com- 
merce. Some of the fand-hills juft mentioned, might proba- 
bly be converted, with advantage, into warrens. 

Sect* 



Agricultural Survey of Pecblesjhire. 199 

Sect. VI. — Poultry. 

They are impofed fometimes as kind rent. The town of 
Edinburgh feems not, as yet, fufficiently rich to afford fuch a 
price for poultry, as would render it profitable to apply the 
whole produce of a farm to the rearing of them as its ftaple 
article of fale. Thofe fold to Edinburgh, are, therefore, only 
in fuch quantity as can be reared from the mere offals of the 
farmers barn-yards ; or as are foolifhly impofed beyond this 
extent in kind rent. 

Sect. VII. — Pigeons. 

There are few pigeon-houfes, and, I believe, none that 
yield rent. It is a general complaint, that they do not thrive ; 
which is, upon the whole, no lofs ; the farmer fuffering the 
lefs from the privileged depredations of this protected ani- 
mal. 

Sect. VIII.— Bees. 

Much, of late, has been faid of their poffible product j 
and they are probably not fo much attended to, in Tweeddale, 
as they deferve. If the country, however, were flocked with 
them to the utmoft poffible extent, it might be queftionable, 
whether the diminution in produce of beef, mutton, wool, 
hides, and tallow, from the impoverifhment of the pafture, 
would not more than compenfate the return in value, from 
the increafed production of honey and of wax. Were the de- 
predations of the bee confined to the flowers alone, which are 
unpalatable to pafluring animals, from the wife provifion of 
Nature for the prefervation and propagation of feeds *, the 

range 

* Mr Loch of Radian, in his letter to me, incidentally takes notice of thii 
wife arrangement of the inflinc~t of palluiing animals. He obferves, that they will 
kardly touch the feed-ftalks of plants, ac if cwfifcioui of the confequences; but 



Zoo Agricultural Survey of PeeblfsJJjire. 

range of the bee would lefs Interfere with the pafture of other 
animals : But the bee feems equally fond of the rich exfuda- 
tions from both buds and leaves ; the abftra&ion of which 
may probably leave the plant more barren of the proper nou- 
rifhment of cattle. 

The improvement of agriculture, from thinning the num- 
ber of weeds producing their flowers and feeds at various fea- 
fons of the year, has a tendency to diminifh the range of food, 
both for game animals and for bees : The number of the for- 
mer has, accordingly, been obferved to be diminifhed ; and, 
by like reafon, the land may have been rendered incapable of 
fupporting fuch numbers of the latter : The fame reafon may 
account for the want of thriving in pigeon-houfes. 



that, when plants are cut and given to them in this ftate, they will readily eat 
what they would otherwife have rejected ; as if confcious, that the fame reafon for 
refraining, now, no longer fubfiftcd. 

As reafoning of their own does not fiirely lead, the beafts to fuch wife practi- 
cal conclufions, the regulation of their in (tin ft may certainly, nor nnreafonably, 
be afcribed to a Supreme and Beneficent Intelligence, that created, and that go- 
verns the univeife — a dcftrir>e which, it is to be hoped, we may be allowed to 
maintain, without imputation of folly; whatever maybe decreed by any prag- 
matical, felf-fufficjent AfTembly concerning it ; whether by the appel nominal, or 
the reckoning of their nofes ; or whether by acclamation fsmple, or the ftrength of 
their vociferation. (Written in 1796.) 



TABLE 



Ag> icultrira! Survey of Peebksfi'ire. 



201 



TABLE of Sheep, Black Cattle, and Horsi*j, in Tweeddale. 

The Numbers from the Statiftical Account, fupplied from equally 
good information, where deficient. There is joined, an account of 
the horfes, as in 1797, obligingly communicated by Mr Brunton, 
County-Surveyor. 

The acres in each parifh are from Armftrong : As he fays he 
converted them at 700 to the mile, I have reduced them to the pro- 
portion of 640. 



Names of Parijhts. 


Contents in 
Acres Eng- 
lijli. 


r rsm Sir Ji 


hn Sir.c 


'airs 


Worhinghorfes . 




.- « 


Sijti/ii.al Accounts. 


Liable 
in tax . 

! 


Not li- 


SadJle- 


Total 
horfes. 


No. of Steep 


Coil's . 


Horfes 


able in horfes. 
tax. 


Linton 


^■S^l 2 


10,000 


46o| I30 


i 89 


IO | II 


I IO 


Newlands 


16,604 


3,000 


700J 23C 


i 133 


»3l 2 3 


169 


Kilbucho 


6,135 


4,000 


I40I 50 


|. 4i I 9 


IO 


60 


Kirkurd 


6,053 


2,000 


200 


70 


! 33l lI 


12 


56 


Lyne& Meggot 


16,988 


10,500 


Il8 l 33 


1 is 1 - 


5 


20 


jSkirling 


2 >°~33 


4,000 


i5°| 75 


|'37l 7 


4 


48 


(Broughton 


4,261 


2,200 


200| 80 


39 1 — 


4 


43 


Mannor 


16,55 s 


8,700 


i 9 o| 85 


46 1 7 


9 


62" 


Drummelzier 


21,714 


5,000 


3 oo| 50 


29 1 1 


1 | 40 


Glenholm 


8,283 


5,000 


I50J 60 


3 1 1 3 


6 1 40 


Traqu.nr 


15,808 


I0,000 


20o| 98 


68 1 12 


16 j 96 


Peebles 


16,649 


8,000 


5oo| 200 


108 i 26 


20 | 154 


Tweedlmuir 


21,376 j 


15,000 


8 °i 351 


11 | — 


3 1 *4 


Stobo 


11,456 j 


5,000 


i 9 o| 8i| 


29 j 6 


5 1 40 


Eddleitone 19,428 j 


8,4CO 


62o| 193! 


94 i 15 


12 | 121 


Inverleithan I 20,361 j 


i 5,000* 


i8o| 92 1 


37 i n 


1 1 ! 59 


Totals | 229,779 f 1 1 5,800 


437«ji502j 840 i 131 1 161 |i 132 



About 3,oco of this number of fheep are in that pnrt of this parifh which lies in the 
contiguous county of Selkirk; probably alio 6 horfes. and 11 milk cow.v. 



Dd 



C PI A F- 



202 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/Birr, 



CHAP. XIV, 



RURAL OECONOMY. 



Sect. I. — Labour. 

Justices of the Peace have powers vefted in them for the 
regulation of wages, as alfo of the price of provifions. They, 
however, very wifely, refrain from interfering in matters 
which can alone be properly regulated by the courfe of the 
market. 

The demand for labour, as for every other marketable ar- 
ticle, neceffarily varies according to circumftances j and the 
price muft, of neceffity, be regulated by the proportion be- 
twixt the exifting quantity of the article and the demand. 
Where capital, and profitable employment for capital, abound, 
in proportion to the population, the demand for, and confe- 
quent reward of labour, will, neceffarily, rife to the highefl 
rate ; but the reverfe mud, as neceffarily, enfue, upon the 
oppofite fuppofition. If, in the former cafe, it mould be at- 
tempted to lower the wages of labour below what the demand 
can afford, the competition of employers, pofftffed of capital, 
would lead them to break through, or evade, all fuch regula- 
tions. If, in the latter cafe, it fhould be attempted to raife 
Wages above what the demand can allow, the competition of 
labourers for employment would beat them down, avowedly 

or 



Agricultural Survey of Feelle spire. £03 

or Secretly, to their natural market price *. And the only ef- 
fed of fuch nugatory regulations, mull iffue in the occafion- 
ing of more or lefs embarraffment, in the contrivance of eva- 
fions to efcape the penalties of their contravention. (Ste Note 
F, at the end of th-e Report.) 

The unremitting effort of the. generality of individuals to bet- 
ter their circumftances, occafions the accumulation of capital j 
and the wages of labour rife in proportion to this accumula- 
tion. The increafmg of wages tends to diminifli the further 
accumulation of capital ; were it not that the more eafy cir~ 
cumftances of the labourer encourage marriage and population, 
and, by multiplying the number of labourers, tend to beat 
down their wages, through their competition for employment. 
Ading and re-a£ting, thus, mutually, upon each other, alter- 
nately, as caufe and effed, accumulation of capital, and in- 
creafe of population, would proceed, hand in hand, in an in- 
' terminable progreffion •, were it not that external and internal 
war (a ftate fo natural to man, as to have made the art of mu- 
tual deftruaion furnifh, at all times, and everywhere, the bu- 

finefs 



* Indeed, in this way alone, could the exifting capital in employment be e- 

qually difTufed among the labourers of a country, fo as that each fhould receive his 

proper fhare of it, in proportion to his willingnefs and ability to work ; if it were 

poffible to carry into effect any regulations raifing wages to an higher rate, the 

infallible confequence muft be, that the diftribtftion of the aforefaid capital would 

be confined to a fmallcr number of labourers, and that the remainder could get no 

employment, and muit therefore fubnlt on charity. But if the chanty comes ex- 

cUitively from the pockets of thole pom-did of capital, the capital, thus fhsrtened, 

is able to employ (till fewer at the regulated rate : If it comes, in part, from the 

employed labourers, it is to them all one whether this diminution of wages arifes 

from their giving it in charity to the idle, or from its being taken from them 

through the competition of the indubious. In the reign of fimsculotilm in 

France, it might have been thought, that the raifing the wages of labour would 

have been the primary object of Government; and yet, during the height of its 

prevalence, the ejtceffive low rate of wages, compared to that of Britain, was then 

held out, in the French AffembHes, as a ground of confidence, that France would 

ibon carry off* the manufactures of Britain. In fact, the capital of that country 

was fo exhaufted by confifcation and requifition, to fupport the profligacy of he* 

tyrants, and the mad fcheroes of her Government, that funds did not exift to fop- 

po;t labour, except at the very lowed rate of recompenfe- 



2C4 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

finefs of a particular profeflion — a profemon, too, whofe rela- 
tive virtues have ever been held in the higheft celebrity) may 
ever, at fhort intervals, be expected to intervene, to the thin- 
ning of population, and the perdition of capital : A view of 
human nature, molt lamentable, but, at fame time, ludicrous \ 
and which will ever be found to correfpond to realit}?, fo long 
as man continues what he is — a reafoning, rather more than a 
rational animal — in the cool fpcculations of the clofet, jujl ; 
but, incapable of acting up to the maxims of jufiice, fo foon as 
his pafhons aroufe him to action. Or, fhall we efteem the ac- 
quifition of the warlike virtues cheaply purchafed, at the pre- 
mature expence of a few lives, through glorious toil and ho- 
nourable wounds ; which, otherwife, might have quietly ter- 
minated in the fuffbeation of defluxion ? Or fhall we prefer 
the poets golden age of innocence and inactivity, when men 
had little elfe to do, but to bafk in the fun ? 

The rate of wages experienced a fad reverfe, from the de- 
ficiency of funds for the employment of labour, through the 
fcarcity of the crops 1799 and 1800. Little difference took 
place in the nominal or money rate of day's labour ; but there 
was lefs employment ; and employers preferred giving the high- 
eft accuftomed rate of money wage, without furnifhing victuals 
in the houfe. The great competition for the privilege of eating 
at difcretisn, at the rifk of the ma/Ier, without regard to the price 
of victuals, caufed a prodigious declenfion (even to the amount 
of one half) in the money wage of fervants to eat in the mat- 
ter's houfe. Since the return of plenty, from, the abundant 
crop of 1 80 1, wages are again rifing ; though diey have not yet 
attained (by perhaps a fourth) the exifting rate previous to 
the years of fcarcity. 

Before that period, the. yearly money wage of a good plough- 
man, getting his vidua r., lodging, and warning, in the mat- 
ter's houfe, had, within fix or eight years, rifen from fix or 
feven to ten or twelve pounds. If he was married, he had, 
perhaps, twenty fhillings lefs of money wage, and, in lieu of 
'.'.ds, 61 bolls of oat meal, and the Summer's and Winter's. 

maintenance 



Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJIAre. 205 

maintenance of a cow for kitchen * ; or, in place of the cow's 
maintenance, ninepence or tenpence, weekly, for that purpofe : 
The mailer furnifhed him alfo with a houfe, with carriage of 
fuel, and as much land for potatoes, beer, or lint, as the dung 
from his cow and alhes would manure •, the ploughman's wife, 
in recompenfe of thefe privileges, affifting the mafter, without 
any wage but her victuals, in time of hay and corn harveft. 
The fmallnefs of Tweeddale arable farms, admitting little of fub- 
divifion of labour, it is generally neceiiary that the ploughman 
Ihould be fit for all work, as fowing, mowing, flack-building, 
thrafhing, &c. 

The money wages of a female country fervant, living in the 
mailer's houfe, had arifen to twenty-five, or even thirty-five 
{hillings, for the Winter half year ; and, in Summer, to forty, 
or (where there was long ewe milking) to fifty-fix millings. 
Some of the mod robuft young women do not engage them- 
felves for the half year after "Whitfunday, that they may have 
the opportunity of gaining two diftinct fees, the one for ewe 
milking, and the other fubfequently for harveft work. 

Ewe milking (now more and more difufed) commenced 
formerly about the latter end of June ; the lambs being more 
early weaned, that the more cheefe might be obtained : It fel- 
dom, now, commences till the beginning or middle of July 5 
continuing, in fome few places, nine weeks, but more generally 
confined to fix. The farmer needs additional female fervants 
for the ewe milking. Six cr (even fcores of ewes are allotted 
to each milker. The milking is a fevere fervice : Very little 
time can be allotted to fleep during the night, as the ewer, muft 
be milked over night, when confined to the fold, and in the 
morning, before they are again pat out to pafiur-? ; and the 
time of their detention in the fold is fhortened as much as pof- 
fible, that they may have time to feed through the day. As 
the ewe milkers muft, alfo, milk the cows upon the farm, and 
perform the tafk of fpinrijng, each, ten cuts of worfted from 

roved 



* KiLb-ti (in Latin, otfonlum) fignifies any thing eaten along with bread. 
There is no Englifh word equivalent" 



2o6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

roved wool daily, they find but little time for fleep in the day 
time. The milking fold is an inclofure of foci dike, with whins 
inferted below the coping fod, to prevent the ewes from break- 
ing over it. At one fide of the dike, is erected a pen [bought), 
by fod dike, or paling of wood, inclofing an oblong fquare, 
open at one end, and of a breadth to admit all the milkers 
Handing fide by fide. Into this bought, as many ewes as it can 
contain are drove in at a time \ when the milkers entering, 
prevent the ewes from getting out, and immediately proceed to 
bufinefs : Each milker feizes the ewe neareft to her by the 
haunches, drawing it backwards till it ftands with its hinder 
legs ftraddling acrofs the milking pail ; fne then, with both 
hands, feizes upon the teats, and milks, by fqueezing them 
betwixt the firft joint of the thumb, bent in, and middle of 
the fore finger : when milked, the ewe is turned out behind 
her, the herd taking care that the milked ewes fhall not mix 
with the unmilked, upon their efcape from the bought. From 
the pofition of the ewe, whatever drops from her falls into the 
milking pail ; the folid refufe is feparated, by draining or de- 
position, but no chemical procefs is in ufe to feparate the di- 
lute *, and probably the peculiar pungency of the cheefe is part- 
ly owing to the falts in the urine. Before the fneep are fhorn, 
the cheefe is peculiarly dark in colour, and has a peculiar haute 
gout, from the fweat, or other matters from the wool (called 
eik), mixing with the milk : this is cheefe made under the wool. 
In regard to fheeps milk cheefe, as in regard to inoft other 
viands, it conduces little to the appetite of the gueft to pry in* 
to the fecrets of the kitchen. This cheefe is in great requeft, 
and of high price, from its increafing fcarcity •, which will re* 
drefs itfclf, when the price becomes fo high as to render it 
advantageous to the farmer to facrifice the animal's advantage 
to the increafe of its cheefe. When old, the cheefe is ac- 
counted one of the bed flomachics. The wage of ewe-milking 
amounts to about half a crown weekly, with board ; the farm- 
er's wife allowing, alfo, to each milker a piece of coarfe cloth, 
Called a etve-mllht \ brat, to cover her before, to prevent her 

clothes 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 207 

clothes being fpoiled by the tar and other filth adhering to the 
wool. 

A woman {hearer, hired through harveft, gets from twenty 
to twenty-five (hillings, with board ; a man, from twenty-five 
to thirty. When a track of wet weather feems fet in, they are 
difbanded till the weather fliall clear up : In wet mornings, or 
Cngle wet days, they are detained at board, and employed in 
twilling ropes for binding on the coverings of the Hacks. Days 
wages for fhearing neceffarily vary, more from the variety of 
demand for the work, than thofe of any other labour ; women 
receiving from eight to fourteenpence, with victuals ; and men 
from a {hilling to twentypence. Shearers hired at a fixed 
fum for the whole harveft, wilh to perform the moft work in 
the leaft time, but are lefs careful as to the mode of execu- 
tion ; thofe hired by the day may more readily be made to 
perform the work with exa£tneis, but have not the fame in- 
tereft in performing much : A mixture of both kinds feems 
preferred ; the mutual example correcting the faulty tendencies 
on both fides. 

Piece-work would always come moft cheap, were it not for 
the rifk of faulty execution, in cafes where its mode cannot 
be fpecified in the bargain. Undertaken by the piece, fold 
dikes of fod coft threepence per rood of fix Scots ells, running 
meafure : Ditches, from eightpence to a lhilling per rood, ac- 
cording to the fize of ditch, and nature of the foil. Mowing 
of grafs, from two to five {hillings per Scots acre, according 
to the ftrength of crop, or its {landing ftraight, or being warp- 
ed by the wind. Thrafhing, about fevenpence per boll, with 
victuals. A flout lahourer, working by the piece, will earn 
from fixteen to twentypence a day, without victual-. 

When victuals are furnifhed, days wages are, for mov ing 
grafs, from fourteen to fixteen pence : For more ordinary Sum- 
mer's work, from tenpence to a ihilling : For ordinary Winter's 
work, eightpence or ninepence. Womens ordinary wage for 
Summer's outwork, not of a preffing nature, like that of har- 
veft, fuch as gathering weeds, hand-hoeing, gtc. is fourpence 
with, or eightpence without victuals. There is very little a- 

gricultural 



2o$ Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

gricultural employment for women in Winter. "With victuals, 
a tailor's wage is tenpence : Other handicrafts, as in Mid- 
Lothian. 

Ploughmen and fhepherds are hired for a whole year ; wo- 
men fervants half yearly, except fuch as referve themfelves for 
ewe-milking, and for harveft work. The old ftyle is obferved 
in the terms of entry to, and removal from fervice. Uniformity 
would, here, be eligible, as well as in weights and meafures. 

Sect. II. — Provifwtis. 

To what has been obferved on this fubject, under the ar- 
ticle of Farm Houfes and Cottages ', it may be added, that, in 
fheep farms, the fheep dying of difeafe are ufed as flefh meat, 
under the defignation of trail. 

Sect. III. — Fuel. 

In the higheft lying parifhes, near the fources of the wa- 
ters, peat of mofs is the only fuel ufed. The beft peat, (being 
the mod folid, black, lading, and yielding the ftrongeft heat), 
is that which is found in (hallow beds of mofs, lying generally 
upon a declivity : it is commonly not above fourteen or eigh- 
teen inches, or the length of a peat, in deepnefs, after remov- 
ing the furface foil with the roots of the heath or ling growing on 
it, (called the tirling of the mofs): As the digger Hands upon the 
furface, and prefles in the peat-fpade with his foot, fuch peat 
is defigned foot-peat. Other peat are procured from deeper 
flow modes of various qualities ; and as, in digging, a paffage 
is made to drain the water from the bottom of the mofs, and a 
perpendicular face of the mofs laid bare, from which the digger, 
danding on the level of the bottom, digs the peat, by driving in 
the fpade horizontally with his arms; this peat is, therefore, de- 
figned breajl-peat. The peat-fpade is furnifhed with a triangu- 
lar cutting mouth, as alfo, with a cutting wing on the right 
fide, both of well-tempered metal, to cut the half decayed 
wood found mixed with the mofs; the woeden fhaft termi- 
nates 



Agricultural Survey of ' Pcehlcsjlnre. ' *xq§ 

nates at the end near the iron, in an oblong fquare (hape, on 
which the peat refts when lifted up. The operator begins to 
the left, and works t© the right. He begins by turning the 
fpade back uppermoft, that by its wing he may feparate the 
one fide of the firft peat from the folid ; reverfing the fpade, 
he at one pufh drives it in to the whole depth of the oblong 
part of the (haft, the wing cutting the fecond fide of the 
peat. By a jerk of the fhaft, the end of the peat breaks off 
at the point of the fpade; it is raifed up, and carefully turned 
off upon the ground ; it is taken up by the women wheelers, 
(hurlers), who lay a number of them upon a wheelbarrow 
without fides, and lay them down, fide by fide, upon fome con- 
tiguous dry ground. Two hurlers commonly fufBce to fpread 
the peat dug by one man. When the peat have become fo 
hardened by the drought, that they will ftand on end, they 
are placed on end three or four together, and leaning againft 
each other; this is called footing the peats. After this comes the 
operation of iuiud-roivitigj or the building them up in narrow 
heaps, or fragments of dikes ; in which ftate they remain till 
carried home and put into a Winter ftack, which is covered 
with fod to defend it from rain. 



E e CHAP. 



210 Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJlAre, 



C II A P. XV. 



POLITICAL OECONOMY, AS CONNECTED WITH, OR 
AFFECTING AGRICULTURE. 



Sect. I. — Roads. 

The landed proprietors of every county are, certainly, the 
clafs mod fit to be intruded with the management of the roads \ 
which aft upon the agricultural improvements, in which they 
are fo nearly interefled, like oil upon the wheels of a machine. 
They have moil leifure ; may be expected to have more enlarg- 
ed views, and liberal fentiments ; and are more habituated to 
bdi.G..- labour and pains upon fubjects whence they derive no 
immediate pecuniary advantage : They are fometimes apt to 
be deficient in energy. In narrow counties, where all are 
more intimately connected, the public advantage is too ready 
to be facrificed, in fome degree, to mutual accommodation ; 
which, when yielded to from facility, in one inflance, is 
claimed in others upon the precedent. Inftances are not a- 
wanting, in this county, of the public road, from this caufc 
folely, being carried in a zig-zag direction, inilead of the 
ftraight one ; or over fteep acclivities, inftead of around them. 
It is well obferved by the Rev. Mr Handyfide, in his ftatiftical 
account of the parilh of Lyne in this county, ' that the bed 
mode of conducting the direction of roads would be, for the 
truftees of each county, to commit the direction of their 
roads to the determination of thofe of another county. ' 

Syftems, beginning where nothing previous exifted, are 
often more eafily carried into the belt effect, than the reforma- 
tion of arrangements originally bad. 

About 



Agricultural Survey of Feeble spire. 2 1 1 

About the middle of Iaft century, the time when the gene- 
ral views of the utility of good roads had reached this county, 
and made turnpike ads be applied for, the public road to the 
capital was eked up out of private roads, made chiefly to fuit 
private conveniency, and, of courfe, fubjecled to fuch deflec- 
tions as might be expeded, where private accommodation was 
the principal, and that of the public rather a by-view : They 
were narrow, they were often dreffed up, like avenues or pri- 
vate approaches, with tall hedges and plantations of wood. 
From want of energy to require, or of difintereftednefs to of- 
fer facrifices of private convenience and advantage •, or perhaps, 
too, from a doubt how far the inexperienced return from tolls 
could afford to pay indemnification of the private lofs incurred, 
in breaking through exifting inclofures, in order to give the 
public road its proper width and direaion— From fuch reafons, 
it has happened, that the mod public road of the county (the 
one "leading from Edinburgh, by Noblehoufe, to Moffat, Dum- 
fries, and Carlifle) is, for about feven or eight miles of its 
courfe, fo completely fhaded by high walls, and hedges, and 
wood plantations (its breadth, alfo, often not exceeding 15 or 
18 feet), that neither fun nor wind can find accefs to dry it: 
Repairs, more expenfive than the return of the toll (though 
higher than any in the Lothians) can afford, are but barely fuf- 
ficient, therefore, to prevent it from becoming an impaffable, 
rotten bog ; and every fnow-drift chokes it up completely. A^ 
prepofterous propenfity feems, indeed, pretty prevalent, of 
placing wood plantations along the fides of public roads-, 
though, furely, moft proprietors need be at no lofs to find o- 
ther fituations, y. here they might be of equal benefit as Ihelter, 
without detriment to the road, by over fhado wing it, or to the 
traveller, by giving a lurking place to the robber. 

The roads through Twoeddale are made, at an average, at 
about Sol. per mile. Various feherhes have been adapted as to 
upholding. In the upper diftricr, where there is moil repair, 
and moft wear, from rhe fetiftft&ftt heavy carriage of lead from 
Leadlnlls, an apy./ I mode, war, chofen, of \i 

oldihg to .• *e of land> upon thfe road I 



2 1 1 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

who, it was thought, might give the neceffary repairs at by- 
hours : Theie by-hour^ } however, feldom occurred ; the money 
was confumed by people, from whom it was impoflible to reco- 
ver it, and the roads neglected. They have, of late, been let 
to a profeflional undertaker at more expence, and probably 
with fomewhat better effect. 

The itatute labour is commuted at eight millings per iool. 
Scots of valued rent ; which the landed proprietors pay in to 
the county collector, along with their cefs, having recourfe up- 
on their refpe£tive tenants. 

Befides the roads- marked upon the map, a road, from the 
Peebles road at the foot of Tarth water, carried over that wa- 
ter by a bridge, and running up the weft fide of Newlands. 
water, to the Noblehoufe road, and thence to the Linton road, 
would be of great utility in giving ready accefs to coal, lime, and 
freeftone, to a confiderable diftridt of country lying below. 
Another road from Darnhall to Noblehoufe Inn, connecting 
the Edinburgh roads by Peebles, and by Noblehoufe, would 
open the coal, lime, and freeftone of the county, to Eddle- 
ftone and Peebles parifhes. A communication to Weft Lo- 
thian might be of ufe, by the pafs of the Pentland-hills, named 
Cauldjlane-Jlap, connecting the Linton Edinburgh road with 
that from Edinburgh to Ayrfhire. An ufeful road has been 
lately fet on foot, by fubfcription, from Traquair, fording 
Tweed, and carried up Leithan-water ; opening a communica- 
tion to the Lothian coal and lime, to the parifhes of Traquair 
and Inverleithan, 

In regard to all matters, that will naturally be undertaken 
through a fenfe of intereft, by individual exertion, and at pri- 
vate rifk, it is fafe to leave them upon this footing, without Go- 
vernment interference. But though, in a certain degree, the 
committing of the management of the roads to the landed pro- 
prietors of the refpe&ive counties, wears the afpect of intrud- 
ing it to thofe who have the moft intereft in the proper execu- 
tion of the truft, yet various confiderations would indicate the 
propriety of the whole roads and tolls being placed under the 
immediate management of Government ; For, granting that Go- 
vernment 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/Lire. 213 

vernment expenditure is always lefs (Economical than any o- 
therj (till this disadvantage would be more than counterbalan- 
ced, from the advantage of employing the military, in time of 
peace, with very little expence above their ordinary pay. It 
might be expected, upeii this fyfteai, that general views would 
more fteadily prevail over partial considerations ; and that the 
fuperplus of funds, from tolls upon roads of great recourfe, 
might be applied to roads of lefs recourfe, which the funds 
from their tolls cannot afford to make, or uphold, fumciently. 
An inflexible arrangement of management would, however, 
need to be laid down, fenced by the fame facrednefs that guards 
the fvftem of the finking fund. The heightening of the tolls 
would be an obvious and eafy mode of taxation, which, if regu- 
lated as at prefent, by weight of carriage, would fall heavieit 
on the poor. 

Sect. II. — Canals. 

For thefe the country is too mountainous, and its produc- 
tions of too little value : None exift in fact, nor are in con- 
templation. 

Sect. III. & W.—Fiars— Weekly Markets. 

The Peebles Tuefday's weekly market formerly fupplied the 
manufacturing weft country with meal from the fouthern corn 
counties. The canal betwixt Forth and Clyde having opened 
the Lothians to the weft country, there is now a very inconfi- 
derable quantity of meal difpofed of at Peebles market •, the 
fouth country farmers, who frequented it, now carrying their 
corns to Dalkeith, and returning with coal or lime ; for both 
of which they depend upon the Lothians. It is needlefs to 
take notice of fairs which exift now only in name, and where 
no bufinefs is done. 

The following, I believe, is a very exact lift cf the fair?, in 
this and ether counties, where Tweed ' ! rmers tranfact bu- 

FAIRS 



2 1 4 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

FAIRS IN TWEEDDALE. 

Town of Peebles. 

into, Fajlenfeven fair. Held upon the firft Tuefclay of 
March, N. 8. Ewes great with lamb are fold by character, 
without being fhown. It is the great market for feed corns, 
fold by fample, or often by character ; alfo the chief fair for 
fervants, for the year, or half year, fucceeding the enfuing 
"Whitfunday. 

ido y Beltyne fair. Held fecond Wednefday of May, N. S. 
Stallions are fhown ; fervants are hired ; farm fales of outgoing 
tenants are advertifed. 

3/20, Lamb fair. Held laft Tuefday of June, O. S. Lambs 
for holding, fold by character, without being fhown ; wool alfo 
by character j but, when Linton third market falls upon the 
fucceeding day, 'the bargains are feldom completed till the par- 
ties have met again at that wool fair. 

4fo, St Andrews fair. Held laft Tuefday of November, 
N. S. ; called alfo Siller fair, becaufe the chief or only bufi- 
nefs is, the payment of bargains upon credit from the preceding 
fairs. 

Two other fairs tire fometimes ufed as dates of payment in 
billsj though no fair is held, viz. Ryte fair, laft Tuefday of 
October, N. S. ; and Heck fair, firft Tuefday of September, 
N. S. 

Linton. 

There were five markets, continuing week after week, upon 
Wednesdays : Molt of the bufinefs is now tranfacted at two of 
them, viz. 

Second Linton market. Held third Wednefday of June, 
O. S. Wedder and ewe hogs fold and delivered upon the 
market grounds j alio a few dummonds and old tups; lambs 
for holding, fold by character. The fhecp come to the market 
ground e; I Tuefday, and are generally all fold off that 

evening. 



Agricultural Survey of ' PeeblesJInrt. 2 1 5 

evening. This is the principal market for Tweecklale holding 
fheep. 

Third Linton market. Held Wednefday the week follow- 
ing j though, as at the fecond, the bufinefs of felling the fhe^p 
is all tranfacted on the Tuefday evening. The Wednefday is 
the great market for coarfe wool, of the black-faced or Linton 
breed ; all fold by character ; from Tweeddale, Upper Ward 
of Ciydefdale, part of Dumfriesfhire, of Selkirkshire, and the 
hilly parts of the three Lothians. Shearers are hired for the 
enfuing harveft. 

Skirling, 

\mo, May fair. Held firft Tuefday after the 26th of May, 
N. S. or upon that day of the month, when it falls on that day 
of the week. Yeild cows for grazing, with a few milk cows, 
are fhown, fold, and delivered. 

idoy June fair. Held firft Wednefday of June, O. S. One 
of the greateft fairs in the fouth of Scotland for a fhow of 
working horfes : The rate of this market generally determines 
the price through the feafon. A few milk cows. 

^tioy Old Skirling fair. Held 4th September, O. S. or on 
the Monday after, when the day of the month falls upon Sab- 
bath.. A pretty extenfive fale of horfes ; alfo of black cattle, 
partly fat, partly young, for holding. 

Eddie/lone. 

Eddhjlonc fair. Held 25th September, O. S. or on Mon- 
day, if that day of the month falls on Sabbath. Chiefly win- 
tering young black cattle ; oxen for draught ; and a few fat 
cattle. Servants hired for the half year fucceeding enfuing 
Martinmas. 

Bronghton. 

Broughton fair. Held nine days after Edcjleftone fair, 

Monday, if the ninth day falls upon Sabbath. Chcefe fold in 

wholelalc by character. Servants hired for the Winter 

• • 

1 Aim 



2 1 6 Agricultural Survey of Peebksjhlre. 



FAIRS IN MID-LOTHIAN. 

Houfe of Muir market. There 'are three, weekly, for ewes 
great with lamb, fhewn, fold, and delivered upon the grounds : 
The only confiderable one is held upon the laft Monday of 
March, N.S. 

FAIRS IN CLYDESDALE. 

Carnvoath. 

imo, Midfummer Fair. Held firft Thurfday of July, N. S. 
A great fhow of horfes ; milk cows ; grazing cattle; a few fat 
cattle. 

2do y Lawrie's (St Laurence's) Fair. Held fecond Wednef- 
day of Auguft, O. S. The fale is, of horfes, of lambs for hold- 
ing, and fat cattle. 

Biggar. 

imo, Midfummer Fair. Held firft Thurfday of July, O. S. 
Lambs for holding ; a few milk cows ; a few horfes. 

ado, Old Biggar Fair. Held firft Thurfday of November, 
O. S. Fat black cattle, chiefly ; a few winterers ; rather more 
horfes than at the former. Lint is alfo retailed, at leaft in fuch 
fmall quantities as may ferve a family's Winter fpinning. 

Lanark. 

St James's Fair. Held lafl Wednefday of July, O. S. A 
great market of lambs for holding ; probably, the greateft fhow, 
in the South of Scotland, of year old horfes : Thefe are bought 
generally to the Weft country, are worked very early, but 
gently, and well fed ; and are returned, when full grown, to 
the great Skirling horfe market. Wool is retailed. 

Be fides the above fairs, a confiderable number of Tweed- 
dale hogs, and older fheep, are annually fold at the fair of Stagf- 
hall Batik, in England. 

Lambs 



Agricultural Survey cf Peebles/hire, 117 

Lambs for holding are alfo fold at St BofweWs fair, in Rox- 
burghfhire. Held 18th July, N. S. 

Fat lamb is weekly fold in the Edinburgh market, through 
Summer, from the end of June till the end of September ; alfo, 
crock ewes, fed upon grafs, or farther carried on upon turnip, 
from Martinmas till New- Year's Day. Butchers from Glaf- 
gow buy probably more of the black cattle, fed on turnip in 
this county, than the Edinburgh butchers, notwithstanding of 
trie greater proximity of the latter ; owing to the greater riches 
and population of that country of manufacturers. 

A few black cattle, fat, or for feeding, are bought or fold at 
All-Hallow -Fair in November, in Edinburgh. 

Such meal as is fold from that part of the county lying 
above Peebles, is Tent weftward to Biggar weekly Thurfday's 
market. Meal-dealers in Kirkurd, Newlands, and Linton pa- 
rities, buy at Peebles, and tranfport to Biggar ; and often buy 
grain at Leith, to be manufactured at our mills, and fent to 
Biggar. Oats, from the higheft lands, ripened, or rather wi- 
thered, to be fit for keeping, by the fro ft, which would betray 
themfelves if made into meal, find a market in Edinburgh, for 
the ufe of horfes. 

No fiars of grain are ftruck for the county ; the reference 
of price of beer is made to the Mid-Lothian fiars. 

The borough of Peebles, as is probably the practice in more 
boroughs, claims a preference in its own weekly meal-market, 
and allows no ftranger to purchafe till the town is firft ferved ; 
a reftriclicn which, like all fuch reftriclions, has a tendency to 
difcourage the refort of buyers and fellers. In the dearth of 
1799, the Magiftrates attempted to fix the price of meal; 
while it was rapidly rifing, they would allow only laft market 
day's price : As might have been forefeen, no meal came to 
market, but what was damaged, fo as to be worth nothing 
more, elfewhere, than the town's allowed price. Y\ nether 
through mere coincidence, or from caufation, the influ 
was more mortal at Peebles, than common in the cor. 
Borough Magiftrates muft often adopt mebbifh. me. fui Sj how-< 
ever contrary to their own coi 

Ff :. . 



2 1 8 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



Sect. V. — Commerce. 

Excepting that in meal, already noticed, there is little o- 
ther commerce, but mere retail trade. 

Sect. VI. — Manufactures. 

An woollen manufactory was fet on foot at Inverleithan, by 
Mr Brodie (better known by his extenfive iron-works in Shrop- 
fhire, and his fhip hearths), who is a native of, and proprietor 
in the county : The houle confifts of four {lories, containing 
all kinds of machinery, and driven by water. Cloths are made 
of all colours, from 27 to 30 inches in breadth, and (before 
the laft great rife of wool) at from is. 6d. to 6s. per yard. The 
iron-works have been, of late, a fo much more profitable con- 
cern, that the woollen has been lefs attended to. 

It is furprifmg, that no manufacture of ccarfe woollen has 
been eftablifhed at the village of Linton ; where there is water 
to drive machinery of confiderable weight, abundance of lime, 
freeftone, coal, and peat ; the diftance from Edinburgh about 
16 miles, and the accefs a turnpike road. 

A Linton weaver, Alexander Alexander, has lately eredted 
a manufacturing houfc, with water machinery, upon the North 
on the lands of Robert Brown Eiq. of Newhall ; he fup- 
feveral paper-mills with felt;;, made of the coarfe Tweed- 
dale wool; and propofes, as capital, and credit, and vent for 
the commodities, increafc, to extend the manufacturing to that 
of fepges, and fuch other fluffs, as coarfe wool is adapted to. 

A manufacturing houfe has very lately been fitted up at 
Peebles for narrow cloths : And, there, two or three indivi- 
duals had occafionally done a little in the fame line, in the in- 
tervals of their employment by cuftomers ; carpets and flan- 
nels, and fomc cotton goods, being manufactured upon the 
fame fyftem. Moft of the looms in Twecddale are, however, 
employed in working to private cuftomers; though feme con- 

tly_, and others occafionally, are employed in weaving K- 

• 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 2 1 9 

nens for the manufactories in Edinburgh, or cottons for thofe 
of Lanark or Glafgow. There are in Peebles a few (locking 
looms. 



Sect. VII.— Poor. 

A society muft have become rich, before it can make libe- 
ral provifion for the fupply of its poor. 

In a fociety of lavages, fuch as thofe of America — fubfifl- 
ing upon mere natural produce — by the chafe, by fifhing, or 
upon fpontaneous fruits and roots — without appropriation or 
culture of the lands ; without domeflication of animals, which 
are perfecuted in hunting, to the danger of extermination — an 
immenfe tract of "territory is neceffary to fupply fubfiilence to a 
very inoonfiderable tribe •, which muft be traverfed, with the 
utmoft exertion, by each individual, in fearch of the means of 
his own perfonal fupport. In fuch a ftate, where the moft la- 
borious exertions of each, in the maturity of fhrength, are of- 
ten requifite to fecure even a fcanty perfonal fubfiftence, it is 
not to be expected, that proper provifion can be made for thofe 
who are pad their labour, or for thofe who have not attained 
to it : Accordingly, the univerfal provifion for the aged is, to 
knock them iii the head ; unpromifing infants are put to death, 
as an effectual mean of preventing them from becoming bur- 
denfome j and even thofe deftined for prefervation, are deferted 
in feafons of unfuccefsful hunting, and turned over to the mer- 
cy of the wild beads *. The imperious paramount calls of 

felf- 



* Such is the happy ftate of lavage liberty and equality, to which the di'ci- 
plcs of the new ph Rouiiuu would have- us to revert, by abandoning 

all the inftitutions of civilized and induftiious fociety. — See a fcrmon by the anther, 
Upon liberty mil eqy 

The expofure of infants is allowed by law, alfo, in the highly cultivated empire 
of China. Among favjgc-, the want of cul urs ; ; vents the earth from fuppoit- 
rng its full com], lenient of population. In China, th< aid fce;n to 

have increased to an extent beyond what the territory can fupport, und. 
highefl degree bf culture. War, famine, or peftilence, would feem neccHary 1 
lelicf of China; if it rannot difbuilhuu itll-if of its 1 | itetion by or. 
tion, to which its prefent rr.;ix'.: . . 



220 Agricultural Survey of Feeble spire. 

felf-prefervation, fteel the heart againft the feelings of humani- 
ty, which it would be fuperfluous to indulge towards diftrefles, 
which there are no means of relieving. The admirer ©f the 
favage ftate may exclaim, ' If you find, there, no palaces, you 
will find as few hofpitals : ' There can, indeed, exifl no funds 
for the erection of either the one or the other : every exertion be- 
ing required to-enfure mere felf-prefervation, there is no leifurc 
for the purfuits of either fcience or humanity. 

The fundamental laws, erifuring relief to the poor, are thofe 
which enfure the acquisition of wealth. — thofe which fociety 
muft adopt, when man, relinquifhing his ftate of favage liber- 
ty and equality, where all have like right to all, betakes him- 
felf to the cultivation of the earth, an'd the domeftication of 
animals, from whence all civilization, implying leifure and fe- 
curity of fubfiftence, muft originate. They are the laws of 
appropriation, the fources of never ceafing inequalities of con- 
dition : Laws which' encourage induftry, by holding out to the 
induftrious, the fecure profpect of reaping the fruits of his la- 
bour, in afcertaining to him the undifturbed perfonal poffeffion 
and enjoyment of that fubjeel, to which his induftry has been 
attached, and in which it hath become i/ifeparably inherent ; . 
together with the power of transferring it to defcendants, or 
other natural objects of his affection — a power indifpenfable to 
the excitation of an induftry of farther profpe£t, than of mere 
liferent provifion — effential to the accummulation of capital, 
and to the prevention of its diffipation, in the fame lifetime in 
which it was created *. 

Man was formed for action, and that the active talents of 
each might be called forth to exertion, every one's particular in- 
tereft is left to his own management : For, though man is alfo 
benevolent, a continued intermeddling interference in the con- 
cerns of others, would, to his own confeioufnefs, as well as to 
his neighbour's feelings, appear the height of impertinence. 
To rejoice with thofe that do rejoice, without envy or maligni- 
ty, conititutes a character amiable to others, and delightful to 

the 



* See the author's ferraon on liberty and equality, 



agricultural Survey of Peeb!csfl:r/f. 221 

the pofieflbr ; but for active benevolence, the calls arc only oo 
cafional. To fecure to all a fair field for the exertion of indivi- 
dual induftry, by enforcing, impartially to each, the laws of 
juftice, afcertaining and protecting property in its full exercife, 
\2, iri general, the utmoft range to which benevolence, under a 
fenfe of common intereft, can extend its active exertions with 
propriety. Such univerfal protection of all, by all, being ob- 
tained, a fenfe of feparate interell will, generally, belt accom- 
plifh every ether purpofe that benevolence could fugged. Cafes 
will no doubt occur, as exceptions to the general rule, where 
individual intereft cannot be profecuted or defended, or where 
individual diftrefs cannot be relieved, by individual exertion ; 
and in thefe, the humane and benevolent ought ever to be 
ready to aflift. The human conltitution is formed in wonder- 
ful harmony ; the principle of felf-intereffc poffefles,- at all times, 
the energy of a pafiion ; whilft benevolence is only a difpofi- 
tion, in readinefs to be rouzed into the paflions of indignation, 
or of fympathy, as cafes of oppreflion, or of diftrefs, (hall arifc, 
which call for our active interference. 

To fuppofe that benevolence, of itfelf, will or ought to lead 
to the inceflant accumulation of funds, out of which diftrefs 
may be relieved as it occurs, would be, to lay a itrefs upon this 
principle, utterly difprcportioncd to its habitual energy : And 
the fecure pi-ofpect held cut to felfiflmefs, will be found the 
only means of creating funds for the purpofes of liberality. In 
this fenfe may the latVy protecting property, be called our fchool- 
majler to bring us to Chr'ifl. Thofe trained to habits of acquisi- 
tion and accumulation, may indeed often prove deficient in li- 
berality ; but they are the founders of the (. ! 
pendence, more apt to diffipate than to accumulate, but, in ge- 
neral, more liberal : And thus, through varieties of character, 
the fame purpofes are nearly produced^ which mi bet- 
ter manner, be obtained, •- ; - each individual cl fter more 

properly balanced. 

The monks, who profelTed to renounce enth 
for the next, inftead of considering the 
the proper preparation for e ifelves to 



222 Agricultural Survey cf Peebksfhire. 

celibacy, and to a life of poverty, to be fupported folely upon 
alms — in confidence with their general profeffion, their par- 
ticular vow, aud their own practice, were led to fet light by 
induitry, of the meft powerful incentives to which, they were 
deprived by their rule;: They, profefledly, interefted not them- 
felves at all in induitry, or that augmentation of population 
which may enfue upon increafe of induftry ; they trenched up- 
on the time of the induftrious by religious feftivals ; they fung 
forth the praifes of almfgiving, in which they had fuch an im- 
mediate intereft \ and fo celebrated this particular difplay of be- 
nevolence, as if it comprehended the whole of Chriftian chari- 
ty : Infomuch, that the word charily, without farther explana- 
tion, is apt, from habit, to convey the idea merely of alms ; 
though, undoubtedly, of all benevolent exertions, this is the 
moft equivocal, even as to the accomplifhment of its own end. * 
When thofe profeffed beggars and alms-preachers had become 
rich, through pious donations, given them in their own name, 
or as common almoners, who diilributed the charity of other 
people-, from fellow-feeling, and regard to confiftency, they 
profufe in the indiicriminate diflribution of alms : and 
monafteries became the refort of idlers and fturdy beggars, who 
preferred the rcfource of alms, to that of their own induitry. f 
A crowd of idle profligates were thus relieved from the neceffi- 
ty of induitry, to which they might happily, otherwife, have 
i compelled by (tarving ; and their fubfiftence ultimately 
a heavy tax upon the induftrious part of the commu- 
■ , of itfelf, might have been accounted a good po- 
litical reafon of the reformation. 

Upon 



* We have fcrmons upon alms, by clergymen of high refpetfability, in which 
too much of the fpirit of monkifm is difpfeyed — where, too, the appropriation of 
the land and water, and other fubjefls of human induftry, feems invidioufly glanced 
at, as ufurpations upon the common rights of man— where, alfo, the rich feem 
advifed to di*>& with the poor, in the way of almfgiving ; left the uuirpation, cx- 
throogh fufferance, fliould he terminated by infiurrecTSon. All this favours 
ftrongly of the favage-ftate enthtffiafm of Roufieau. 

| Townfcnd, in his Travels through Spain, attributes the general want of in- 
duftry, in a great meafurc, to the indjferiminating alms of the monaftciies. 



Agricultural Survey of Ptebles/birb* ii~* 

Upon the abolition of monafteries, at the reformation, the 
fame difficulties occurred in Scotland, as in other reformed 
countries, in regard to making provifion for die really poor ; 
as alfo for curbing the licentioufnefs of thofe flout idlers, who, 
together with the really poor, had depended for fubfiftence up- 
on monaitic alms ; but who now inundated the ftate, and lived 
by depredation. The evil feems, indeed, to have attained to 
fuch an alarming height, that fome of the moft ftrenuous af- 
fertors of liberty in the Scotiih Parliament, thought it necef- 
fary to propofe, that the whole mendicants, indifcriminately, 
fhould be enflaved, and their fer vices adjudged to fuch mailers 
as would confent to maintain them, for fuch work as they could 
compel them to perform. This idea feems, in fome fhape, to 
have been adopted by the Legiflature ; as appears by various 
acts of the Scotifh Parliament j in which magiltrates are em- 
powered and enjoined to apprehend ferners, maijterlefs men 3 
Jhirdy beggars, &c. ; and to adjudge their fervices, for different 
periods, to fuch as would accept of and maintain them. In- 
deed, the Scots acts chiefly refer to fuch descriptions of poor. 

There are a great number of Scots acts of Parliament, re- 
newed from time to time, enjoining aiTefiments for the poor, 
together with the building of parifh workhoufes, in which they 
were to be put to labour. Thefe acts, either from their con- 
tradictory nature rendering therri incapable of execution ; o/ 
from want of intereft in, or compitlfitor upon, thofe who 
ihould have executed them ; were, in fadt, never executed at 
all. Excepting, indeed, in gre , where, from the num- 

ber of the poor, their labour might be fuppofed fomewhat ade- 
quate to the expence, the erection of workhoufes would have 
inferred confiderable expence, without profpect of indemnifi- 
cation. As defuetude is, in Scotland, underftood to abrogate 
law, and ought ever, in mutable man, to he conflrued into 
dereliction of purpofe, thefe lav. . obfolete. 

The evil of Jlurdy begging has, in a j hav- 

ing been configned to the remedies of ilarving, or iws •, 

and the real poor have been ever left to depend, chic 
voluntary charity, without any 1 



224 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

beft footing on which the matter can reft, both as to the poo* 
and their providers. From the enormous extent to which poor's 
rates have arifen in England, it is probable, that great caution 
will be ufed in attempting to organize this lubject, as to Scot- 
land, into any very ftridtly defined legal fyftem. 

The poor, generally, through Scotland, have hitherto been 
fupported by voluntary contributions, given in at the church 
door on Sundays, and other donations ; together with a few 
fmall ftated perquifites, fuch as, from 2S. 6d. to ios. for the 
ufe of a finer or inferior pall, or mortcloth, at burials ; from 
one to two millings for proclamation of banns of marriage ; be- 
fules, in fome cafes, from the intereft of money mortified by 
charitable perfons, Thefe funds are adminiftered by the Minis- 
ter and Kirk-Semon (fee Note A) ; fometimes, by allocating 
penfions from time to time ; fometimes, in a maimer, left en- 
tirely to the difcretion of the Minifter, lean: the fixing of pen- 
fions fliould beget a reliance to relax induftry. From the in- 
creafe of diflenters, and the too prevailing cuftom among the 
opulent, of abfenting themfelves from church, it is probable, 
thefe funds may not long fuffice •, when recourfe mull be had 
to parochial afTefTments. Such equal afleflment is alfo prefer- 
red by many, as it reaches every one ; whilft, upon the fyftem 
of voluntary contribution, the burden is rolled over upon the 
al, and the avaricious efcape : Though, certainly, if the 
eftablifhment of poor's rates leads, neceffarily, to fuch enor- 
. expence of poor's eftablifhment, as has enfued in England, 
the liberal had better bear the whole of the prefent expence, 
fix times told, than incur their fair proportion of the then 
rate. 

Though the fratute poor's laws in Scotland may be confidcr- 

ed as obfolctc, from difufe ; there is, ncverthelefs, a confuetu- 

dinary law for poor's rates, though feldom, and never general- 

£ted upon (fee Note A) : And it would be well, if the ne- 

ity of a£fcing upon it could altogether be fuperfeded. Un- 
to funds employed in productive labour, which reproduce 
themfelves, together with a profit, funds, employed in fupport 

the poor, ;nc altogether annihilated. If an individual, or a 

fociety. 



u-:i!t:iral Survey of "Peelksjlnre. 22$ 

■iv, are pofleffed of funds faffieient to maintain an hundred 
perfons for a twelvemonth ; fuppofing thefe hundred fupported, 
idle— the fund perifhes in the ufe, and is no longer in exigence: 
If, however, it had been applied to the fupport of an hundred, 
as the wages of productive labour, in agriculture, trade, or 
manufacture, it is equally evident, that fuch labour would, at 
the end of twelve months, have replaced the fund, with a pro- 
fit that might be added to it, which might enable it, for the 
enfuing twelve months, to fupport an hundred and ten or twen- 
ty—affording, thus, additional fubfiftence for an increafmg po- 
pulation. Were the whole funds of fociety devoted to alms, 
and confumed in idlenefs, mankind would foon revert to the 
favage date, having nothing for fubfiftence but natural produce ; 
and the one half might repeatedly eat up the other, before po- 
pulation was reduced to that limited number which natural pro- 
duce would fuffice to fupport. It feems ridiculous, therefore, 
conftantly to ring the changes of commendation upon charity, 
in the fenfe of almfgiving, as if it comprehended the whole of 
what was commendable in neighbourly practice ; and to con- 
fider the conduct of thofe, who lay out their funds in the em- 
ployment of productive labour, which replaces them, together 
with a profit, as immeritorious, if not in fome degree immo- 
ral ; when the good of mankind fo evidently requires, that no 
more funds fhouid go to perdition, than what are abfolutely ne- 
cefTary to relieve fuch diitrefs as cannot otherwife be relieved ; 
and that the grcateft quantity pomble fhouid be applied to the 
employment of productive labour f . 

When the fupport of the poor is enforced by a compulfa- 
tory tax, and a maintenance can be claimed as a right, and 
not a favour, the fhame of application is removed * : And if 
the maintenance is any way equal to the wages of laborious 
induftrv, an irrtfiluhle temptation to pretence of poverty and 

G g inability 



} See Note G. 

* In dearth 1795, a foal! afT.iTment of poor's rate was impofed, for the firft 
time, in Newhmds ; and I found that many came to claim a (hare of tit Hatof 
•J tie gintlmt*) whty o'.b«nvife, (tsftfcj fatvs awdejio app UcaUofl. 



226' Agricultural Survey of Pcebtesjhlre. 

inability is held out : So foon as funds are thus provided, a- 
bundance of candidates for their confumpt will prefent them- 
felves j nor is there any certain criterion to diftinguifh the 
voluntarily from the necejfarlly poor. Nothing requires fo little 
encouragement to make it thrive, as idlenefs 5 to which pover- 
ty, in two cafes out of three, may be confidered as a fynonime. 
Through frugality, in the days of youth and ftrength, a fund 
of fupport might often be provided againft the infirmities of 
old age ; but the fecure profpecl: of otherwife obtaining fuch 
provifion, fuperfedes the neceffuy of fuch faving. 

Where poor's rates have been regularly eftablifhed in Scot- 
land, they have, from thefe caufes, been continually upon the 
increafe-f-. 

Where poor's rates are eftablifhed, they neceffarily bring 
along with them laws ftrictly defining refidence ; that it may 
be afcertained on whom the burden of the poor's fupport falls. 
Thefe laws, as enacted in England, have been, by fome, confidered 
as originating in a humane regard for the poor, and to indicate 

the 



•f- Compare the expence of Yarrow, in the neighbouring county of Selkirk, 
(Statiftical Account, vol. '/th, page 509), where rates have been eftabliihed for a 
confiderable period, with that of the parilhes of Linton and Newlands in Tweed- 
dale, where, till the laft feafons of dearth, there were neither poor's rates nor fix- 
ed penfions. Ceteris paribus, the poor are proportioned to the population ; they 
are fuppofed alfo to abound moft where there are villages. Linton contains a vil- 
lage of 30c fouls 5 there is no village in Newlands, or in Yarrow. Throwing a- 
way odd numbers, the population of Yarrow was 1200 ; that of Linton and 
Newlands 900 each : The expence in Yarrow ought to have born a proportion, 
therefore, to that of Linton, or of Newlands, as four to three. In Yarrow, how- 
ever, in I792, the rate, for one year, was 120I. befides the collections and other 
funds: This fum, too, mufl have been all expended ; as poor's rates are general- 
ly laid on to anfwer penfions priorly allocated. But even including the dearth of 
winter 1 795-96, the yearly expence in Newlands and in Linton had not exceed- 
ed 36I. each ; nor 31I. for an average of five years. The clergyman obfetves, in 
his Report above quoted, ' that the poor's rates were moderate at their commence- 
ment, owing to the /mail number of fen/iotters : ' an observation which furely needs 
no comment. In the dearths 1 799- 1800, I have been informed, that the 
poor's rate in Yarrow amounted, annually, to about 420I. : In Linton, and in 
Newlands, the expence amounted only to about iool. annually; poor's rates being 
then aflbflcd ; in the two latter parifnes, in aid of the ordinary funds. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 527 

the mode in which they may obtain a fettlement : By others, 
with more appearance of probability, they have been looked 
upon as obtained upon the principle of felf-defence, in order 
to get rid of every avoidable burthen. In England, it would 
appear, that no perfon coming to a parifh is allowed to fettle 
there, left he fhould acquire a refidence, and eventually be- 
come a burden, unlefs he can produce fecurity for his even- 
tual maintenance to an extent that no induftrious labourer, 
having only his own labour as his fund of fupport, can pro- 
cure. Induftrious labourers are thus confined as prifoners 
within the precincls of the parifh which gave them birth ; 
they are debarred from carrying their induftry to fuch places 
as have a greater demand for labour, and where higher wages 
might be obtained 5 or, if they have acquired a new refidence, 
they are prevented from retiring, in the feafon of age and in- 
firmity, to fuch friends and relations as might footh and com- 
fort them ; and, by performing many little offices of good will, 
which could not be procured from f rangers but for hire, might 
make their maintenance come far more cheap. The fuperplus of 
labourers, in one diftricl:, cannot be difburthened upon an- 
other, where a greater demand for labour hath arifen ; nor the 
neceffity of the latter be relieved from the fuperfluity of the 
former ; the litigations inftituted to evicl: refidences, with the 
expence of the removal of paupers to their proper refidence, 
coding more, too, in every litigated inftance, than what the 
fuppcrt of the fubjeet of litigation would coft in any Scotifh 
parifh. (See Smith's Wealth of Nations, Book I. chap. x. 
part fecond, and third particular.) 

From the moderate expence at which the poor have hither- 
to been fupported in Scotland, Jaws of refidence have very 
feldom become the fubjec?c of litigation : Otherwife, there 
are laws of confuetude, (at leaft, admitted by general acquief- 
ence) ; as, that three years actual refidence, without being be- 
holden to any poor's fund, conftitutes a legal refidence to a 
grown perfon ; and, that birth conftitutes the fame to a child. 
But there is no authority in Scotland that can remove a flout 
labourer from a parifh, to prevent his acquiring a refidence j 

and. 



228 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

and no pledge againft his eventual maintenance can be required, 
either from himfelf, or from his laft purifh where he had refi- 
dence : he mult be confidered as what he is, and not in pro- 
fpect of what he may become. Till the great increafe of the 
expence of maintenance occafioned by the dearths of 1 799"* 
I Soo, I have heard of few inftances of litigated refidence. 
Indeed, it would appear preferable, in general, to fopj 
whatever poor happen to refide in your pariCh, if fuch rule 
{ball be univerfally adopted, than to incur the expence of le- 
gal eviction of refidence in any inftance. Even under an ex- 
penfive poor's eftablifhment, fuch as that of England, it were 
probably preferable to adopt this rule as law, than to fubjetfc 
the labouring part of the community, and the public at large, 
to the oppreffive reftraints, inconveniences, and difadvantages, 
that refult from the laws of refidence. 

In Scotland we have no office-bearers under the defig- 
nation of overfeers of the poor and ckurch-ivardens. If thefe 
office-bearers, who feem to have power to aflefs for the poor, 
are not themfelves liable to the tax ; or if they receive emolu- 
ment proportioned to the fum they thus place under their 
own adminiftration, it were not furprifmg fhould they be un- 
ceconomically liberal at the expence of other people. In the 
contradictory Scots acts of Parliament, (all, too, of equal 
authenticity, the fubfequent always homologating the whole 
of what went before), the power of compulsitor, as to the 
poor's provifion, is fometimes lodged in the Sheriffs of coun- 
ties, in the Commiflioners of Excife, in Cornmiffioners ap- 
pointed by the Kirk-fcffions, in the Kirk-feffions themfelves, 
in overfeers appointed by the Julttces of Peace, or the heri- 
tors with advice of the Kirk-feflion. By the cuftoin aequi- 
efced in, it is the heritors who impofe the tax, when re- 
courfe is had to rates : and, as they bear the one half of the 
impofition, their tenants, who bear the other half, arc in the 
iafe hands of thofe who have a common concern *. The 

minifler 



* In a fmall parifb in CydcfJale, bordering upon this county, where t,he 
peater part of the lands belong to one propvieior, to whom the other heritors 

gen 



Agricultural Survey of T'ccbkfp'ire. 2 29 

minifter and kirk-feffion are the ufual adminiftrators ; but are 
refponfible to the heritors for their adminiftration : The adrni- 
niftration is not confidered as a voluntary fervice, for which 
hire may be exacted ; it is rather held in the light of a fort of 
profeflional duty. The poor's funds are, therefore, virtually, 
both iinpofed and adminiltered, at no expence, by thofe who 
bear the burthen. Little liable as fuch a fyftem would feem 
to the poffibility of abufe.; yet fuch, it would appear, is the 
propenfity to idlenefs, alias poverty, when any fecure profpec"r. 
of provifion is held out to it ; that, as formerly obferved, 
wherever poor's rates have been regularly eftablifhed in Scot- 
land, they have increafed that poverty they were meant to cure. 

Faulty as our confuetudinary fyftem may appear in various 
refpetls, it is highly queftionable, whether that man would 
in fact benefit his country, who fhould attempt to organic it 
into a more regular fhape. 

In burghs, poor's rates are laid on like other taxes, ac- 
cording to dented fubftancc. -In the country all is laid upon 
proprietors and poffeffors of land, by the rule of the valuation 
of the lands in the cefs-books. 

The Scots poor's a£r.s, having chiefly relation to the poor 
from idlenefs, enjoins their apprehenfion, and the adjudging of 
their fervices to thofe that would accept of them ; and, from 
the act. 1672 downwards, (as it would feem they could not be 
difpofed of by the former provifion), enforce and reinforce the 
erection of work-houfes, or correclion-houfes, in all the prin- 
cipal towns, into which all the poor from their adjoining coun- 
ties fhould be collected, and where they fhcnld be compelled 
to labour. Under feyere penalties, the Magiftrates are enjoin- 
ed 



generally delegate their powers as to public c ce.rs of th« parilfc, it was found 
nrccflary to eihblifh a poor's rate during the late deatths. This proprietor fenf 
mefiages to the tenantry of the parifla, that, as feveral of them were ciders of 
the fcflion ; and as all refided, and knew the lltuation of the poo* ; and'as, likc- 
vife, they had to pay the one hah of any afililment iwpofed, he knew nobody fo 
fit to manage the bufinefs as themfelves : He dcf:rcd them, therefore, to nv.et with 
vi.c ciiniftsr and elders, under auuraoce of abiding by all that they thould decern. 



230 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

ed to erect fuch houfes in thirty-two towns fpecially defigncd 
in the a£t. The heritors of the parifhes in the counties at- 
tached, for that effect:, to thefe towns, are enjoined to levy 
affeffments, one half payable by the proprietor, and the other 
by the poffeffor of the lands, for the purpofe of paying to 
the Magiftrates at the rate of two {hillings Scots, per diem, for 
each of the vagrants fent by them to the correction-hcufe for 
the firft year of their refidence, and of one (hilling Scots per 
diem for the next three years ; the Magiftrates, meanwhile, 
having aifo the profits of the work of thefe vagrants for thefe 
faid four years, as alfo, for feven years thereafter, as an in- 
demnification for the expence of erecting thefe correction- 
houfes. After the expiry of faid eleven years, the acts make 
r.o farther provifion. It would appear to have been prefumed 
that the vagrants confined in them would, by that time, have 
acquired fuch habits of induftry, that they might fafely be fet 
at large upon the- public. In thefe a6ts, however, the poor 
unable to work, i. e. die real poor, are left to be .fupported by 
the voluntary contributions at the parijh kirk : So that the mode 
confuetudinarily now adopted for affeffing poor's rates for the 
real poor, is borrowed from that part of the Scots acls which 
relates folely to the provifion to be made for fending idle va- 
grants, able to ivorky to thofe correction-houfes where they 
were to have been compelled to labour. — (Dr Anderfon has 
given a good vieiu of the Scots poor's laivs t in his periodical publi- 
eaiion y called the Bee.) 

In a very few inftances, ivork-houfes, as they are defigned, 
have been erected in great towns, in conformity to the letter 
of the Scots a£ts, for the reception of the real poor .unable to 
ivork, who have been maintained hitherto by voluntary collec- 
tions at the church doors, and other voluntary donations. In 
Edinburgh, the preffure of the two recent years of dearth and 
fcarcity has led to the obtaining of a fpecial a£t of Parliament, 
empowering the impofition of a poor's rate, when necefTary, 
to the extent of io,oool., for the fupport of the unable, and 
the occafional relief, in fuch feafons, of thofe whofe work can- 
not reach the whole of their maintenance. 

That 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 23 i 

That there is a poffibility of maintaining the poor more 
cheaply, when collected together into alms-houfes, will appear 
evident to every one who has attended to the difference, in 
cheapnefs, of common mejfing, compared to feparate eftablijb- 
ments. But, though phylically pofiible, it has been found mo- 
rally impracticable to mefs the poor at even the fame degree of 
cheapnefs in alms-houfes, as that at which labourers, receiving 
no charity, do, in fact, maintain themfelves upon their diftincfc 
feveral eftablifhments. From Dr M'Farlane's Inquiries concern- 
ing the Poor, published in 1782, it appears, that, even m Edin- 
burgh (where the poor's houfes are managed by the moft re- 
fpectable inhabitants, and are reckoned to be upon a better 
footing than thofe of moft other countries), the average annual 
expence of each individual, in thefe houfes, came to from 
4I. 4s. to 4I. 10s.; whilft, upon the fame average, the annual 
earnings of a tradefman, after deducting houfe-rent, amounted 
to no more, for food and clothing to himfelf and family, than 
15I. per annum ; which, allowing the computation of only three 
children to the family, falls to be divided among five indivi- 
duals, allowing only cf 3I. for the maintenance of each. Such 
is the wafte that may be expected, when perfons live at die 
expence and rifle of other people : fuch the exertions and fru- 
gality which fpring from na ction, and the honourable 
pride of independence. 

To think of maintaining beggars equ pend- 

ent induftrious labourers maintain themfelves, is feemingly in 
vain : Yet, the expenfive maintenance of the firft, is an ep- 
prefhon of the laft. {See foot-note, p. 203.) 

The expence of erecting and fuperintending alms-houfes, can, 
at all events, only be afforded in great towns: 1 ■ tnad- 
miffible in country parifhes, he population is thin. Even 

in great towns, it is queftioned, whether the poor might not 
be more cheaply maintained in their own houfes, (when left to 
difpofe of fucli abilities as they poffefs, in fuch lines of fm; 
induftry as they fhall find out for th< 

of oecafional charity, distributed according t< 1 1 defert ; 

when, having a lefs certain dependence sore at th ir 



^32 Agricultural Survey of Pecbtesjhire* 

own rifk, and having the entire property of inch earnings as 
they can obtain, by fuch induftry as they are capable of exercif- 
ing, a greater degree, both of ceconomy and of induftry, would 
be enfured j and they would alio be more happy in their own 
feelings, when freed from the monotonous irkfomenefs of con- 
finement, and from the languor of want of an employment 
immediately and perfonally interefling. A very accurate fyf- 
tem of fuperintendence of the molt refpe£table inhabitants 
(fuch as was enforced, in Edinburgh, by the necefiity of the cafe, 
in the calamitous feafons 1 799-1 800) would need, however, 
to be kept up, to this effe£t. But men of bufinefs are too 
much occupied in bufinefs ; and thofe of wealth and leifure are 
too bufied in illuftrious idlenefs, to find leifure for occupations 
of obfcure ufefulnefs. 

Could work-houfes be put upon the footing of thofe of 
Count Rumford at Munich •, fo as that the poor might have 
refort to them for work fuitcd to their feveral abilities, with- 
out compulfion 5 might obtain the full ordinary wages of fuch 
work as they can execute, to be entirely at their own difpofal ; 
and wholefome food afforded them at the cheapeft rate at 
which it can be afforded in the way of cooking in common, 
after the moft ingenious contrivances for the economizing of 
fuel and of labour, and of fuch feientihe cookery as gives tire 
greateft quantity of nourishment from the leaft quantity of raw- 
materials ; there is little queftion but that the expence would 
come far cheaper, than upon any fyftem of compelled labour 
under confinement, and where the whole profits of the work 
performed goes to the benefit of the work-houfe. 

The following Tables, from the, Statistical Accounts and o- 
ther information, will fliow the eafy rate at which the poor 
are maintained, where no regular poor's rates are eftablifhed ; 
and will alfo convey a general notion of the mode of the ad- 
mmiftration of the poor's funds. The Tables are from the 
books of the treafurers \ in which are marked every mere oc- 
cafional fupply, under accidental diftrefs from fieknefs, &c. as 
well as the more regular fupplies in cafes of permanently par- 
tial 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjfjire. 233 

tial or total inability to work. Gratuitous charities from well 
difpofed neighbours, in articles of maintenance or of clothing, do 
not appear in the books, nor in the tables. No fuch gratuitous 
charities would be given under a compulfatory fyftem of regu- 
lations, leaving nothing to be determined according to private 
apprehension of need or defert. 



H h Table 



234 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlj';re. 



TABLE I. 

Showing the annual average expence of the Poor, in the three 
parifhes of Linton, Newlands, and Kirkurd. There are no poor's 
rates in either of thefe parilhes. In the two firft, the fettling of 
fixed penfions has been carefully avoided, led fecurity fhould re- 
lax induflrious exertion ; though, no doubt, in cafes of extreme 
old age, &c. where the circumftances of the pauper were evi- 
dently feen to admit no hope of change, the fupply given comes 
to be, in practice, nearly as equal and regular, as if a fixed pen- 
fion were allotted. In the Iaft, fmall penfions may have been al- 
lotted ; though never to the extent of excluding dependence upon 
occafional voluntary relief. In the two firft, the poor have been 
made to depend upon the difcretionary power of the parifh Mini- 
fter, as treafurer; who acts according to the occafional advice, 
reprefentation, &c. of the more refpedtable inhabitants in the dif- 
ferent quarters of the parifh. 



Linton Population, by Statiftical Account, 928. 
By return Abbot's Bill, 1064. 

Average yearly expence from 1769 till 1773 

Ditto from 1773 till 1781 

Ditto from Martinmas 1782 till ditto 1785 

Ditto from June 1785 till ditto 1790 

Newlands Population, by Statiftical Account, 
891. Abbot's Bill, 950. 

Ditto from July 1773 till July 178a 
Ditto from July I 78a till July 1790 
Ditto from July 1790 till July 1795 - 

Kirkurd Population, by Statiftical Account, 
288. Abbot's Bill, 327. 

Ditto for five years preceding 1758. The average of pen- 1 
doners yearly being 6j - - / 

Ditto for twenty years preceding 1778. The average of pen- 1 
fioners being yearly Io| J 

Ditto for ten years previous to 179a. The average of yearly 1 
penfioners being 6-^ * - i 



Stock at 
Interejl, 



L. 

3* 

"5 



So 



140 
140 
140 



Ann. average 



Expence. 


L. s. 


d. 


10 18 


8 


16 19 


3 


31 O 


ol 


18 17 


10 


11 % 


4i 


%l I 


Hi 


31 *5 


O 


4 


Oi 

5 


10 9 


6| 


9 7 


81-5- 



TABLE 



Agricultural Survey of ' Pechlcsflnre* 



235 



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236 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlrire. 

I am indebted to the Reverend Mr Forrefter, Minifter of 
Linton, for the following ftatement of the rates of fupply grant- 
ed to the poor of that parifh from January 1800 till January 
1 80 1. I am forry I cannot furnifh a ftatement of the fame 
kinc? for Newlands ; as money was given to different diftribut- 
ors , and though their accounts were given in to the treafurer 
in detail, they are entered in his books only in grofs : The an- 
nual expence, however, the number of poor, and the rates of 
fupply, were much the fame as at Linton. 

Poor's rates were impofed in both parifhes in the two dear 
years ; but the adminiftration was difcretional, without fixed 
penfions. 

Expence Poor of Linton from Jan. 1800 to Jan. 1801. 

The total number fupplied was 70. — The whole annual ex* 
pence amounted to 103I. 10s. — The rate of fupply as under : 



Rate. 



No. of Poor 
at that rate. 
10 

9 



From as. 6d. to 5s. 

From above 5s. to 10s. 

Above 1 os. to 15s. 

Above 15s. to 1 1. - - 9 

Above il. to il. 5s. r - - 9 

Above il. 5s. to il. 1 os. - 7 

Above il. 10s. to 2I. 

Above 2I. to 2I. 103. 6 

Above 2I. 1 os. to 3I. 6s. - - 4 

From 4I. 9s. to 5I. 16s. - 7 

The mod ferious burdens to which poor's funds are expofed, 
are, orphans and old people without relations, who muft be 
committed to the hireling care of ftrangers ; in which cafes, 
there is much expence incurred, for little fervice, flovenly exe- 
cuted. Even a baftard child, difowned by the father, is not a 
very ferious burden, if the mother is ftout and ceconomical : 
About twenty-five years fince, I knew of an inftance of this 
kind occurring in the parifh of Linton 5 where the maintenance 
of the child, till it was fit to do fomcthing for itfelf, did not 
coll: the Scffion, annually, above 40s. 

In 



Agricultural Survey of 'Peebles/hire. 237 

In cafes of baftardy, we are apt to be too indulgent to the 
weaker fex -, though, undoubtedly, both culprits ought to fuf- 
fer; and neither ought, furely, to be a gainer for their encou- 
ragement : Yet, when a ploughman could gain only 61. or 7I. 
o/yeariy wages above his viduals, I have known one of this 
defcription amerciated by Juftices cf the Peace in an aliment of 
4 1. yearly to his baftard child, till it fhould arrive at the age of 
ten years. The next to ruin that would enfue upon fimilar de- 
cifions, would render them equivalent to an aft of banifhment, 
and defeat entirely their intention ; befidcs holding out an ir- 
refiftible temptation to perjury, in Scotland, where, by law, it 
is referred to the accufed father's oath to decide whether he is 
or is not the real father ; unlefs, indeed, the mother can ad- 
duce preemptive proof, from circumftances ( 'famplena probata ) 
of his guilt j when her oath is taken in fupplement of her 

proof. 

In the dearths of 1782, 1795, i~99> l8c0 > fome P™" ie s 
bought meal, and fold it at an under-rate to their poor •, others 
approved rather of diflributions in money ; as interfering in no 
way to the difcouragement cf the retail trade in meal ; the en- 
couragement and free competition of which, was confidered as 
both highly convenient for thofe tridefpeople who got no 
poor's fupply, and as the belt fecurity againft their being im- 
pofed upon. 

There are two or three friendly focieties in this county : In 
laft dearths, fome of their capital was loft, by being embarked 
in the very idle, but highly popular concern of importing grain. 
They have all embraced the privileges of the aft of Parliament 
in their favour, by fubmitting to its regulations. Under the 
frugal management of administrators chofen by the members, 
they promife to be of great ufe, at {mail expence, and with 
rifle of mifapplication. 



.< 



2i 8 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhlre. 



Sect. VIII. — Population. 
I. POPULATION TABLE. 





o 




CI 

c 


From Sir John Sinclair's 


Statistical Account. 




c 




r; \t~ 


8 £ 












Ages. 


, 




Names of 




- C 


!} 












% 















Parifhes. 


l| 


e ? 
3 5 


a 
a 


1 


1 


d 

v. 




g 

O 



»^> 








d 




O « 




«£ 


5 E 


£ 






5 


g 


| 







"8 


•s & 




?3i 


800 


928 


449 


479 


218 


1*6 


349 


146 


29 


178 


9 


Linton 


Newlands 


1009 


940 


891 


448 


443 


220 


195 


m 


I03 


40 


182 


8 


Eddleftone 


679 


810 


710 


J7i 


339 


131 


146 


272 


120 


41 


— 


5 


Kilbucho 


279 


250 


363 


188 


175 


i°5 


75 


1.3.5 


37 


11 


62 


4 


Kirkurd 


310 


260 


288 


131 


IT7 


5.5 


56 


"3 


58 


6 


65 


6 


Lyne & Meggot 


265 


167 


152 


n 


81 


26 


41 


64 


15 


6 


— 


4 


Skirling 


33J 


230 


334 


120 


114 


49 


56 


105 


18 


6 


— 


2 


Broughton 


367 


274 


264 


142 


122 


75 


57 


96 


31 


5 


— 


2 


Mannor 


32c 


292 


229 


123 


106 


49 


5* 


— 


— 


— 


4a 


X 


Drumelzier 


305 


320 


270 


123 


U7 














6 


Glenliolm 


39* 


270 


300 


135 


165 


76 


74 


— 


— 


— 


55 


5 


Inverleithan 


559 


420 


560 


268 


292 














JO 


Traquair 


651 


480 


44? 


— 


— 


118 


88 


181 


39 


19 


— 


10 


Peebles 


1896 


1582 


1920 


— 


— 


547 


365 


626 


322 


60 


— 


28 


T'.veedfmuir 


397 


250 


227 
















5i 


5 


itobo 


■313 
8908 


300 
7645 


3i8 

8099 


— 


=^- 


~ 









__ 


60 


5 


Totals 




117" 



According to Dr Pennycook, the population in 1715 was 8oco. In the Sta- 
t'tflical Accounts, it appears, that the population of Linton in 1777 was 1003. 
In the account of Lyne and Mrggot, the average population is faid to be 160. In 
the account of Mannor, after the ckiTirication, as in the above table, the clari- 
fication continues ; 54 from 20 to 30 years ; 28 from 30 to 40 ; 28 from 40 to 
60 ; 17 from 60 to 80 ; 1 from 80 to 90. In that of Glenholm, the population 
is faid to be more numerous in Summer. In that of Stobo, the arrangement is; 
above 8 years of age, males 119, females 102. About 40 of the inhabitants, 
ftated above as belonging to Inverleithan parifh, rcfide in that part of the parifh 
which lies in the county of Selkirk. In Peebles parifh, Z1 of the taxed houfes arc 
within the burgh, as alio 1480 of the population* 



II. 



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Agricultural Survey of PeeblesJJjlrc, 



TABLE 

Of Taxed Clocks, Watches, and Dogs, in 1797; for which I 
am indebted to Mr Brunton, County Surveyor. 



Names of Pariflies. 


Clocks. 


Watches. 


Total 
Watches 


Dogs. 


Total 
Dogs. 


Of gold. 


Ofjilver. 


Paying 

3*. 


Paying 
5*- 


Eddleftone 

Newlands 

Kirkurd 

Skirling 

Stobo 

Glenholm 

Kilbucho 

Mannor 

Drummelzier 

Tweedfmuir 

1 .vne & Meggot 

Inverleithan 

Trafluair 

Brougliton 

Linton 

Peebles, country") 

Tov/n ditto J 


II 

I 1 

5 
1 

5 

4 
-> 

7 
4 

5 
6 

7 

I I 
2 

5 

4 

*5 


•3 

,5 

8 

5 

3 
1 

2 

4 
1 

2 
3 

1 

2 


IO 

IO 

8 
2 
6 

5 

IO 

4 
2 

5 

7 

9 
1 

6 

5 
19 


J 3 
18 

*.3 

2 

6 
8 

4 

12 

8 

3 

5 

9 

12 

1 

7 

5 
21 


I 
I 

I 

5 
1 
1 

1 

2 


J 7 

27 
20 

10 

9 

4 

IS 

T 9 
6 

11 

22 

18 

14 

20 

9 


18 
28 

20 

II 

9 

4 

20 

20 

7 
11 

22 
l 9 

14 
20 
11 


Totals 


106 


35 1 II2 


147 !| 13 I221 


234 



None of the foregoing accounts of the population would 
appear to have been made up from actual enumeration, but 
thofe in the ftatiilical accounts, and in the return by the fchool- 
mafters, purfuant to Abbot's bill. 

Pennyeook, as phyfician to the county, had much opportu- 
nity of information, though it is probable that his ftatement is 
merely deduced by calculation from probable data. The return 
to Webder, I am informed, was made up from calculations, 
founded upon the proportion which the whole population is 

fuppofui 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 24 J 

fuppofed to bear to the number of examinable perfons upon the 
minifter's examination -roll ; but it is uncertain, how far fuch 
lifts might have been accurately kept ; and, though examinable 
perfons are confidered to be thofe who have attained to eight 
years of age, and all above that age, yet it is queitionable, how 
far, in every inftance, fuch claffification might have been rigid- 
ly adhered to. Armftrong's ftatement, I know, in various in- 
ftauces, was taken from the random guefs of clergymen fitting 
at their own fire-fides, who kept no regular lifts.. 

The inhabited houfes arc noticed, in eight of the parifhes, 
in the Statiftical Accounts ; and the rate of inhabitants to an 
houfe, in thefe, is 5^0. In the fame parifhes, by the return in 
purfuance of Abbot's bill, the rate of inhabitation is 5^ to an 
houfe ; and by faid return, the general rate of inhabitation is 
5^ to an houfe. 

It is, unqueftionably, a matter of great importance, that the 
real ftate of a country fhould be afcertained ; and for this pur- 
pofe, it would be neceflary, in Scotland, that the keeping of 
regular regifters of marriages, births, and deaths were en- 
forced. 

In the affortment of the population of Tweeddale upon 
Abbot's bill, the claffes employed in agriculture, trade, ma- 
nufacture, and handicraft, are ftated at 2921, and the non- 
defcripts, at 5881, or more than double. The fchoolmafters 
would need more fpecific inftrucTtions as to fuch affortment ; 
otherwife, nothing can be learned from their returns — while 
fame, as is confident with my own knowledge, in this county, re- 
turn, in the non-defcript clafs, the whole of the females, and the 
whole of the children ; and others make the wives and children 
go along with the fathers of the families, &c. &c. 

In twelve of the parifhes, the proportion of males to females 
is given in the Statiftical Account; and the females exceed the 
males by 5 1 ; and, in proportion of the whole population in 
thefe twelve parifhes to this difference, the whole population of 
the county, by faid accounts, fhould give a difference of excefs 
of females over males of 79-*- nearly : This excefs, per return 
under Abbot's bill, is 412 ; but, in proportion of the whole di 

I i ' the 



242 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

the population, per Statiftical account, to the whole under Ab- 
bot's bill, the excefs of females by the latter ought (in the above 
ratio) only to have been 86i nearly. Could this difference of 
excefs in the females be owing to the abfence of males, in con- 
fequence of a ftate of war ? or, are thefe great variations of the 
proportion, to be attributed to inaccuracies in the different enu- 
merations ? No doubt, in the twelve parifhes of the Statiftical 
Account, on which the above calculation is grounded, the town 
of Peebles is not included ; and this may make the general ex- 
cefs of females over males appear considerably lefs from the 
Statiftical Account, widowed females generally betaking them- 
felves to towns ; not, however, feemingly, to fuch an extent as 
mould eafily explain the great difference of excefs in the return 
under Abbot's bill. The enumeration under Abbot's bill was, 
indeed, made during the Summer half year, when the farmers 
employ more fervants, particularly female fervants ; and that 
may have increafed the difference of the proportion of females, 
and, indeed, of the extent of the whole population, by the ex- 
cefs of the demand for farm fervants in the Summer half year, 
above what is fupplied by the fpread of the Winter inhabitants 
of the town of Peebles, and villages, in that feafon, over the 
country : But this alone could not nearly account for either the 
excefs of the proportion of females, or the increafe of 903 upon 
the whole population, in the return of Abbot's bill -, not even 
upon the fuppofition of the returns to Sir John Sinclair having 
been made, generally, from an enumeration in the Winter 
feafon. 

The fure method of obtaining an exact, enumeration is, to 
have it executed over the whole empire at one time \ which pre- 
vents all poffibility of deficiency, or duplication of return, in 
confequence of migration. 

Coniidering the great excefs of the proportion of females un- 
der Abbot's bill, which certainly fmplies the abfence of a great- 
er number of males in the army and navy, who are therefore 
not enumerated •, and confidering, notwithjlaiulitig, the great 
excefs of the total population over that returned to Sir John 
Sinclair ; it muft certainly appear, that the population of the 

county 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



243 



county has rapidly increafed within thefe ten years bypaft. As 
this increafe cannot be attributed to the introduction of manu- 
factures, it mull be afcribed to improved agriculture ; and the 
lamentation over the depopulation of the country, which we 
find in feveral of the ftatiftical accounts of Tweeddale parifhes, 
muft either have proceeded from mifmformation, or from par- 
tial views — it may have taken place, locally, in fome parifhes, but 
net upon the whole, over the county ; or apparently, (from cir- 
cumftances explained p. 47, 48.) where it had no reality : And 
hence the account of farm-towns once inhabited, and now fallen 
to ruins, which are confidered as the marks of a former more 
frequent population. 

The population in Tweeddale, according to the above tables, 
would appear to (land at the rate of 1 to 26^ acres 5 or at 
the rate of 24 to the fquare mile *. 

The following date of the population has appeared in the 
newfpapers, as already prefented to the Houfe of -Commons : — 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


England 


3»987*935 


4*343*499 


8,33 M34 


Wales - 


257,178 


284,368 


541,546 


Scotland 


734,5 8r 


864,487 


1,599,068 


Ireland, not yet returned, com- 














4,000,000 








Iflands of Guernfey and Jerfey 








computed 


— — 


— — 


80,000 


Army and Militia 


I 98,35 I 


— — 


198,351 


Navy and Marines 


126,279 


— — 


126,279 


Seamen in regiitered fhips 


M4>55 8 


— — 


144,558 


Convicts on board of hulks 


1,410 


— — 


1 , i 1 


Total - 


5,450,292 


5>492>354 


15,022,646 



Sect. 



* That the reader who has little accefs to books may form fome comparative 
notion of the relative ftatcs of papulation, I fubjoin a fhte of the computed popu- 
lation to the fquare mile in different countries, from Townfcnd's Travels in Spain : 
Ruffia 5 ; Spain 67 ; England 107; France 147; Holland 27a. 

The population of Tweeddale appears to be nearly an one hundred and eighty*. 
fecond part of that of Scotland. 



244 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



Sect. IX. — Corn Laws. 

The belt corn laws for encouragement cf agriculture ever 
introduced into Scotland, were, the a£ts of Parliament 1449 
and 1469, with the gradual extenfiqn of the principles of thefe 
ilatutes, through the liberal interpretation of our Judges ; af- 
fording affurance to the cultivator of the foil \ of reaping the fruits 
of his labour and his capital, by communicating fecurity to his te- 
tiure (fpojjejion. The act of Parliament 1 748 falls under the 
fame defcription : Much alfo remains in expectation from indi- 
vidual exertion ; as an enlightened fenfe of felf-intereft (hall be 
more and more difrufed through the claries of landed proprie- 
tors, and of profeffional farmers, in regard to the proper con- 
flru£tion of leafes. — See note D. 

In regard to the corn laws, properly fo called, the views en- 
tertained by landed proprietors and farmers feem to be, that 
the price of corn fhculd be artificially enhanced, by conftant 
bounties upon its exportation, and by the prohibition or dis- 
couragement of importation ; excepting in clamant cafes of 
more than ordinary fcarcity and dearth. And confidering how 
many exclufive privileges have been obtained againft thefe 
clafles, by merchants and manufacturers, who have fo often 
had the addrefs to perfuade the public at large of the coinci- 
dence of the public good with their own private views — in mo- 
nopolies of the home market, fecured to them by prohibition of 
the importation, and bounties upon the exportation of fueh ar- 
ticles as they deal in ; together with monopolies of the home- 
produced raw materials of manufacture, by prohibitions of its 
exportation in an unmanufactured ftate ; it is not furprifing, 
that the former clafles fhoukl have bethought themfelves of ob- 
taining exclufive privileges in counterbalance. 

It we truft to the opinion of that profound and clofe rea- 
foncr. the author c\ the Wealth of Nations, it would appear, 

■ - though home monopolies will enrich merchants and ma- 
nufacturers, at the expence of their fcllow-fubjedts, thus ini- 
ufly debarred from buying where they can be cheapen 1 : 

ferved ;, 



Agricultural Survey of Peeblesshire. 245 

ferved ; yet, that no fuch advantage can accrue to farmers or 
landholders, from fuch exclufive pofleffion of tlie home market 
of ccrn : for that corn is the ftandard of value of every other 
marketable commodity ; and that a certain quantity of corn will 
ever, at an average, purchafe the fame quantity of labour (fo 
efTential a part of the constituent price of every marketable ar- 
ticle), proportionally to the liberal, moderate, or fcanty reward 
given to labour in any country, according to the progreflive, 
Stationary, or declining ftate of its profperity. That fuch arti- 
ficial enhancement of the price of corn, therefore, could be of 
no real benefit to the farmer cr landed proprietor ; for, though 
the farmer can afford more money rent in proportion to the 
greater money price he receives for his produce, his landlord 
can make no larger purchafe of home labour, or its produces, 
in which his expenditure mult chiefly lye ; as they mult all pro- 
portionally rife in money price ; nor can the farmer, for the 
fame reafon, extend his cultivation proportionally to this in- 
creafe of the money price of his corns •, and that, by confe- 
quence, this artificial enhancement of the price of grain can- 
not tend to the encouragement and increafe of tillage. That, 
meanwhile, the heightening of the price of corn heightening the 
wages of every manufacture, difables the manufactures of the 
country from competing in the market with the manufactures 
of other countries, where wages are cheaper. 

It would be much more confonant to the natural fenfe of 
equity, and probably not impolitic, to remove every kind of ar- 
tificial reftri£tion in regard to agriculture, manufacture, and 
commerce ; and to leave every one to turn to the belt account 
he can, his (kill, his induftry, his capital, and his revenue, 
deftined to enjoyment in confumption ; fubjectcd merely to 
fuch impofitions of taxation as are neceffary for the fupport of 

Government. 

Confiderable alarm, in regard to the declining (late of agri- 
culture through tlie kingdom, feems to have been excited by 
the publication of Colonel Dirom upon the corn laws, in 

1706. 

From 



2i,6 Agricultural Survey of Pecblesfiire. 

From that publication it would appear, that, from the year 
1688, (when bounties upon exportation were firft permanently 
obtained, in addition to the formerly exifting reftri£tions upon, 
or prohibitions of, importation), till the year 1750, our export 
of grain gradually increafed •, till it arofe to an annual average 
of 800,000 quarters- above our imports : But that from that 
period (after which our corn laws ceafed to be fo favourable to 
export, or fo inimical to import) a melancholy reverfe took 
place; till at length, during the twelve years from 1773 down- 
wards, the balance againfl exportation arofe fo high, as to amount 
to an annual excefs of 311,176 quarters imported, above what 
was exported ; and from that period till 17935 to about 546,408 
quarters. 

A publication fubfequently appeared in r 797, entitled, Dif- 
ferfion of the gloomy apprehenfions, of late repeatedly fuggefed from 
the decline of our com trade ,• and conditions of a directly oppoftte 
tendency, eflahfifloed upon well authenticated fads, by the Reve- 
rend John Howlett. The execution feems to come up to the 
profeffion of the title of the work. 

As 8co,ooo quarters was formerly the balance of exporta- 
tion above importation, and the importation now exceeds the 
exportation by 546,408 quarters ; it is evident, that the propor- 
tion of grain confumed, to that raifed, exceeds, suw, the pro- 
portion in 1750, by both thefe fums, or by 1,346,408 quarters 
annually. When, however, fays Mr Howlett, it is considered, 
that, fince 1750, the population of Great Britain has increafed 
probably by 2,500,000 * — that, in confcquence of increafing 
wealth, the whole population are better fed — that the incrcafe 
of confumption of butcher meat has fo augmented, as that, 
upon a moderate computation, 300,000 more of fheep are an- 
nually killed, 60,000 of oxen, and 40,000 of fwine — that the 
additional number of high fed horfes, now kept for pleafure, 
for travelling, for tranfport of commodities, above what were 
kept for thefe purpofes in 1750, amounts, upon probable calcu- 
lation, 



* The aclual enumeration has fecmingly fhown the increafc to be greatly above 
the iujpf oliliua. ni the text. 



Agricultural Survey of Peehlesjloire. 247 

lation, to 400,000 : And it will then appear, how very little 
length thefe 1,346,408 quarters of grain would go to the fup- 
port of this prodigious incveafe, both of men and animals, 
which muft fubfift upon the produce of land. This greatly in- 
creafed confumpt could not pofiibly have been iupported, but 
from a proportionally increafed produ&ion from the lands, by 
the improvement and extenfion of agriculture : Nor is there 
taken into the above account, the increafe of confumpt from 
the additional number or better feeding of working cattle, im- 
plied in improved or extended agriculture \ nor the additional 
animals of the dairy, required from increafe of population; 
nor the increafed rate of maintenance for thofe in the army and 

navy. 

Mr Howlett appeals to every one's experience of what he 
fees around him, in regard to the progrefs or retrogradation of 
agriculture— the feen ftate of the fa&, being a much furer 
ground of conclufions, than the returns from the Cuftom- 

houfe. 

He is of opinion, that corn laws cannot have any consider- 
able influence in any way •, but alleges, that as the improve- 
ment of agriculture has continually increafed fince the Revolu- 
tion, and that as corn laws (of the belt conftruclion, in the o- 
pinion of the favourers of them) have, at different portions of 
that period, co-exifted, an opportunity is thus afforded of con- 
founding mere coincidence with caufation : But that agricul- 
ture will be found ftill to have gone on progreffively improving, 
equally, during that portion of thefe periods when they are 
fuppofed kail, as when fuppofed moil favourable *. That if 

corn 



* At the Revolution, life, liberty, and property were perfectly flcured ; and 
that encouragement given to induftry, which arifes from fecurity of reaping, and 
unrnoltftedly enjoying its fruits. Shall, then, any fuperior caufe be fought for, to 
account for the profperous (late of induftry in agriculture, or any other occupa- 
tion ? Under fuch circumftances, is it not S laringly abfurd to fearch for the caufes 
of the nation's thriving, in any partial fyftem of regulations, fuch as the corn laws, 
which it has been found repeatedly fo necefTary to alter and amend, and fo fre- 
quently to fufpend altogether in their execution ? Might we not almoft as rea- 
sonably 



24 3 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjlnrt. 

corn laws had any confiderable effect, it would chiefly appear 
in keeping the market price fteady and uniform : but that, even 
in thofe periods, when corn laws are fuppofed to have operated 
to the beft effect, the prices appear to have been fubject, to 
equal fluctuation, as at any other period \ as is evident, upon 
infpecting the tables of prices, produced by thofe who would 
wifh, from thence, to fhow their beneficial effects. That the 
price muft depend upon the feafons fent by Providence, and is 
but little determined by the controul of human contrivance, in 
the way of regulation. 

Sect. X. — Game Laius. 

The facred animals, whofe perfons are inviolable, whofe 
aftions are fecure againft refponfibility, whofe damages can 
neither be prevented nor compenfated (like thofe of the human 
fpecies) by their punifhment, nor extirpation, nor recovery 
from their owners, or, rather, thofe who have the exclufive pri- 
vilege of becoming fuch, fo foon as they can catch them — 
owners, therefore, only upon hypothefis : — thefe animals, in 
this country, are of a kind, whofe ravages are very little de- 
ftru£live. We have no deer, or wild boars, roaming at. large. 
Excepting in a flight degree, in regard to Muirburn (page 193), 
we have no laws facrificing hufbandry to the accommodation 
of the game : We have no regulations protracting the cutting 
of hay, till the birds mail be fledged ; or of corns, till they 
fhall be fat ; or prohibiting the ufe of certain manures, for 

fpoiling 



fonably account for the fuccefs of an individual, not from his induftry, but from 
his ChriUian name, or his nofe, according to the hypothefis of Father Shandy ? 
There is furely no little dfgree of impertinence in the enthufiallic patronizcrs of 
the corn-law fyftem, in calling upon us to arreft our attention upon trifles of even 
ambiguons tendency, to the neglect of the invaluable bleffing of that freedom we 
enjoy. A fuund conftitution of body can (land the tampering of quacks; and 
when vigorous health fiill remains, it is apt to be afcribtd to the nofirum adminil- 
tered. The fupciior foundnefs of the Britilh conftitution may thus confer unmc- 
ijicd credit on many an idle or uufululary political nojlrum. 



J.gruiiliural Survey of Peebles/hire. 249 

fpoiling of their flavour *, Crows, which every one is allowed 
to deftroy at pleafure, occafion much more damage to the crops, 
than the whole tribe of game animals put together. The only 
damage at all worth attending to, is that resulting from men 
and dogs, in puriuit of the game. 

Before the high tax upon game licences, with heavy penal- 
ties for hunting without licence, the fheep, particularly upon 
the range of Pentland-hills, in Linton parifh, were much mo- 
kftcd, in the muirfowl feafon, by thoughtlefs, idle, apprentice 
boys from Edinburgh, traverfing the grounds. 

In regard to the detriment of agriculture, the very worft 
poffible regulation, in reipect oi the game, would be, to throw 
it indifcriminately open, with liberty to purfue it everywhere, 
to all without diitinction. The very belt would be, to veft in 
the occupying farmer, an abfolute power of preventing every 
perfon, without exception, from hunting over his farm againft 
his confent : A privilege thus granted of favour, and not held 
of right, would never be abufed, to the damage of farming 
itock. 

No doubt, thofe privileged to hunt, are commonly in circum- 
flances to enable them to make full compenfation for any da- 
mages they may occafion ; and in fuch fituations of l-efpedtabi- 
lity, as would reitrain them from knowingly occafioning any 
damage whatfoever : Yet, without fome fuch regulation, pro- 
perty launched out in farming can hardly be conceived equally 
protected by law, as other property launched out in the bufi- 
-nefs of other gainful profeffions. To have recourfe for da- 
mages, merely where damage cm be legally inftrutted, would 

K k nowhere 



* Allufions to tlie old French game laws. — See Touitgs Tour. There are laws 
on the Scotiih fiatute book, unrepealed, which prefcribe the punifhment of the lofs 
of the right hand, for the third ofTence of fhooting- pigeons. They may be consi- 
dered as fallen into defuetude, like other laws alfo unrepealed; fuch as, the fla- 
tute apainft fornication, in 1567, by which it is ordained, that all perfons guilty, 
as well tl;e men as the women, « (hall be tane to the deepeft and fouled poole, or 
water of the parochin, and their to be thrice dcuket ; and thereafter banilhcd the 
r parochin fc r ev:r. ' 



i'jo Agricultural Survey of Peeblesfhire, 

nowhere elfe be confidered as a fufficient compenfation, for" 
having property put in rifk at the mere pleafure of another. 

Suppofe the whimfical privilege were afTumed, of playing 
cudgel matches, for diverfion, in a glafs or china (hop : The 
fhopman would furely have fome reafon to be diflatisfied with 
this privilege, although he had the mod undoubted fecurity of 
recovering all damages that might enfue •, and though, from 
the nature of his wares, no damage could poflibly occur, in 
total fracture, or even mere fiflure, but what could, with eafe 
and certainty, be inftru£ted. In hunting, however, for exam* 
pie, with flow hounds in Tweeddale, where the fheep, walking 
wide, are naturally very wild, the mere recourfe for legally in- 
ftru£ted damage muft afford (till lefs adequate compenfation 
for the rifk ; as, from the nature of the property, much da- 
mage may be fuftained, which is utterly incapable of any legal 
inftru&ion — fuch as, lofs or prevention of fat, from difturbance 
in their paftures — difeafes consequent upon overheating, in run- 
ning through fear, or even upon fear itfelf. Here, as elfe- 
where, the power of prevention of unneceffary rifk is the pro- 
per and the belt fecurity. Upon the other hand, it would ap- 
pear a fevere regulation to exclude the proprietor, without leave 
afked and granted, from fuch rural fports as he might find up- 
on his own grounds \ which might have a tendency to prevent 
monied men from inverting their capitals in the purchafe, the 
improvement, and adorning of landed eftates. Expediences 
here clafh, and the fubje£t is confefTedly of great delicacy. 
Farmers, no doubt, are apprized of their fituation, and, in their 
calculations of difcount, muft make allowance for rifks, whe- 
ther more conftant or occafional. Meanwhile, I have ftated 
the matter in the ftrongefi point of view •■> as there can be no 
harm in reminding hunters of the very particular fituation, m 
which the very valuable farming ftock of the country is placed 
— a circumftance perhaps too apt to be forgotten in die ardour 
of the chafe. 

Game feems now, by the lateft decifions, to be confidered 
as property ; or, at lenit, that the property of another cannot 
be rendered fubfervient to the ufe of ftarting game in it, or of 

following 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 25 1 

following game through it ; and it is thus happily in the power 
of the proprietor of the lands to exclude all privileged hunters, 
whofe raftmefs might render them more regardlefs of rifle upon 
the property of another, where they have lefs intereft in the te- 
nant's thriving. 

In the cafe of fheep worried by dogs (a cafe fometimes oc- 
curring in the country, and often in the vicinity of towns and 
villages), it feems not perfectly decided, whether the firjl tref- 
pafs of the dog is at the rifk of the proprietor of the fheep, or 
of the owner of the dog. In the lateft, I believe, and ftrong- 
-cft decifion of the Court of Seffion, upon this fubject, the de- 
cifion went near to the eftablifhment of the general principle, 
* that the firft trefpafs is at the rifk of the owner of the dog. ' 
In that caufe, of a dog belonging to a tan-yard, an opportunity 
was given of bringing forward the matter upon the general 
principle, diverted of all fpeciakies : But (though it was made 
a common caufe, I have heard, among a number of perfons 
keeping fheep around Edinburgh) the anxiety of the parties led 
them foolifhly to bring forward fome vague fpeciakies, tending 
to criminate the former character of the dog ; and, though the 
only circumftances of this kind, either alleged or proved, a- 
mounted to no more, than * that the dog had, fome time be- 
fore, been feen looking earneftly at the fheep in the enclofure, ' 
the Court, in awarding damages againft the owner of the dog, 
laid much ftrefs upon this fpecialty of the cafe, in order to de- 
cline the indirect eftabliihment of the general principle — a mea- 
fure which our Courts of Juftice feem fhy of adopting ; fuch 
decifions amounting, in effect, to a fort of legiflation, and re- 
quiring legiilative caution and deliberation. 



CHAP 



25 ? Agricultural Survey of PeeMesj?ji>-& 



CHAP. XVI. 



OBSTACLES TO IMPROVEMENT- 



*^-f*ljfliBHl""* *' * 



Deficiency of capital is the great general obflacle to agricuJU 
tural improvement. Manufacturing and trading capital have 
had fo many fuperior privileges bellowed upon them, that 
more than a due proportion of the capital of the country has, 
thence, been attra&ed into trade and manufacture. Nor, if 
we trull to the opinion of the author of the Wealth of Na- 
tions, can this difadvantage be counterbalanced, in favour of 
agriculture, by any exciufive privileges attempted to be bellow- 
ed on capital employed in this occupation by the corn-lav/ fiy£- 
tern. More full fecurity of reaping the proper fruits of agri- 
cultural fkill and capital, than what is prefently enjoyed* might 
certainly, however, be conferred, to the encouragement of the 
more extenfive invcfliture of capital in farming, and to its 
accumulation in more rapid progreffion, were it not for preju- 
dices of various kinds. 

Prejudices, too prevalent among landed proprietors, in re- 
gard to the extent of intereft in the lands mmunicated v bj 
the leafe to the occupying cultivator ; both as to the duration. 
of that intereft, and alio as to the complete alienable property of 
it — Prejudices deftrucHvc, in an high degree, of agricultural 
credit, and tending to prevent the tenant's fixing of even his 
own capital in the foil ; re fl riding, of coiufe, all the more im- 
portant improvements, of permanent duration, but diftant re- 
turn, to the exertions of the landed proprietor ; whofe means, 

gen 



Agricultural Survey f Pt eblesjhire* 253 

rally equalled by his expence, feldom greatly abound, can- 
not fpeedily accumulate, and ,ire necelarily leaft efficacious in 
their application ;— the Scots law, feemingly not as yet fuili- 
ciently difentangled from the fhakles of feudalifm, giving too 
much fanction to fuch prejudices, See notes B and D. 

Prejudices in regard to the fize of farms, which would lead 
to regulations, on the part of individuals, or even of the pub- 
lic, interfering with the natural order in which the fubjeer, 
would neceflarily arrange itfeif ; upon the principle cf the ex- 
ifling agricultural capita/ exerting itfeif u to obtain that 

mode of its iuvejliture, under which it can be rendered mofl high- 
ly productive. (See note D.) — Entails tend to obftru£t the beft 
arrangements; both in regard to the duration of leafes, and 
alio in regard to thofc exchanges or fales of property which 
might tend to render forma more productive, either as to fize, 
or to other circumftances of more convenient and profitable 
poffeffion. The little effect of the relaxation of entail, by Acf, 
Parliament jcth of his prefent Majelty, in regard to leafes, has 
been fpecified already (page 1 1 1.) : A power is, in that a£t, al- 
fo conferred, of making exchanges of land, to the extent of 
thirty acres ; which may fometimes fuiT.ce, but much ofteaer 
may fail to effect the purpofes of a profitable exchange. An 
originally bad conftitution is not eafily reef ified. 

Prejudices of the mob, which have tco much infected every 
letnflature, in regard to the free marketing of grain ; difcour- 
aging the profeffion of the corn-merchant ; forcing, in fome 
meafure, the farmer into retail trade, and depriving him of 
the advantage, fo profitable to every producer, of a whclefalc 
merchant to take oil, and to pay for his produce ; returning 
him thus immediately the capital he had advanced, with its 
profit ; and enabling him again immediately to apply it to the 
peculiar bufmefs of his profefGon, as a producer — and that, 
too, with entire and undivided attention. In time of dearth, 
thefe prejudices expofe bo> : »wk the corn merchant, 

fo eflentially ufeful to him, to the defcrudtion <■: pitals - , by 

the fury of the unenlightened mob. — Nor are fliefe mobbiik 
conceptions confined entirely to the lower orders of fociety. — > 

Our 



2C4 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

Our flatute book ought to be purged entirely of all Jaws enabl- 
ed in the fpirit of mobbifh conception, which continue to 
give countenance to fuch abfurd prejudices (fee note H) ; and 
the prompt exertions of the military force mould ever prote& 
from outrage the capitals fubfervient to agriculture — the moft 
ufefully employed of any other. A (Irong {landing military 
force is indifpenfable, both to the effecting and to the perpe- 
tuating of the civilization of any country. 

The ivant of proper fubdivifion of labour •, and of farmings in all 
their feveral branches. This want cannot be fupplied by any 
regulation : There is an univerfal tendency, however, to fuch 
completion j as every one muff, find that praElice makes perfecl- 
nefs, according to the proverb % and would find that he could 
gain more by undivided attention to one thing, could he only 
obtain fufliciency of employment to occupy himfelf entirely in 
that way. This infers, however, a plenitude both of capital and 
of population *. 

The ivant of rich fiefs cj foil \ and benignity of climate. This is 
an evil which admits not of complete cure : It may be palliated j 
by the fhelter of wood plantations ; by the enclofure of arable 
farms, and the adoption of a mode of preparation, and of crop- 
ping of the lands, fuited to the foil and climate j as fuggefled 
through the courfe of the Report. 

The 



* The fubdivjfion of labour, and exclufive application to one fpecies of work, 
lias a natural tendency to produce the arrangement of men into cafis, as they are 
found in the early civilized eaftern regions; the families readily continuing to fol- 
low the occupation of their forefathers. It feemed to have produced fomethiog of 
this kind in Holland ; where, it is laid, villages were to be found entirely occu- 
pied by a particular fpedes of boors, or farmers, who devoted their whole atten- 
tion to the culture of lint, and its manufacture into flax, fit for the fpinning-wheel. 
They pofTefTcd no lands upon leafe ; but hired, for a fingle feafon, from more ge- 
neral farmers, particular fields, ready drefTed, for carrying a crop of lint : The 
profcffion of lint boor was continued among them from father to fon : I know 
not if they ufaalfy intermarried, exclufivcly, with thofc of the fame caft ; or whe- 
1 her fuch cuflom had grown fo invariable as to have obtained the force of a law; 
or whether this mark of an approach to high cultivation, has iurvived the irrup- 
tion cf t{:c difciples of the favage-ltate philofophy of RoulT.v.u. 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 255 

The ivant of proper modes offtoring up grain, fo as to preferve 
it from natural decay , and from the deflriiclion of vermin. Such 
an invention would more deferve a premium, than that of af- 
certaining the longitude with precifion, or that of dying cotton 
of a fcarlet colour. Grain would then continue at an equable 
price ; the plenty of one feafon would cover the fcarcity of ano- 
ther j and we would hear no more of dearths. Within thefe 
twelve or fifteen years, we have been vifited by the brown bur- 
rowing rat, which feems entirely to have banifhed our former 
fpecies of black rat : They feem too cunning to be enfnared to 
take arfenic ; at leafl when adminiftered in the way of unfcien- 
tific family practice ; and our beft remedy hitherto difcovered, 
is a fufficiency of cats. Foxes have abundant fhelter in the nu- 
merous young plantations of wood through the county ; and 
their depredations among young lambs are often very confider- 
able : A fox-hunter is fupported in the county by contribution 
among the fheep farmers. The gentlemen proprietors, out of 
the rogue-money collected along with their cefs, have, of late, 
revived the inftitution of a thief-catcher, to clear the county of 
fuch fturdy beggars as extort alms by intimidation. 

The prohibition of the exportation of 'wool, by confining its fale 
to home manufactures, may prevent the price from rifing to 
the rate it might otherwife do, and prevent that attention being 
paid to its improvement which otherwife might be paid. 

Corn laivSy as of doubtful tendency ; and 

Game laws, as in fome degree detrimental, have already 
been mentioned. 

Bad roads may alfo be again noticed, as referring to this 
chapter, particularly the by-roads. 



C I A P- 



1x6 Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 



C H A P. XVII. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS, 



Sect. T. — Agricultural Societies, 

There tire none in the county inflituted for the exprefs 
purpofe of formally difcuffing agricultural topics : A bookfellcr 
in the county town has fet up a circulating library ; but meets 
with fmall encouragement : From the thin difperfed ftate of 
population, the number of readers cannot be many, and thofe 
who do read do not read much. A monthly club, compofed 
chiefly of farmers, meet at the head inn of the county town, 
for fecial intercourfe. There is a fociety of the proprietors 
and farmers, inftituted for the purpofe of profecuting rogues, 
from a fund railed by annual contribution of the members. 

Sect. II*— Weights and Meafures. 

Butter, cheefe, wool, hay, are fold, within the county, by 
the Tweeddale tron weight : the pound confiding of 23 Engliih 
ounces, and 16 fuch pound.-, going to the (tone. Butter and 
cheefe, fent to Edinburgh, are fold by the pound of 22 Englifh 
ounces \ 1 6 fuch pounds to the (tone. 

Meal, butcher meat, put barley, are fold by Dutch weight, 
of 17! Englifh ounces to the pound. Meal is generally retailed 
in half ftones, containing eight of fuch pounds, called pecks, fix- 
tecn fuch pecks going to the boll, and two bolls going to the load ; 
which laft is the denomination under which it is fold in whole- 
fale, a peck bei n to each load, though this pradice is 

wearing 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 257 

Wearing out. Barley is fold in pounds and ftones, by retail ; 
in wholefale, it is ibid in bags, the bag containing fixteen 
ftones. 

Groceries are fold by the Englifh pound of fixteeii ounces. 

Grain is all fold, now, by a late regulation of the Juftices 
of Pei'.ce, to whom fuch regulations are by law committed, by 
the Linlithgow firlot •, which is alfo, by law, the ftandard of 
Scotland. The firlot is fubdivided into four pecks, four firlots 
go to the boll, and fixteen bolls to the chalder. Potatoes are 
fold by the oat firlot, with as many above the mouth of the vef- 
fel as will lye when toffed on by a fhovel : The weight of a 
firlot of potatoes may be about eighty ftones Dutch weight j 
though, in potatoes, as in grain, the proportion of the weight 
to the meafure depends upon the quality of the article. 

The new eftablifhed firlot, is a wooden veiTel, with its fides 
rifing at right angles to the bottom ,• a mode of conftruction in-* 
difpenfable to uniformity. In the old meafure, the fides were 
made to rife at all varieties of acute angles from the bottom ; 
fo that, though they all held exactly the fame quantity of wa- 
ter, they varied, to tire extent of difference (as I am informed 
by dealers) of from a 40th to a 30th part, according as the lefs 
or greater acutenefs of the angle admitted of the eafier or more 
difficult paiTage of the grain into its apex. Many perfons feem 
deeply interefted in eftablifhing the fale of corns by weight, and 
•not by meafure : There is, no doubt, a Height in meafuring, 
which cannot be prattifed in weighing : In other refpe£ts, the 
feller, in both cafes, mult make calculation of differences of va- 
lue, in the fame weight and fame meafure of grain, according 
to the different qualities of the grain as to thicknefs of huik # 
and its different ftates of dampnefs or drynefs. Sixteen ftones 
Dutch is the weight of good bigg in Tweeddale : It has been 
known, in favourable feafons, to weigh eighteen or njnetceit 
ftones ; but this weight is feldom attained. 

The liquid and long meafures in Tweeddale, are the faifiS 
that generally prevail through Scotland. 

JL1 



258 Agricultural Survey of 'Peebles/hire. 

I fhall (late here a few fa£b which have been omitted in 
their proper place. 

Dairy, farming, as the fyftem of tenants paying rent, which 
is now fuch' a confiderable object in the parilhes neareft to the 
capital, was nrft pra£tifed, in its prefent mode of accuracy, 
upon the famr of Wefter Deanshoufes, in Newlands parifh. 
Sir James Montgomery of Stanhope refided upon, and occu- 
pied this farm, while he held the office of Sheriff of the county. 
Sir James afterwards let the farm to Mr Thomas Stevenfton, 
who, in confequence of the prior refidence, found himfelf fur- 
nifhed with every accommodation and conveniency for dairy 
farming, in a flyle greatly fuperior to what any landlord would, 
then, have thought of propofmg, or the tenant of requiring. 
The tenant contracted with Edinburgh coffee-houfes for frefh 
butter ; and, though with fomewhat more trouble, obtained 
prices fuperior to what are obtained by thofe who fell it to 
weekly carriers, or to Edinburgh grocers : The fame mode of 
difpofal is continued by his fon, who fucceeded him in the 
farm. Old Stevenfton throve upon this practice ; and left 
three fons, eftabliflied in as many farms, in this county. Mr 
James Henderfon, in Weftmains of Kirkurd, was the next that 
made a figure in this fpecies of farming. 

Mr George Dalziel, innkeeper, nrft at the village of Linton, 
and afterwards at Noblehoufe inn, was the nrft farmer that 
fowed turnip in the open fields : I believe he had a field of per- 
haps two or three acres at Linton, fo early as the 1 763 or 1 764 
An innkeeper upon the London road, which then paffed by 
Linton to Carlifle, previous to the making of the road by Sel- 
kirk, had many opportunities of information ; and Dalziel was 
a man of obfervation and acutenefs. I believe he might alfo be 
the firft who cultivated potatoes, on a large fcale, by the 
plough. But the knowledge got from oral information, can 
never be fo accurate or complete, as what is obtained from ocu- 
lar infpe&ion of the practice. Dalziel made trials, both of tur- 
nip and artificial grafTes : I believe, however, that neither were 
at all adopted into a regular fyftem of rotation of cropping, till 

introduced 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 1 J9 

introduced in this form by M'Dougal, as noticed (page 56). 
I have reafon to believe, that the turnip hufbandry was > intro- 
duced into Ayrfhire, in confequence of a hint grven by Mr 
Alexander Dalziel, fon of George, and then fata upon Lord 
Glencairn's eftate, to a Mr Smith occupying a farm near to the 
village of Monkton in that county; in confequence of wmch, 
Smith came to Noblehoufe, in the Summer of 1789 or 1790, 
on purpofe to be inftrufted in the prattice of the culture of the 
plant when growing, in Angling the plants by the hand-hoe 
Ld ploughing betwixt the drills. The fa£t being to recent 
may be eafily afcertained. So late as the publication of Colonel 
Fullarton's Report, the regulated Ayrfhire praftice , to which 
the tenants were bound by their leaies, was that of three years 
corn crop followed by fix years grafs : and though this fyftem 
would appear to have been only a fmall improvement upon 
fome prior fyftem ftill more .barbarous, we find, that the ho- 
nour of its invention continued to be ftill keenly contelted, as, 
antiently, was the honour of the birth-place of Homer. 

Wooden flakes, for confining fheep upon turnip, are com- 
ing more and more in requeft : For thefe two laft years many 
Tweeddale carpenters find almoft clofe employment m furmfh- 
ing them-a fign that Tweeddale fheep farmers, in feeding on 
turnip, do not pay their whole attention to the benefit of the 
fheep, as ftated in page 72. ; but are attending more to the be- 
nefit of the land. The flakes are each nine feet long, made of 
foreign fir •, and, when well painted, are, according to their 
more ftrong or more flight conftruftion, afforded at from 5s. 
to 7s. per flake. In Autumn 1801, when the aftermath clover 
was everywhere fo luxuriant, an intelligent farmer, in the pa- 
rifh of Dunfyre in Clydefdale, bordering upon this county, 
confumed his clover by fheep enclofed in flakes, as on a turnip 
field, to the great benefit of the land. This practice was a no- 
velty in this neighbourhood. 

To one acquainted with this county for upwards of 30 years 
bypaft, it conveys a pleafing idea of progreflive improvement, 
{hat the clafs of farmers, formerly ftudious of making gam 

merely 



260 Agricultural Survey of Peeblesjhire. 

merely by faving, are now fo liberal in their outlay, eyen uppft 
tlie mere inftruments of their trade. 

It may be here noticed, that the Tweeddale hills are gene- 
rally hard and dry ; that the fheep are peculiarly healthy and 
hardy, the rot being fcarcely known ; and that, for holding 
{lock, the heavy ewes, in particular, (in which kind of flock 
there is the greateft rifk, from unfound paftures), fell at a 
price proportionally more high than that drawn for fimilar 
ftock from more fufpicious quarters, in proportion to the dimU 
nution of die rifk of their thriving. 



CON- 



Agricultural Survey cf Peehhsfiirt. 26 1 



CONCLUSION. 



Was man covered, by nature, with fur, like the bear ^ 
were the elements fo tempered, that their influence could not 
injure him, or his body impartible and unfufceptible of injury- 
did he inhale aliment, with breath, like the camelion; was the 
continuation of his kind provided for by the permanence, and 
not the fucceflion, of individuals ; or, was the fucceffion pro- 
cured by fpontaneous production, without diftinaion of fex, 
or the paffions originating in that diftinaion - - - Upon fuch fup- 
pofitions, there could be no call for induftry, to procure clothes, 
houfes, fuel, or meat •, no necefiity of any kind of exclufive 
appropriation-, no poffibility of injury, nor perception of di- 
ftinaion betwixt juftice and injuftice ; no need of mutual co- 
operation, of government, or of law ;— but each individual, pof- 
fefiing the boafted perfeaion of the ftoic fage *, would cenfti- 
tute a complete whole in himfelf, unconnected with, and inde- 
pendent upon fociety. Having no wants or defires to ftimulate 
his felfilh exertions, for their relief or gratification f ; having as 
little call upon his benevolence, in behalf of others, as unneed- 
ful as himfelf, it were difficult to conceive what could be his 
occupation— whether his ftate of exiftence would not be mere- 
ly paflive ? whether he could be faid to live, or merely to ve- 
getate ? whether his mind could turn its attention upon its own 
powers, or rife to objeas of more fublime contemplation, with- 



out 



• Totus in fe teres atque rotundus. 
I Ingenii largitor venter. 



l6z Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

out having the knowledge of fuch powers brought home to its 
confcioufnefs, from their firft having had their energy called 
forth upon more immediate and urgent concern s ? 

It were endlefs to indulge fpeculation upon the confequences 
deducible from ideal fuppcfitions. We muft take man as he 
js— -fitted for, and deftined to adtion, by his great Creator— im- 
pelled, by his wants, to thofe exertions to which their relief is 
entrufted — and left to become the artificer of his own fortune — 
impotent, indeed, in his individual capacity •, but powerful, in 
the co-operation of his fellows. 

The profperity of man in focicty ; the extent of the popula- 
tion that can be fupported ; together with the comfortable fub- 
fiftence of that population, depend upon the improvement of 
Agriculture and the ether Arts : and their improvement, is the 
joint refult of ftock, of fkill, and of induftry. 

Stock is created by man, in his capacity of an hoarding ani- 
mal, out of the favings of the products of his induftry. 

Skill is obtained by him, as an obfervant, a recollecting, 
comparing, combining, inventive, and communicative being — • 
from experience and information, from judgement and in- 
ference. His animal frame is happily adapted to enable him 
to carry into execution the contrivances of his intellect. He 
acquires dexterity, in his operations, from habit, in their fre- 
quent repetition : And the excellence of his dexterity, depends 
upon the exclufive application of his talents to one occupation ; 
both leading to, and confequent upon, the proper fubdivifion of 
labour and employment. 

Induftry confiits in the unremittent and ftrenuous application 
of fkill, dexterity, or flock, to their proper profitable occupation. 
Man's excitement to it, arifes from his wants and his defires, 
joined to the certain profpe£r. of being allowed to apply its pro- 
ducts to their relief and gratification. In particular cafes, his 
benevolence will excite him to flrong exertions of jnduftry ; in 
the cafe of defendants, always — if, indeed, under this modi- 
fication, the motive is, with fuch ftrict propriety, defigned be- 
nevolence : In general, though it may frequently aroufe ener- 
gy, it is a motive much lefs energetic, or, at leaft, by no means 



Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 263 

: be depended upon for fuch unvarying conftancy in its opera- 
ttbn as his felfifhnefs. 

To afford him the certain profpecl: of enjoying his acquisi- 
tions, and of tranfmitting their fecure enjoyment to defend- 
ants, or other natural objects of his affection, through the pro- 
tection of equal law — This is all that fociety can effect for him, 
to Simulate him to the exertion of induflry, to the acquifition 
of fkill and dexterity, and to the accumulation of ftock — This 
is all that can, in this view, be held out to him, in the arrange- 
ment of the terms of private contract for Specific purpofes *. 

To think of rendering him induftrious through regulation, 
were he not induftrious by nature ; or to attempt to excite his 
induflry, without holding out its proper excitement, were to 
offer remedies to the dead. The vital power exifls of itfelf ; 
remedies cannot infufe it, but mud prefuppofe its exiftence : 
Regulation fhould attempt nothing but the removal of obftacles 
to induflry. 

Skill, induflry, and ftock, are mutually and equally fubfer- 
vient to each other, in promoting the productive efficacy of 
each. Without a certain proportion of fkill and induflry, no 
ftock could ever be created ; or, if in exiftence, could be turned 
to no profitable account. Without the pofleffion of a certain 
proportion of ftock, fkill and induflry could not be applied but 
to operations of immediate return ; though, in agriculture par- 
ticularly, the importance of the return is often in the direct, 
proportion of its diftance. Without fkill, the operations of 
induflry muft be comparatively inefficacious. Till ftock, how- 
ever, has been confiderably accumulated ; till individuals become 
rich, fo as to have leifure for contemplation, without neceffity of 
conftant perfonal application to labour, for the purpofes of imme- 
diate fubfiflence ; no fkill can be acquired, no time can be dedi- 
cated to the cultivation of the fciences, to the consequent inven- 
tion of machinery, nor to the difcovcry and contrivance of the 
application of the other natural powers to the facilitating of la- 
bour 



* See note D. 



*?)*. Agricultural Survey of Peebles/hire. 

t our — through which means alone can induftry be rendered, 
to the higheft degree, productive *. 

Energy, once raifed, exerts itfelf univerfally. Man delights, 
and with reafon, in the exercife of thofe talents that mark the 
fuperiority of his nature j though the exertion fhould bear no 
immediate reference to the ends that firft called them forth to 
action : They become the fubje£ts of emulation, the fource of 
confcious fatisfaction, and the foundations of fame. In the 
words of an elegant political author—* The fpirit of the age, 
then, affects all the arts ; and the minds of men, being once 
roufed from their lethargy, and put into a fermentation, turn 
themfelves on all fides, and carry improvements into every art 
and fcience. ' 

The fpirit of a monk dictates feclufion from the world. 
The fpirit of Chriftianity confiders this world as the theatre of 
active duties ; in the proper diicharge of which, confifts the 
beft preparation for eternity. 

* , c ee note G. 



ENI3 OF THE "REPORT, 



1/ 



W © T E S* 



NOTE A. 

The divifion into counties, marks the boundary of the jurif- 
diction of the Sheriff, who is the judge of the county in civil 
caufes, (all of which, in Scotland, are determined by the judge, 
without the intervention of a jury), his fentences being fubje£t, 
upon appeal of the parties, to the review of the Court of Sef- 
iion. This lail mentioned court is the Supreme Court of Scot- 
land, from whence an appeal lies only to the houfe of Peers. 
It is compofed of fifteen judges, (nine of whom conflitute a 
quorum), and is juftly confidered as the Grand Jury of Scotland 
in civil caufes *. 

The Sheriff is alfo the criminal judge of his county, judging, 
in petty crimes, without a jury ; and having, as generally fup- 
pofed, a right to judge, though feldom choofing to judge, with- 
out a jury, in crimes inferring fevere punimment, only fhort of 
capital f . His fentences are confidered as fubjecr, by appeal, to 
the review of the Court of Jufliciary, in all cafes of feverer pe- 

M m nalties, 



* It was this notion of the Court forming the great rational Jury in civil 

caufes, which raifed, not many years fince, the well-founded eppofition to the 

(Economical plan propofed, of augmenting the falaries of the judgss, by diminilh- 

I ;ir number, and dividing tlufe of the aboli/hed places among thole to be 

retained. 

f Arnot, in his hiftory of Scots criminal law, obferves, that Magistrates of 
royal burghs have fhown greater aptitude to judge without juries in fuch caufes 
within their burghs, than Sheriffs within their counties ; whence he concludes, 
that prefumption is always in proportion to ignorance. It is a neceflary qualifica- 
"on in a Sluiirf, that be (hall have p:ifT:d trials r« an advocate before our iuprsme 
court. 



l66 NOTE A. 

nalties, except where he has decerned upon the verdict of 
a jury. The power of the Sheriff to judge, by a jury, in ca- 
pital cafes, feems to be falling, or to have fallen, into defuc- 
tude; all fuch caufes being now determined by the Court of 
Jufticiary, in their more permanent fittings at Edinburgh, or at 
their annual circuits through the country. This laft mentioned 
court is compofed of a Lord Juflice-General, (an office next to 
finecure), and of fix of the judges of the Court of Semon ; 
thefe fix having an additional falary, proportioned to the addi- 
tional trouble of their double gown *. They judge in all capi- 
tal caufes, upon the verdicl of a jury, and (as has been ascer- 
tained by the rejection of an appeal by the Houfe of Peers as 
incompetent) in the laft refort. They are always ready to meet 
for difpatch of bufinefs, as it occurs, at Edinburgh, during the 
Winter and Summer Seffions of the Court of Seflion ; and take 
circuits, two and two together, through the different diftricts 
of Scotland, for the adminiltration of criminal juftice, during 
the Summer vacation of that Court. Private parties are not 
bound over to profecute crimes. This duty is devolved upon 
the procurator-fifcal, before the Sheriff-court; and, upon the 
Lord Advocate, or his deputes, before the Court of Jufticiaryj 
in Edinburgh, or the Judiciary Lords, upon their circuits, 
They are the public accufers, and carry on criminal profecutions- 
at the public expence. The inftituticn of the Grand Jury, with 
whom is veiled the power, after precognition of fa£r_s, of fup~ 
preffing, or of enforcing, criminal proiecutions, is unknown in 
Scotland, where thefe powers are veiled in the Lord Advocate 
alone, who has been found irrefponfible in the execution of his 
office, by a decifion of the Court of Jufticiary, upon a complaint 
againft him (originating, apparently, rather in the wifli to have 
the extent of his powers defined, than in any feeling of oppref- 
fion) from a perfon againft whom he had intented a criminal 
profecution, and who was acquitted by the jury through failure 

of proof f. The inftiiutiou of a public aeeufet feems a great 

improvement 

— < — • « 

• Go-wn, the Scotifh name for the robe of office, 
j M'JLauriii's criminal i 



NOTE A. 267 

improvement in criminal law. The inveftment of the ex ten- 
five powers of a Grand Jury, in an officer of the Crown re- 
moveable at pleafure, is apparently lefs favourable to the fecu- 
rity of the fubjea ; yet no feeling of grievance has been excit- 
ed for more than half a century ; affording one proof, among 
many, that Liberty, or (to fpeak more correctly) the proper cir- 
■cumfcription of liberty, (whence reiults equal and general fecu- 
rity of life, liberty and property), is more dependent upon ge- 
neral knowledge and manners, and the publicity of meafures, 
than upon any fpecific forms that have been devifed to infure 

The courts of the Cornmiffaries have alfo a county junidic- 
tion, extending to cafes of fcandal, probates of wills, marriage, 
and divorce, &c. ; being the remaining veftige of the civil ju- 
rifdidion exercifed by bifhops courts. Unlike to other Scotifh 
courts, the emoluments of the judge arife not folely from an ad- 
equate fixed falary, but from weighty fines or dues upon each 
particular caufe ; the whole expence, almoft, of obtaining juftice, 
thus falling upon the party, inftead of his being infured, as in 
other courts, againll the expence of the judge, which the pub^ 
lie at large defray. 

The jurifdiaion of the juftices of the peace, is almoft every 
way fimilar to that of the juftices in England •, with the excep- 
tion, that we hardly know fuch a chara&er as that of a trading 
jttjlice, making money of his office •, whence we are apt to in- 
fer, that the nomination in England is not confined, as in Scot- 
land, to the refpedable landed proprietors. This jurifdiaion 
of the juftices extends, as to the powers of each, fingly, and of 
the whole, coileaively, over the county for which they are no- 
minated. Clafljfications of parifr.es into djftri&s, for holding 
different juftice courts, for the greater accommodation of liti- 
gant parties, has of late been made over Scotland, in purfuance 
of the late a& of Parliament for Scotland, veiling in the juftices 
a power of judging, fummarily, and without appeal, and accord- 
ing to the diaates of confeience alone, in all caufes founded 
upon mere perfonal contraa or obligation, where the claim does 
not exceed the value of 3I. 6s. 8d. Sterling. 

To 



26$ XOTE A. 

To confine judges to written laws, as the rule of their judge- 
ment, is the characteristic feature of liberty ; and the expence 
of formal litigation, is the price that muft be paid for liberty. 
To allow them to judge, at discretion, and without appeal, 
bears a ftrong refemblance to defpotiim. Where, however, 
fuch power is veiled in a clafs of men, in an independent fitua- 
tion, and confined to caufes in which they have no perfonal 
intereft, and of fuch fmall magnitude, as removes every fufpi- 
cion of improper influence, the fummary juftice of the Afiatic 
cadi, feems, in practice, infinitely preferable to the expence 
and delay ever found attendant upon formal law litigation. The 
utility of this mode of adminiftering juftice, has been fo appa- 
rent, after experience, that many counties in Scotland expreffed 
their wifh to the Legislature, through their reprefentatives, that 
the powers of the juftices mould be enlarged. Their powers 
have accordingly been extended, by a fubfequent amendment of 
the act, to caufes where the claim does not exceed 5I. Sterling 
in value *. 

The diviiion of counties into parifhes, refers, almoft cxclu- 
fivelyj to ecclefiaftical duties and jurisdiction. 

Every parifh in Scotland is provided with a minifter (cler- 
gyman) ; in fome inftances with two. 

The minifter is prefented to the office and its emoluments, 
in many inftances, by the Crown ; in the reft, by fome lay pa- 
tron, all of whom are generally extenfive proprietors of land. 
The perfon prefented, muft be one found qualified for the of- 
fice by the Church : And the Church, jealous of its own re- 
spectability, has enforced, by a number of repeated regulations, 

ry long apprenticeship, in the way of literary and theologi- 
cal 

* (; . s might have been noticed as another mode of the adminiftra- 

tion or juftice, b»;t they arc almc-ft univcifally fallen inlo defuetudc, excepting in 
cafe of d'lipirtt or fairs, where the bailiff of the barony, 

within which tlie fair is held, decides the differences th.it may arife between neu- 
tral perfons at the market. The decifiom ot a bailiff, dependent upon the proprie- 
tor of a barony, in caufes J litigation between the baron and his own tenant, 
mull certainly appear in a very fufpicious light to independent judges, befote 
whom they might conic by appeal. A jurifdfftibn of fuch a nature ought e 
where to be laid afu'x 



NOTE A. 269 

cal education. The candidate for the miniftry, after a regular 
courfe of univerfity education, mult regularly attend the theo- 
logical lectures of a divinity profeflbr, in fome one of the uni- 
verfities, for at leaft four fucceffive feafons ■■, during winch at- 
tendance, he muft give repeated fpecimens of his talents for 
public fpeaking, in difcourfes, publicly delivered, upon pre- 
fcribed fubjecls. Before he can obtain a licenfe from die 
Church to be a public teacher, he mufl alfo undergo examina- 
tion before the Prefbytery to which he applies for fuch licenfe, 
and exhibit before them fpecimens of his talents for teach- 
ing, by difcourfes on a variety of preleribed fubjects. The puri- 
ty of his moral character mull likewife be fufficiently attended by 
the clergy in whofe bounds he has refided during all the ftages 
of his progrefs, from the commencement of his theological 
ftudies. When he has received licenfe to preach from the 
Prefbytery, he is qualified to receive a prefentation to a pariln. 
But, before his admiflion into a benefice by the Church, he 
muft again undergo fimilar trials and examination before the 
Prefbytery within whofe bounds the parifh to which, he is pre- 
fented lies. 

By the old Scotifh acts of Parliament, the Church are 
bound to receive into the office whatibever qualified minifter 
fhall be prefented by the Crown or other lay patron.. After the 
Revolution, by a£fc 1690, the right of presenting to vacant pa- 
rifhes was taken from the patrons, and veiled in the heritors 
(or landed proprietors), the elders (or veftry), and the heads of 
families of the parifh ; who prefented, or, in the technical 
phrafe, called the minifter to the office. This at! was, however, 
repealed, and the right of prefentation again veiled in the ori- 
ginal patrons, by an act of Queen Anne. This act of Queen 
Anne was unpopular with the lower orders in Scotland, who 
fecm generally to favour the right of univerfal fuffrage in the 
election of minifters *■ ; the Church of Scotland, for a while, 

feemed 



* The great bulk of diflenters from the Church of Scotland, have left it, upon 
account of the mode of election by a patron, inflead of univerfal fuffrage. Within 
thtfc thirty years, an election of a diflcntkuj minifter took place in this county, 

upon 



NOTE A. 

fcemed to efpoufc the caufe of the lower orders. In order to 
defeat the intention of the act, they fet up the pofition, that a 
call was ftill neceflary, as well as a prefentation ; and that a 
prefentee (though ftamped current as a qualified perfon by the 
Church, in obtaining licenie from it) could not be confidered 
as qualified for that particular parifh to which he had been pre- 
fented, unlefs he obtained alfo a general call from the pariihion- 
ers, who alone were the proper judges whether or not his par- 
ticular call of gifts fuited their particular capacity of edification. 
A call from the pariftiioners was therefore adopted, as a necef- 
fary requisite to admiilion into the office, after a prefentation 
had been given. To prevent juggling tricks of patrons, by pre- 
fenting fuch unqualified perfons to parifhes as the Church would 
refufe to indu£t, in order that they may pocket the emolu- 
ments, there are laws enjoining patrons to prefent qualified per- 
fons within fix months from the vacancy, under the penalty of 
incurring a forfeiture, for that vice, of the right of prefenting, 
vvhich then devolves to the Prefbytery * : And, in one inftance 

upon 



upon the broadeft bafis of the molt tumultuary popular election. It was on that 
occafion adopted as a maxim, that every one ivho bad a fed to be fdv;d, hufband and 
wife, man, woman and child, matters who had a permanent refidence, and fervants 
who might change theirs at every term, had ail an equal right to vote in the election ; 
provided only they had arrived to the capacity of judging ; the tefl of their having 
arrived to ihis, being held to be their participation of the lacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, which generally takes place from the age of 15 to 18. — What mode hath 
been adopted in later elections, I have had leis accefs to learn. 

The difl'enters profefs to adhere to tHe articles of the Eflablifhed Church, but 
to differ in their interpretation from the efublifhed clergy, who are lirppofed to 
have relaxed from the rigour of high Calvinifm, in forming conceptions of the 
Supreme Being, more amiable, and Icfs tremendous, than what are fuggtired by 
abfolute decrees of election and reprobation. Some difference is alfo dated as to the 
mode of enforcing the duties of morality. To ding doivn gude ivarh — to vilify their 
importance as to man's felvation, feems, among the diflentcrs, to be the proper 
mode of exalting and doing honour to the fupreme efficacy of the Redeemer's 
jighteoufnefs. To treat morality with fomewhat more refptel, is imputed as an er- 
ror to the eflablifhed clergy — it is called legal definite. 

* That patrons may not be tempted to keep parifhes vacant, there is alfo an- 
other law, by which patrons are obliged, at the fight of the heritors, to apply the 

vacant 



NOTE A. 2/1 

upon record, the Church, under colour of this law, refufed 
induction to a prefentee whom the pariihioners refufed to call, 
upon pretence that, by this refufal, he was evinced to be a per- 
fon unqualified for that particular charge ; and alio, upon the 
aflumption that the right of prefentation had thus devolved to 
the Prefbytery, gave induction to another, whom the Prefbytc- 
ry prefented upon a call from the pariihioners. Upon a com- 
petition for the emoluments of office, by thefe two candidates, 
our Supreme Civil Court found, that the patron's prefentee had 
tlO right, becaufe he had not received clerical induction into 
the office ; and that the other had as little title, as he was not 
prefented by the patron : That, of courfe, no forfeiture of the 
patron's right had occurred ; that the parifh remained it III va- 
cant j and that the rights of patrons could not be defeated, nor 
popular election fubftituted in their room, upon any fuch pre- 
texts. The inhability of a lay prefentation alone, to confer a 
right to a church office and benefice, without clerical induction, 
was indeed thus fullained ; but it was equally manifeft, that 
the refufal of clerical induction to a prefentee, who had been 
ftamped as qualified by the Church, could not infer a jus devo- 
lutum on the part of the patron, and could only prolong the 
vacancy of the parifh. For thefe reafons (and probably alfo 
from the apparent abfurdity of fuppofing that die qualification 
of fufficient talents and literary acquisitions was not of univerfal 
application, but that every particular call of head required an 
appropriate particularity of adaptation), the Church has, for a 
long period, ceafed to obtrude the neceffity of popular election ; 
and, though the form of a call has not yet fallen into defuetude, 
and has indeed been declared by the Church to be a necefTary 
form, the people themfelves are convinced of its being only a 
form, and in general very properly refufe to appropriate to 
themfelves a mere fcmblance of popular election, where the 
fubflance is a\\ anting : The prefentee is therefore clerically 
inducted, unlefs tenible objections are ftated, after a citation 

with 



vacant ftipends to pious tifei ; that is, t» fuch works cf pubiic utility, a? arc not 
o'.hcrwife provided for by law ( 



17% NOTE A. 

with proper inducia to that effect (called, the ferving of Lis edit} J, 
againit his doctrine or moral character *. 

. Thofe who are fatisfied with the previous regulations of the 
Church, as a fufficient fecurity againft the admiffion of impro- 
per members, adhere to the Church -, whilft fuch as imagine 
their own private choice neceflary to coriftitute the pajioral re- 
lation betwixt themfelves and their clergyman, join the Dif- 
fenters f . 

Probably three fourths, or more, of the candidates for be- 
nefices in the eftablifhed Church, obtain their purpofe through 
a long courfe of fervice, as tutors to children in families that 
have intereft with the Crown, or other patrons — another courfe 
of clerical training, that feems ftill further to enfure both lite- 
rary acquifition and propriety of conduct. Accuftomed, how- 
ever, to look up to the higher claffes for promotion, the man- 
ners of candidates for the eftablifhed Church, are rather formed 
to conciliate the favour of the more enlightened part of fociety ; 
and are lefs adapted to the tafte of the lower orders, than the 
manners of thofe who look down towards univerfal fuffrage. 
The diflenting clergy are probably more popular with the lower 
chiles i and may, there, have more influence. Indeed, there 

is 



* Though I have defcribed the mode in which church fcttlements are now car- 
lied on, it mnfl: beobferved, that there has ever exifted an oppofition party in the 
Church (called the high-flyers, or wild party, by their antagonifts, who defign 
themfelves, the moderate party), who infill on the neccflity of a call. It is believ- 
ed, none of them would wifh to eftablifh the univerfal right of fuffrage in all -who 
have fouls to he faved. The paity feems, however, divided in opinion ; fome wilhing 
to extend the right of furlrage to every male the head of a family; others, to re- 
fhict it to heritors and elders : others, merely to heritors, either eftimatcd^r capi- 
ta, or in proportion to their valuation in the cefs-hooks. The Church, perhaps 
not ever wifely, has ftt her own forms in oppofition to her practice, by a declara- 
tory law, palled not twenty years fince, in which the call is declared a neceflary 
form. 

•|- The relation betwixt a clergyman and his congregation, is compared, fome- 
times, to marriage ; to the completion of which, mutual confent of parties is ne- 
ceflary : And other conelufions are alio drawn from this fimile, as a ground e£ 
ng— as, that tranflation to a Letter benefice, is Spiritual adultery, &c- 



NOTE A. 



273 



is a fource of error, arifing from mere pofition ; and he that is 
foremoft, may fometimes be conceived to lead, when, in fadt, 
he is only driven — as the rife or fall of mercury in the baro- 
meter is the indication of the (late of the weather, but not its 
caufe. 

The mediocrity of the livings in the Scotifh Church, has 
been confidered as favourable to the refpe£tability of the cleri- 
cal character ; confining their attempts at diftindtion to the 
roads of literary eminence, or exemplary morals, and attention 
to their profefiional duties ; and precluding every hope of its 
attainment through the oftentatious difplay of riches in expencc, 
The equality, however, of church livings, and the next to total 
ab fence of every chance of promotion, prefent a want of JJimu- 
ha to great exertion. 

The loweft Ecclefiaftical Court, is that of the Kirk-Se/fioii, 
a court fomewhat fimilar to that of the Englifh Veftry, and 
which hath only a parochial jurifdicStion. It is compofed of the 
minifter of the parifh (who is the perpetual moderator, or prefi- 
dent), and an indefinite number of elders, two of whom, with 
the minifter, are neceflary to form a quorum *. As an Eccle- 
fiaftical Court, the Kirk-feflion exercifes a fort of cenforial 
power over the inhabitants of the pariih, inflicting upon delin- 
quents the penalties of exclufion from the facraments, or the 
penance of public rebuke from the pulpit, before the congrega- 
tion, on Sabbaths. This power, which, from its nature, is 
difcretionary, would fcem, in former times, to have been exer- 
cifed often in a manner very inquifitorial, harafiing, and vexa- 
tious ; particularly before Ecclefiaftical cenfures were deprived 
of all civil penal effect : It is now exerciied with more difcre- 

N n tion ; 



* The elders are chofen from the landed proprietors, or other refpeftable in- 
habitants of t!ie parifh : The exifling Kirk-fcfiion choofe the ciders, who are for- 
mally inftalled into the office by the minifter, if no ohjcfVion appears againft their 
moral oY religious characters, after proper citation, upon ten days ir.Ji.cia, to '.War 
effect. It is fometimes difficult to get proper perfons to con Pent to become c 
from the idea, that the character im'polcs an obligation to a conduct pecul'.r.V 
txemfltty. 



274 NOTE A. 

tion j and, in moft great towns, it is not excrcifed at ali. ; Its 
exercife, in country parifhes, is chiefly confined to fornication •, 
their adminiltration of the poor's funds making Kirk-fefiions 
chiefly anxious in investigating an irregularity which may afre£t 
the funds, in bringing the maintenance of baftards upon the 
pariih *. In all Eccleiiaftical caufes, an appeal lies from the 
Kirk-feflion to the Court of Prefbytery. 

Befides their Ecclefmftical jurisdiction, Kirk-feflions are the 
ordinary administrators of the poor's funds of the pariih ; which 
they administer without any expcnce whatever, or any farther 
fee or reward, but the confcious Satisfaction, and general credit 
that may accrue from administering well. Their administra- 
tion is fubject to the controul of the heritors (landed proprie- 
tors of the pariih), who may, when they pleafe, infpe£t the ac- 
counts ; and who ought to be voluntarily confulted by the 
Kirk-feflion, in all important tranfaetions of uplifting or lend- 
ing out fuch poor's money as is at interest. Where poor's 
rates are ettablifhed (which feldom took place, excepting during 
the laft two years of dearth and fcarcity), the heritors, upon 
previous citation from the pulpit, meet once a quarter, or half 
year, with the Kirk-feflion ; when (a lift of the poor being 
made out, and weekly or monthly penfions being allotted to 

each) 



* Church courts cannot, by their fentences, arfeO the civil rights or property 
of any pcrfon : Their power extends only to what may be called the fpiritua! 
correction of vice, by exclufion from the facraments, till public penance is per- 
formed, or other fatisfying marks of penitence exhibited. A woman's accufation 
of a man, as having been guilty of fornication with her, is not liftened to, unlcfs 
a child is produced, as a corpus delicli, fubfiantiatinj the exiflence of the crime, 
and thus far giving credibility to the accufation. If, them, the woman can prove 
no preemptive circumstances, the man can repel the accufation by his oath — if 
Jhe proves any fuch, his oath is not admitted. The civil law follows the fame 
rule, as to decerning the aliment of the child, which the Church does as to fixing 
the fcandal : of courfc, the prefumptive proof taken by the Church court, is often, 
though not necejfarily, fuftained by the Civil court. (See page Z37. of the Re- 
port.) 



NOTE A. 275 

each *) the Kirk-feflion account for the one half of the money 
arifing, fmce laft meeting, from collections at the church doors 
on Sabbaths, and from the poor's perquifites paid in at funerals 
and marriages ; which fum, together with the intereft of lent 
money, being compared with the penfions alligned, the defi- 
ciency is made up by a parochial affeiiment, the one half payable 
by the proprietors of the land, the other half by the farmers 
who occupy it : the remaining half of the money, arifing from 
collections and perquifites, is left under the adminiitration of 
the Kirk-feflion, to provide for accidental unforefeen cafes of 
diftrefs. 

The Ecclefiaftical court immediately fuperior to Kirk-fef- 
fions, is that of the Prelbytery. This court comprehends, un- 
der its jurifdiction, a greater or lefler number of parifhes, 
feldom under twelve ; and is compofed of all the minifters of 
the parifhes under its jurifdiction j each Kirk-feflion in the 
diftrict having a right to fend alio one lay elder to reprefent 
them, who is elected every half year. In this court, all pro- 
cefTes againft minifters muft originate. Its Ecclefiaftical deci- 
fions are fubject to the review of the Court of Synod. 

Befides its jurifdiction in matters purely Ecclefiaftical, as to 
the dodtrine and difcipline of the Church, this court hath veftcd 
in it a feparate jurifdiction, in matters of a partly civil nature, 
in which its judgements are not fubject to the review of any 
court but the Supreme Civil Court, jiko, Where a minifter 
is not provided of a glebe, or where it is deficient in quantity, . 
they can fet off, for that purpofe, from the church lands within 
his parifh, to the extent of four and an half Scots- acres of 
arable land (including the fpace occupied by the fire of his 
manfe, or dwelling houfe, and garden), as an arable glebe j to- 
gether with as much pafture land as may fuffice (according to 
report of valuators) for the pafture of two ccws and one hoife. 
They can alio compel the heritors to build, or keep in repair, 

the 

* Sometimes no penfions arc fixed, from the dread of fupprefling induftry, !>y 
begetting reliance; but a grofs Turn is rotcd, . . .',.■■.. 

D2gcip$pt oi' the I.':k-:l!!ijn. 



1*]6 NOTE A. 

the parifh church, and the minifter's manfe and offices, ids, 
With concurrence of the county commiflioners of fupply, they 
may compel the heritors of every parifh to make provifion of a 
legal falary for a fchoolmafter * ; and alfo to build an houfe for 
the fchoolmafter' s refidence, and a fchool for teaching in. The 
heritors are the electors of the fchoolmafter •, but his election is 
not valid till he is found qualified for the office, after examina- 
tion, by the Prefbytery ; and the Prefbytery have it at all 
times in their power to difmifs him, either for incapacity or 
immorality ; their fentences as to his qualifications being fub- 
jett to review of the fuperior Ecclefiaftical courts alone. The 
Prefbytery has generally five or fix ftated meetings yearly, or 
more, upon citation from their moderator, (chofen half yearly 
from the clerical members), when unforefeen bufinefs occurs. 
The meeting is held at the county town withm the jurifdic- 
tion. 

The provincial Synods are the courts next in fuperiority to 
Prefbyteries, holding meetings twice a year, in November and 
in May. Thefe comprehend a greater or lefTer number of Pref- 
byteries *, and all the component members of the Prefbyteries 
under their jurisdiction, are conftituent members of the Synod, 

Aa 



* The maximum legal falary cannot exceed III. as. Z T -^i.\. ; the minimum is 
5I. lis. l T7 d.; the one half is payable by the proprietors, the othtr by the occu- 
piers of the land. The fchoolmaiter is almoft always conftitnted precentor (the 
perfon who leads the finging of pfklms in church), and clerk to the Kirk-fcflion. 
The wages of teaching are very low; fiom is lo Is. 6d. per quarter for reading 
Englifh, and not exceeding from as. 6d. to 3s. for reading, writing, and arithme- 
tic ; tlic fcholars, too, paying only for the precife time of attendance. The whole 
emolument of the Scots parochial fchoolmaiters will not, probably, at an average, 
exceed twenty guineas yearly — a recompence, by much too fmall, for their very 
iilcful and nioft laborious occupation. Schools are generally fupplied from among 
young men profecuting their iiudies with a vitw to the cleiical office; and, if 
there uck no church benefices in profptft, there could be no well qualified fchool- 
uulrtrs in fact, as no pcrfon, any way decently qualified for the office, could ever 
•:on:eiit himfelf with a country fchool as his ultimatum. 



NOTE A. 277 

An appeal lies from the Synods to the Supreme Court of the 
General Aflembly of the Church of Scotland *. 

The General Aflembly is the Court of laft refort. The 
King is there reprefented by his Commiflioner. It meets once 
a year, for ten days in the month of May, at Edinburgh. It 
is compofed of reprefentatives from all the Prefbyteries of Scot- 
land, each fending two clergymen at leaft, or more, in pro- 
portion as the clergy conftituting the Prefbytery {hall exceed 
twelve in number : One lay elder is alfo fent from each Prefby- 
tery, and one from every Royal burgh and univerfity. With 
the exception of the erection of new parifhes, or of afliftant 
charges in the fame parifh, or overtures (propofals) of new laws, 
every caufe Ecclefiaftical mud originate in the inferior courts 
pf Kirk-fefTion or Prefbytery, and can only come before this 
t'ourt by appeal. The power of legiflation does not reft entirely 
with this court, though it here pofiefles pretty extenfive powers 
of controul : The power of enacting Handing laws, is, by the 
conftitution, veiled in the courts of Prefbytery, to which all 
overtures of new laws mult be remitted for their deliberation, 
and without the concurrence of the majority of which they can- 
not be enacted. Like the Lords of the Articles, however, in 
the Scotifh Parliament, the General Aflembly can refufe to 
tranfmit any overture for deliberation ; and can even refufe to 
enact, after a return of approbation from a majority of Prefby- 
teries. By fuch arrangements has the Church endeavoured to 

avoid 



* in regard to the power of appeal from inferior to fuperior church judicato- 
ries, there is a Angularity in the conftitution of the Scotifh church, to which no 
parallel is perhaps to be found in any conftitution, antient or modern. Even al? 
though none of the parties interefted Ihould feel aggrieved by the Sentence pro- 
nounced, or appeal from it, it is, nevertheless, competent for any member of the 
court which has pronounced the Sentence, to bring it under review of the S i| 
Court, upon his announcing his difient, and protefting for liberty to complain, if 
he fhall conceive either that the fentence is contradictory to matetial jiifiice, or 
nibverfive of any principle of the conftitution : The Superior Court will receive an 
appeal from fuch appellant, and to the t fleet either of fimply cenfiuing the court 
which pronounced the ftntencc, 01 of totally reversing the Sentence^ as theyfhatf 1 
• iff. 



27 S NOTE A. 

avoid the inconveniences objected by Anacharfis to Solon's 
republican model of Athens, of the wife only deliberating^ while 
fools decide. Under her cumbrous Dutch built form of repub- 
lican constitution, the church is mofl unwieldy in her motions, 
particularly in enacting laws. The neceflity, therefore, has 
been apparent, of inverting the General Aflembly with the in- 
difpenfable power of enacting overtures into interim laws, to be 
of force from Aflembly to Aflembly, till the general fenfe of 
the Church can be obtained \ and, which is pretty Angular, 
fome of the moft important laws of the Church, in regard to 
the qualifications of clergymen, and in regard to difcipline 
(which 'daft goes to the important effect, as to the clergy, of 
deprivation of office, benefice, and the clerical character), ftand 
upon no other authority, than this interim provifory power of 
the General A ffembly : They have, however, been fo long ac- 
quiefced in, that they have palled into laws of confuetude, 
without neceflity of freih enactment every Aflembly, according 
to the ftated mode of the exercife of this provifory power. 

The Scots clergyman is bound to refidence ; and his charge 
can be declared vacant, upon fix weeks abfence, without leave 
to that effect, obtained from his Prefbytery : He can hold only 
one benefice. A degree of exception, is, however, very properly 
admitted, as an excitement to literary effort, in regard to holding 
Prcfefibrfkips in Univerfities •, when thefe are removed at fuch 
IV rail distance as not to obftruct, in any great degree, the per- 
formance of parochial duties. The ftated parochial duty of the 
• rgy, are thofe of public prayer, and preaching every Sab- 
bath : The prayers are never read, and fermons very feldom — 
a cuftom which, no doubt, admits of more animation in the 
fervice •, fubjecting it, however, to every variety in performance, 
according to the various abilities, or accidental ftate of fpirits in 
the administrator : The cuftomary difcourfes, are two every 
.Sabbath, and often three in Summer. The minilter alfo ad- 
i nift< rs the facraraents of Baptifm (taking the father fponfor 
refer* nee to any other), and of the Lord's Supper ; the lat- 
ter, at leaft, once yearly, and feldom more often: He generally 
. .* ehjfes, too, through his whole parifh, once a yean ar >d» 

next 



NOTE A. 



279 



next year, formally vifits, giving exhortations, both on week 
days : He, befides, occafionally vifits the fick ; and, among tlie 
poorer claffes, generally acts, in fome meafure, in the capacities 
of lawyer and phyfician, as well as of divine. Marriage is va- 
lid, in Scotland, as to all civil effects, without the adhibition 
of Ecclefiaftical ceremonies, or the publication of banns in the 
church. 

I fhall conclude this note, by jufl obferving, that the di- 
vifion into parifhes refers alfo to the ftatule labour, affeffed 
parochially : This fimple mode of making and upholding roads, 
feems the firft that has been devifed by almoit every nation, 
before adopting the much more preferable one of a toll, levied 
from the paffenger. As compelled labour turns, however, to 
very little account, this fervice, as well as molt other perfonal 
fervices, has been almoft univerfally, through Scotland, com- 
muted into money payment, at a very moderate competition. 



note B. 



As the Scots law preferves a Uriel analogy to the feudal 
fyftem, it may be proper, fhortly, to fhte the leading features 
of that fyftem •, that the nature of Scots tenures of land may 
be rendered more generally intelligible. 

Before the complete eftablifhment of the feudal fyftem, the 
lands would feem to have been divided, in large portions, among 
great families, the heads of which poffeffed all the rights of in- 
dependent fovereignty within their own territory i living in a 
ftate of conftant hoftiiity with one another, and incapable of 
union, excepting a tranfient one, under the moft refpefted mi- 
litary leader, when national attack required fuch coalefcence, 
for the purpofes of national defence. 

In fuch circumftances, public utility muft have focn pointed 
out the neceflity of a permanent union of the whole dates un- 
der one fupreme power, to which all the reft fhould be fubor- 
dinate •, and that, not only for the purpofes of national defence, 
but for theprefervation of internal tranquillity by thefupprcflion 

of 



280 NOTE A. 

of the right of private war or feuds. Such views led to the efla- 
blifhment of the Regal power in one family, under which the o- 
ther powers Were united, upon terms of union more or lefs ftri£t. 
or loofe ; the public advantage, as well as the private ambition of 
the Monarch, both leading to the gradual extenfion of this fu- 
preme power, that the whole force of the ftate might be thus 
concentrated, fo as to a6t with energy, either againft foreign 
enemies, or for the domeftic protection of its own members. 

In following out thefe views, the great landed proprietors* 
originally independent, were all, in various ways, reduced to a 
military dependence upon the Crown as their fuperior ; holding 
thence their lands upon condition of the military fervice of 
themfelves and their retainers, and of their perfonal attendance 
in the Court of the Monarch, for the purpofes of granting na- 
. tional fupplies, and of enforcing the due execution of the 
laws * ; the only conftitution conformable to the manners of 
the times, which could give unity and confidence to a State. 

Thefe great barons, the immediate vaflals of the Crown, 
afligned, by a fubinfeudation fimilar to their own mode of te- 
nure, portions of their lands to their military retainers, as fees 
granted them, upon condition of their perfonal military fervice 
at the call of their immediate fuperior, and of homage and at- 
tendance in the baron's courts. 

In thofe times of turbulence, when no fecurity could be en- 
joyed, but under the protection of a military head, upon con- 
dition of military fervice, allodial^ or independent property in 
land, could not long remain an eligible mode of tenure : And, 
accordingly, it may be readily prefumed, that proprietors of 
this defcription would find it neceffary to renounce fuch a te- 
nure (however eligible it might appear in our times), by refign- 
ing their lands either to the Crown, or to fome powerful baron 
as fuperior, to be held thenceforward from fuch fuperior, up- 
on the reciprocal conditions of protection on the one hand, and 
military fervice upon the other. 

In 



* Ikncc the origin of the Houfe of Peers, and their right of attendance per 
•epita, and not by repvefentation. 



NOTE ft. 28l 

In this manner, the whole date came, in procefs of time, 
to be entirely united into one mafs, by a regularly connected 
chain of military dependence and fubordination. 

At the original formation of Monarchy, it is extremely pro- 
bable, that many of the great barons were in a ftate of power 
to enable them to make terms with the monarch, in fubjefting 
ihemfelves to him in military fubordination ; and that, though, 
upon die perfect eftabliihment of the feudal military fubordi- 
nation, the tenure of their lands aflumed the appearance of 
fiefs, or fees, for military fervice, yet their lands were never 
held during the mere good pleafure of the Monarch, but were, 
from the firft, confidered as held upon hereditary right. In 
regard, however, to fubordinate fees, or fiefs of land, they 
would feem at firft to have been held only during the good 
pleafure of the fuperior. But as the military chief would fel- 
dom eject his companion in war, unlefs for failure of fervice 
due ; and would, in general, be inclined, upon the death of 
his vaflal, to continue his heir in the poffeflion, if fit for mili- 
tary fervice j or even, during the heir's minority, to accept of 
a fubftitute till he came of age ; it would feem natural, for 
thefe reafons, that, in ufe and practice, fiefs mould gradually 
* come to be confidered, firft, as pofleffions for life, and at length 
as hereditary •, a fine, it would appear, being accepted of by 
the fuperior, to induce him to accept of the heir for his vai- 
fal *. Such would feem to have been the gradual extenfion of 
the right of property in their lands, which military vafials pro- 
greflively acquired. This extenfion of their right would feem 
to have been confined to the pofTefTors of fiefs of confiderable 
extent, enabling their owners to bring feveral retainers into 
the field, and themfelves to maintain fuch a rank, as put them 
upon a companionable footing with their fuperior. It is pro- 
bable, no fuch privilege was generally granted to the poficf- 
fors of land fees of fuch fmall extent, as compelled the pof- 

O o feflbr 



* Tliis prcfcr.t, amounting generally to double the feu-duty, is Hill retained 
2$ a feudal cafualty, due to the fuperior upon the acceljjpn cf an he|r. 



282 NOTE B. 

feiTor to be the immediate cultivator of the foil, and to ap- 
pear fingly in the ranks as a foldier, without any retainers un- 
der his command. Forming our judgement from inference, 
in a matter where few facts are upon record, we can hardly 
conceive how the abfurd ideas (pervading the Scotim law, and 
the mode of thinking among Scotifli proprietors of land), in 
regard to the importance of the proprietor's right of a deleElus 
perfona s as to the leafe-holder cultivating his ground, could 
have originated ; excepting upon the fuppofition, that thefe 
more inconfiderable jfo/fer, lad rpentioned, never acquired per- 
manent property in their lands, but were, gradually through 
change of manners, moulded into mere farmers ; a clafs va- 
lued by the landed proprietor, merely as conducive to his pro- 
fit ; and to whofe conftitution, military feudal notions have 
no applicable reference, but that which may have continued 
afibciated, in confideration of fuch an original. 

As monarchy rofe in (Irength upon the ruins of ariftocra- 
cy ; and a regular difciplined military force, fupported by taxa- 
tion, began to be fubftiruted to the unmanageable mobbiln mi- 
litary fervice, for external defence, and internal police ; the 
Crown, or Great Barons, as fuperiors, would find themfelves 
nothing the poorer, in difpenfing with this military fervice, 
for which there was no farther occafion, and were eafdy in- 
duced to accept of an yearly feu, or quit-rent, in place of it. 
In regard to the Crown, this commutation money of the mi- 
litary fervice was probably the earliell form of a general land 
fax *. 

During 



• This yearly feu-duty continues as one of the feudal rights of fuperiors over 
the lands that hold of them. In progrefs of the right of alienation acquired by 
vatTals, though this feu-duty muft ftill in form be retained, in order that the right 
T03y be di.ly ccnflituted, in conformity with the feudal ideas of Srotifh law; yrt 
"he feu-duty came to he reduced to a mere nominal payment, or quit-rent; and 
fuch holdings obtained the name of blencb-boldlngs. When the fuperiof, probably 
for a valuable confideration, thus chofe to emancipate his vaflal, by giving him a 
h-holding, the wit, or fportivity of the times was fometimes difplayed in the; 
nominal r' ^ ';ation retained; fuch as, the obligation upon the vaflal, to give fo 
»any bhfls of a horn when his fuperior Ihould pafs his manor, to dance befe#c 
liin, to entertain him with a baggies, &c &c. 



NOTE B. 283 

During the adual continuance of perfonal military fervice, 
a deUBus plrfona, or right of choice in regard to the perfon 
who was to be his military vaffal, was a matter of the utmoft 
importance to the fuperior, as a military chief. In fuch cir- 
cumftances, it would have been obvioufly abfurd, that the 
vaffal fhould have had a right vefted in him, of fubftituting 
another perfon to ferve in his ftead, by the voluntary aliena- 
tion of his fee ; or even that the land thus given him by his 
fuperior, in mere ufe, and as a retaining fee for his perfonal 
fervice, mould be confidered capable of being evided, as a 
property, by the creditors of the vaffal. But, upon the aboli- 
tion of perfonal military fervice, fuperiors could feel but little 
intereft in this matter ; and, accordingly, the power of aliena- 
tion was gradually aflumed by the vaffal, through toleration 
of the fuperior. As this, however, was no doubt confidered 
as an higher degree of indulgence from the fuperior, than his 
■allowance of the tranfmiffion of the fief by hereditary defcent 
to the vaflal's heir (who feemed to have a fort of natural claim 
to continuance of poffeffion), it is probable this right of alie- 
nation was longer in becoming a matter of common ufage 5 
an higher fine, too, would ever be exacted by the fuperior, 
to procure his confent to the acceptance of a ftranger, than 
what he required as a conlideration for continuing the polTef- 
fion to the natural heir *. 

Whilft land was poffefled by the vaffal, merely as a fee or 
benefice for perfonal military fervice; till once the minor was 
fit for fuch fervice, the fuperior had a delectus perfon* in the 
fubititute to ferve for him ; and the benefice, meanwhile, re- 
verted to the fuperior, till the minor fhould attain to majority, 
burdened only with the minor's aliment. As it was of ths 
utmoft importance to the fuperior, that his vaffal, particularly 
if a female, fhould not form dangerous connexion with his 
enemies by marriage, the dekclus perfona was therefore infer- 
red 



* This fine, upon the admiflbn of a ftranger, or Jlngular fueeejer, is ftill re- 
tained among the feudal cafualtics due to the fuperior : One year's rent of tfle 
. . mes enaftid; but, in general, liipetiors coinpoartd fgr kis- 



2$4 NOTE 15. 

red to convey a right of interference in this matter; and the 
fuperior's confent was held neceflary to the validity of his vaf- 
fal's marriage. Thefe rights over the eftates of minors, and 
in regard to the vafTal's marriage, conftituted the fuperior's 
right of luard/bip. So long as the delectus perfona continued 
to be founded in the reafon of the thing, thefe rights of ward- 
fhip were cheerfully acquiefced in ; but when, upon a change 
of manners, and of the ftate of fociety, the fuperior ceafed 
to have any other than a mere pecuniary intereft in his vaflals, 
they came to be confidered as the fource of great oppreffion. 
The tutory of minors eftates came, then, to be conferred by 
the Crown, or other fuperior, to needy dependants, as a mean 
of repairing a ruined fortune •, and the havock committed on 
eftates under tutory, feems repeatedly to have called for the 
interference of the Scotifh Legiflature, in a£ts, to prevent the 
commiffion of fuch abufes. The female ward would alfo fre- 
quently be expofed to grievance, in being difpofed of in mar- 
riage by the fuperior to the higheft bidder, without confut- 
ing her own choice. As the oppreffion of wardfhip came to 
be more and more felt, it is probable the fuperior's right 
would come in ufe to be compounded for in money payment ; 
the Legiflature alfo, more and more, interfering to regulate 
its exercife. The final abolition of the hardfhips of ward are, 
in Scotland, of fo late a date, as the act of Parliament 1748. 

In this manner, the right of fuperiority gradually arofe, 
from the circumftances of fociety, and extenfion of analogy ; 
and, in like manner, was it gradually circumfcribed, in confe- 
quence of a change of circumftances : Till, at length, the 
right of the vaflal, from being held merely at pleafure, and 
from being ftrictly perfonal and beneficiary, came to be per- 
petual, patrimonial, and hereditary, every way alienable and 
tranfmiffible ; or, in ihort, entire property, fubject merely 
to annual feu-duty, and the other feudal cafualties. 

During the actual exiftence of the feudal ftate, the fupe- 
rior alone figured in die imagination as the proprietor of the 

lands. 



NOTE B. 285 

lands *. When, however, the vaflal had obtained an heredi- 
tary right to his lands, with unreftri£ted powers of alienation, 
fubjedt, merely to the feu-duty and other cafualties incidentally 
due to the fuperior j he was, to all intents and purpofes of hu- 
man life, the proprietor. And the queftion came to be, •* In 
what light the originally more important right of the fuperior 
fell to be viewed ? " The fonorous law diftinction was in- 
vented, of dominium directum, to denote the right of the fupe- 
rior ; and of dominium utile, to denote the right of the vaflal — 
technic defoliations, which never were adopted, or have fallen 
into difufe, in common language j in which the- right of the 
fuperior is called fuperiority, and that of the vaflal property. 
From the impreflion of ancient ufage, the right of fuperiority 
has been confidered, in the eye of Scotifh law, as the more 
noble of the two ; and, accordingly, fuperior advantages have 
been beftowed upon it, both as to fecurity of poiiefiion, and as 
to eafe and preference of recovery. 

Amidft the ftruggles of monarchy againft feudal tyranny 
(the final fuccefs of which has proved the epoch of emancipa- 
tion, and of the extenfion of the protection of law to the lower 
orders), Royal burghs (which had been gradually withdrawn 
by the communication of privileges from the Crown, from 
their dependence upon the great barons) were called upon to 
fend reprefentatives to the King's Court of Parliament, in or- 
der to balance the power of the Nobles, formidable to the 
Crown and to the internal peace of the country, and to no- 
thing elfe. For the fame reafon, the lefTer barons, holding of 
of the Crown as fuperior f, who had been excufed the fervice 
of perfonal attendance in the King's Court, from their inability 

to 



* Till within thcfe two centuries, the vaflal is not defigned prspridor in ths 
Scotifli acts of Parliament, but retains the defignation of tenant. 

I Compofed, probably, of thofe to whom the King had feued out portions of 
his own pejfonal domain, or of the domains of fuch nobles as had forfeited them to 
him by their rebellion ; and perhaps, too, of fuch originally allodial proprietors as 
had, in their choice of a military protector, refigned their lands ; :: vnflalasre to 
the Crown, in preference to any other military chief. 



2%6 NOTE B. 

to bear the expence, were alfo fummoned to appear by repre- 
fentatioii •, and, by ufe or ftatute, the poffeffion of lands hold- 
ing of the Crown, valued in the county cefs-books at 400I. 
Scots, or valued at 40s. of old extent, was, and is the quali- 
fication fubjecling to the burden (according to former notions), 
or entitling to the privilege (according to modern views) of re- 
prefenting, or being reprefented. 

The Crown could call upon its own vaffals to balance the 
•power of the Nobles ; it could expe£t no fuch fupport from the 
vaffals of the Nobles themfelves : And, accordingly, landed 
proprietors, holding their lands in vaffalage from fubjedts as 
their fuperiors, were not called upon to exercife, and have not 
obtained any right of reprefentation. In refpecl: of this right 
of reprefentation, all lands holding immediately of the Crown 
as fuperior, are defigned freeholds. 

In the progrefs of arts and manufactures, new modes of ex- 
pence were opened up ; and the funds in the hands of the 
great barons, formerly employed in fupporting that magnifi- 
cence, which coniifted in the number of military attendants, 
were diverted to the purchafe of the productions of the fine 
arts ; the fame vanity, formerly difplayed in a numerous re- 
tinue of armed followers, often leading its pcffeffbr to barter 
power for perfonal decoration, and to part with the command 
over men (to ufe Dr Smith's iiiuitration) in order to become 
proprietor of a pair of diamond buckles. The great barons 
were laid under new temptations of contracting debts, and of 
relieving themfelves, by felling portions of their landed pro- 
perty. In all feudal dates, advantage was taken of thefe pro- 
penlities in the nobles to weaken their own power. The 
Crown ufed all its influence in encouraging the alienation of 
the eftates of the nobles : And, in order that every alienation 
fhould furnifh the Ciown with a new freeholder or leffer ba- 
ron, regulations were, in various countries, enacted as to the 
mode of inveftifure of thefe new purchafing proprietors ; by 
which the practice of fubinfeudatior), of the buyer in vaf- 
falage to th. s his fuperior, was prohibited; and the 

land fold • hold, by cpnfcqueuce, immediately of 

the 



NOTE 13. 



28 7 



the Crown as fuperior. Unfortunately, cur Scotifh moaarchs 
either overlooked the propriety of fuch regulations, or pof- 
feiTed not fufficient influence to enforce their adoption : Ac- 
cordingly, ther^ is no law in Scotland preventing the dis- 
junction of fuperiority from property. A whole property 
may thus be fold, whilft the feller, by fubinfeudation, makes 
the buyer hold of himfelf; the feller, meanwhile, continuing 
vaflal to the Crown for the lands fold. And, as this retained 
right of freehold from the Crown may be divided and dif- 
pofed of, in as many portions as the valuation of the lands 
can afford of freehold qualifications, hence it comes, in Scot- 
land, that mere fuperiority is fometimes alone reprefented, 
whilft real property enjoys no right of reprefentation. 

The right of franchife is thus confined, in Scotland, to 
the great Barons or Nobles, appearing in the Scotifh Parlia- 
ment per capita, but, fince the Union, by fixteen reprefenta- 
tives in the Houfe of Peers ; to the Landed Electors, often 
merely fuperiors, but not proprietors, who fend reprefenta- 
tives from the counties to the Houfe of Commons ; and to 
Royal burghs, who fend reprefentatives to the fame houfe. 

The Scotifh law has hardly as yet been brought to recognize 
any other mode of holding land in perpetuity, but the feudal 
tenure : A mode of holding which is very expenfive, and 
which comes to be very oppreffive in the cafe of fmall landed 
properties, particularly where thefe have been purchafed for 
the purpofe of erecting upon them expenfive buildings ; as 
every heir by fucceffion, and every purchafer by f.ile, in order 
to complete their tides, fo as to have the full command of 
their fubject, mud not only pay the feudal cafuakies due to 
the fuperior from the heir or lingular fuccefior, but muft alfo 
be expofed to the expence of precepts of dare coitjhat^ char- 
ters from the fuperior, and infeofment upon the charters ; 
deeds executed upon papers or parchments paying high (lamp 
duties, and accompanied with formalities of expenfive execu- 
tion. Thefe deeds are equally expenfive, whether the fubject 
be worth 20s. or 20,ocol. of yearly value ; and though Go- 
vernment 



288 NOTE B. 

\-ernment, in the ftamp duties upon receipts, promiffory notes, 
and legacies, have properly apportioned the price of ftamp to 
the value of the tranfaction, no difcrimination of the differ- 
ence in value of the fubjcCt, is made as to the ftamps for 
deeds afcertaining the titles to perpetual landed property *. 
In the village of Linton, where the inhabitants hold each his 
fmall pofTeiTion in perpetual property, by all the cumbrous 
and expenfive formalities of feudal tenure (like fo many fifh- 
ing cobles moored by the anchors and cables of firft rate men 
of war), I have known a cot-houfe, with its kale-yard, both 
not worth 20s. of yearly rent, cofh three times the value of 
the fee-fimple of the fubjecl:, in expence of conveyance, and 
of making up of feudal titles, in the fpace of eighteen years j — 
a tax upon the commerce of fmall properties in land, almoft 
equally oppreffive as the Spanifh tax of Alcavalla upon other 
merchandife. In cafes where manufacturing villages have 
been erected upon ground purchafed in perpetual property, 
the feudal cafualties of the fuperior come fometimes to be 
peculiarly grievous ; when, after the alienation of expenfive 
buildings, to the erection of which the fuperior contributed 
no fhare, upon ground originally worth nothing, the pur- 
chafer (who probably was aware of no fuch lleeping claim) 
is called upon, as a fingular fucceiTor, to. compound with the 
fuperior of the ground, by a whole year's rent of his fubjecl:. 
A cafe of this kind was, within my own recollection, warmly 
litigated betwixt the fuperior and the inhabitants of the ma- 
nufacturing village of Airdry, in Lanarkfhire. But, though 
it feemed generally wifhed, that an exemption, from the bur- 
den of feudal cafualties, could have been admitted, in a cafe 
bearing no fort of analogy, even in original purpofe, to feu- 
dal practice ; yet, our Supreme Court found itfelf obliged, in 
ftrict, conformity to the principles of Scotifh law, to decide in 
favour of the claims of the fuperior. 

The 



• There is the fame want of diftinclion proportioned to value, as to the (lamps 
for written lcafts. 



NOTE B. 2 %9 

The fmall territories, lying within the jurifd>aion of Royal 
burghs, are the only perpetual properties emancipated from 
the burdenfcme formalities of feudal holding. 

It were to be wifhed that fimple and unexpenfive modes of 
holding landed property in perpetuity, fimilar to burgage 
holding, were rendered more general for properties of fmall 
value. ' It might, at fame time, be very inexpedient to abro- 
gate entirely feudal forms, however foreign to-prefent circum- 
ftances, commuting the feudal canities upon a fair valua- 
tion as in the cafe of tithes. In regard to properties of fuch 
magnitude as to afford the expence, thefe forms may be con- 
fidered zs of confiderable utility ; inafmuch as they are ap- 
propriated forms, to which long ufage has given a fteady and 
a determinate fignincation-a circumftance of more import- 
ance than many feem to be aware of *. e u . 

The tack or leafe, renewable at the termination of certain 
periods, upon paving a final! or mere nominal fpecified fine 
to the proprietor as fuperior, is the fimple unexpenfive mode 
of holding, which the late Lord Gardenftone has de V1 fed for 

the 



P P 



* To atte^ that a change in the forms of conveyance would prove ruinous 
, refpeftabie clafs, who, it is faid, live as a tax upon property, by bating 
paper in the multiplied forms of conveyancing, is very abfurd. Were we to ftp* 
,(e the modes of holding and conveyancing reduced to the utmoft conceivable 
£*»*» yet, if they were only formed of a nature gently p iable to be 
accommodated to that endlefs diverfification of rights, in aU thai -foppofc- 
able'varie'ies of orieinal conffitntion, tranfiniffion. and fubtranfmiffiou for wh.ch 
a demand mfeht arife in a bufy and induftriou. Hate of fociety ; a neceffity would 
then be created for the fcparatt proftfflon of the conveyancer The arrange- 
ment and creation of thefe rights, in all their actual and foppofeabfe va- 
netS*, murtconftitutcadiftinftfcience; requiring, as other feiences, a clear theo- 
hted, to form fuch genial rule, of pradice as Ihould prevent all entangle- 
ment and confufion.-lf the expence of conveyancing were more mo, lS rarc, Uftrt 
..dd be more frequent demand for the employment of the conveyancer , TW 
pref.nt high e.pence cf conveyancing brings it under ^ 0t f^ ^ 
arithmetic ol taxation, .here two and two prod.ee, not four, but one. 1 he 
fr m emavbefaid of ftamps, where no proportion is held to the value of the 
Mg* 'The parties will often rather truft>tO the fccurity of mutual good Art* 
. B Ce of a legally ebnflStuto*feairity. 



5p©- NOTE B, 

the feUars in his village of Laurencekirk. It is with diffi- 
culty, however, that the Scotifh law (bigotted as it is to the 
antiquated ufages of feudalifm, notwrthttanding the abfurdity 
of forcing them into coalefcence with modern manners, to 
which they bear no fort of analogy) has admitted the tack as 
a mode of holding land in perpetuity. In Scotifh law, it is 
confidered as indifpenfable to the nature of a tack, that it 
fhall have an iJJ), or term of expiry ; and the want of an ifh 
is, in legal conftruction, an irritancy of the tack : It is alfo 
conftructed into an irritancy, if the yearly rent, fpecified in 
the tack, is merely nominal and illufory, and is not fomewhat 
adequate to the value of the fubject. It was in order to pro- 
pitiate the prejudices of old mother ancient, the Scotifh Law, 
that Lord Gardenftone devifed his tack for his villagers, — in 
reality a perpetual right, though under the femblance of an 
expiring one. And it is to be hoped, that our Judges, in the 
exercife of their nobile offichtm of interpreting law according 
to equity *, will endeavour to mollify the manners of the 
venerable matron, and lead her to recognize and extend her 
protection to this new fpecies of right 5 conftituted, in fact, 

after 



* The political axiom, of the neceffity of feparating the Legi/lathe from the Ju- 
dicial powers, though juft in general, muft yet be understood with many grains of 
allowance. In the unceafmg changes which the ftate of fociety undergoes, laws, 
highly reafonable at one period, come to be inapplicable in a fubfequent one ; and 
would be productive of much inconvenience, if literally enforced, and not equi- 
tably interpreted. But no Legiflature can, with becoming fteadinefs, interfere to 
make new laws upon every partial feeling of grievance ; nor until the old are 
found, unequivocally, to be univerfally oppreffive : The equitable interpretation 
of the Judge is the only remedy fnitcd to particular cafes. Such power of dif- 
penfing with law, would be dangerous in the hands of a fingle Judge. In Eng- 
land, all fear of danger is removed, by the intervention of the Jury, in civil 
caufes. The Supreme Court of Scotland, as formerly obferved, constitutes the 
Grand Jury erf the nation in civil caufes ; they have ever a (Turned a /while off.cium, 
in interpreting law according to equity ; nor has this power ever been exerted, 
hut for the manifeft advantage of the fubjett. Almofl the whole (ecurity enjoy- 
ed by the Scotifh .cultivator of the foil, has been gradually extended to him by 
liberal (ketches of our Judges, hi their equitable interpretation of law ; which, in 
its letter, is not very favourable to his fecuiity. 



NOTE B. 29I 

after a fafliion to which (he has not been accuftomed ; but, in 
•the outward form of which, fuch feemly deference has been 
paid to her habits, by the ficlio juris, or the quafi. 

Some attempts have been made of forcing her to recognize 
the tack as a right of perpetuity, in its native undifguifed fhape, 
and without attempting to introduce it under cover of the wed- . 
ding garment of feudality. A tack for ever was fuftained 
(Wight againft Hopeton) in 1763. The fentence was not, how- 
ever, decifive of the general principle ; but proceeded merely 
upon the fpecialty of the challenger being debarred from the atlion 
by a perfonal objection againjl his title to challenge *. In 1 760, a 
tack for 1 260 years was fuftained, upon general principles, by 
the Court of Seffion. An oppofite fentence upon a fimilar 
caufe, had, however, previoully been reverfed by the Houfe 
of Peers in 1758. In the uncertainty of all human affairs, a 
pofleffion for j 260 years may be well reckoned equivalent to a 
perpetuity ; and, where manufactories are to be erected, and 
the ground to be improved to its utmoft poffible extent, by the 
acceflion of valuable buildings, it would certainly be expedient 
to take advantage, either of this, or the formerly mentioned 

fpecies 



* From the number of judges in the Scots fupreme civil court acting as a jury, 
the fame fteady tenor of uniformity of principle in their decifions, is not to be ex- 
pected, as in the Englifh courts, where a fingle judge prefides and directs the de- 
tiiion of juries, by his reports upon the caie. A fingle perfon, of abilities, natur- 
ally forms a confiflent theory ; and the practice confonant to it may be eftablil'h- 
td into uniform precedent, from the facility with which juries will ever allow 
themfelves to be directed by a judge of eftablifhed integrity, and of acknowledged 
intellectual aicendancy. In this way, the fyfiem of infurance laws has arifen, from 
the decifions of Lord Mansfield. Indeed, in fuch circumftances, a judge is not 
fhy of bringing forward his general views, and, without hedging himfcif behind 
fpecialties, is ready, like Lord Kenyon, to lay down his general principle of deci- 
fion in each particular cafe. In a jury of judges, where no afcendancy of this na- 
ture is acknowledged, there may be rivalry of fyftem, and a fhynefs of entering in- 
to fyftematic contentions. This may be one reafon why our courts are reckoned 
more ready to found their decifions upon the fpecialties of the cafe, and more 
fcrupulous of deciding to the eftabliihment of general principles. To eflabiifh ge-> 
neral principles as to the interpretation of law,- particularly where an equitable 
interpretation has come to be expedient, approaches fomewhat to the nature of le- 
gislation ; and requires, no doubt, legislative caution and deliberation. 



292 NOTE B. 

fpecies of tack-holding, if the decifions in their favour can a.5 
yet be fufficiently depended upon, as forming a fleady general 
rule of precedent. 

Befides their contrariety to the accuftcmed mode of holding 
property in perpetuity, one great argument of thofe who have 
attempted to impugn the validity of tacks of fuch long endur- 
ance, was, the danger cf invalidating die faith of the regifler of 
landed property *. In how far fuch tacks might indeed affect 

the 



* It may be proper, for the information of the Englifh reader, to give, here, 
an account of that lingular inliitution in Scotland, which gives fuch iecuiity to 
commerce in land, the Regifler of Safines. 

Alter a variety of regulations in regard to protocols, or books kept by public 
notaries, which, in Scotland, (as at prefent over the Continent), were the only 
prefervatives of deeds, from whence authentic copies could be procured, in default 
of the originals ; and, after various attempts at fubflituting ftrrrething better in 

their room, continued from the year 1450 downwards At length, by act 22d 

of James VI. chap. 16. amended, in practice, by interim acts of the Court of Se£ 
fion, (which has ever afTumed a fort of by-law power in regulating the forms of 
conducting bufinefs), as alfo amended by fubfequent acts of the Parliament itfclf, 
the idea of a general regifter, of authentic faith) and equally acceffible to all having 
intereft, for all tranfactions relative to perpetual rights upon landed property con- 
stituted in the form recognized by the Scots law, was finally incorporated into the 
body of the law itfelf; a fyftem, bellowing as great iecuiity upon the commerce of 
lands, as human ingenuity could probably have invented. 

For general accommodation, particular regiflers are kept for term ties, (two or 
three counties being claficd together, and having a common regifler) ; and a gene- 
ral regifter is kept in Edinburgh, in which it is competent to regtftrata deeds from 
any part of Scotland. In one or other of thefe, all deeds affecting land, as r-.a! 
lights, and conftitnted by infeofment or fafme, whether in the way of com- 
plete transference, or merely of pledge, muft be engrofled verbatim. The- regift ra- 
tion mull take place within fixty days of the execution of the deed, 
which, the deed becomes invalid. If there are two fuch deeds of f.ifine upon the 
fame land, the one prior in execution, but pofterior as to the date of registration, 
the other poftcrior in execution, but prior in registration; the latter hath, by law, 
the preference. Every perfon wishing to lay out money upon land, either in porn 
chafe, or lending on mortgage, 01 finking it for an heritable annuity, has accefs to 
confult thefe registers ; in one or other of which, he is certain of obtaining infor- 
mation how far the land is already arretted by any deeds of a fimilar nature. As 
the county registers arc filled up, thry are transmitted to the Edinburgh R.< 

An action is competent ,'lttrs, 

i. 



NOTE B. 293 

the faith of the regifter — in how far this might be prevented, 
by enforcing the regiftration of tacks, of a certain length of en- 
durance — or, in how far fuch multiplicity of regiftration might 
not tend to inextricable confufion, of which there is already 
fumcient danger, from the multiplied regiftrations of titles to 
fuperiorities, divided and configned for the purpofe of creating 

fictitious or real election votes thefe are matters of difcufliou 

for thofe more intimately acquainted with the iubje£t. 

There is, in Scotland, no veltige of that fimple, unexpenfive 
tenure of land, fo frequent in England, called copyhold; except- 
ing only the four towns of Lochmaben *. There are, indeed, 

lands 



if the deed is not regiftercd within a limited time after it hath been prefentcd : 
And to prevent the regiftration of deeds in any other order of priority, than that 
of their presentation, a minute book is kept, in which is inferted a general de- 
fcription of the deed, with the date of its piefentation to be recorded; which mi- 
nute is fubferibed, both by the prefentcr of the deed, and by the keeper of the re- 
gifter, as a check againft fabrication. The judges of the Court of Sefilon, too, 
(under what check to fecure vigilance I know not), are required and empowered, 
when they pleafe, to call for both the regifter and the minute-book, to fee that 
they accord, when compared together. In fhort, by contrivance of fo many 
checks, this matter feems brought to all the perfection of which it is fufceptible. 

This high degree of feenrrty lias, it is believed, fincc generally known, brought 
a ccniidcrable influx of Englilh money into the Scotifh loan market — enabling, 
probably, the Scotifh merchant and manufacturer to borrow money on fomewhat 

eafier terms. Honeft John Bull, with all his puffing affectation of fupuiority, 

would do well, in feveral inftances, to take a lefion from his filler Peg. 

The Athenians, as we learn from the Trawls of Anacbaijh, had fallen "opon 
a very fimple idea of a regifter. A (tone, on which the nature of the right af- 
fecting the land was engraved, was fet up in ibroe confpicuous part of it ; with- 
out which publication of the deed, it is proba le the deed was of no validity a- 
gainft third parties, any more than Scotilh deeds unrecorded in the public re- 
gifter. 

* There were, indeed, in Scotland, as in England, rentallrr?, or kindly te- 
nants, around the manfions of the great proprietors, confiding generally of rela- 
tions of the family, who held their lands, not by military tenure, but for very 
moderate rent, in money or in kind ; and who were in ufe to fueceed from father 
to fon ; the fimple evident of their title being a mere regiftration in the book's of 
the Lord of the Manor, without any of the cxpenftve formalities of the feudal 



J94 



NOTE B. 



lands of a certain defcription, in Orkney and Zetland, which, by 
a particular ftatute, are privileged to be held by udal (probably 
allodial) tenure *, exempted from all the expenfive forms and 
cafualties of feudal holding ; * to fave ' (as expreffed in the fta- 
tute) ' the expence of renovation of rights and infeofments. ' 

Having thus giver feme account of thofe tenures by which 
lands are held in perpetuity, I (hail proceed to make fome ob- 
fervations upon the conftitution of that temporary right of hold- 
ing, by which the actual cultivator of the foil poflefles for agri- 
cultural purpofes, namely, 

The Tacky or Leafe. 

This fpecies of tenure hath not obtained, in Scotland, the 
designation of property », or efiate in land. 

In times of turbulence, the military chief, and his armed 
retainer, were of principal importance, and alone figured in 
the imagination. The record of them has, accordingly, been 
more clearly preferved, and their progrefiive hiftory can be 
more accurately traced ; till the right of the former terminated 

in 



tenure. Thefe rights were in train of acquiring complete validity, from cuftom, 
as in England ; when their pofleflbrs, as in England, would have become copy- 
holders. Their progrefs towards confirmation, was, however, checked by the Re- 
formation. At this period, the lands of the Church, being feized by the Crown, 
vere difpofed of to court favourites ; and thefe new proprietors, having no kindly 
connexion with the churchmens kindly tenants, univcrfally ejected them — a 
precedent, which made all fimilar rights be immediately called in queflion : when 
our law courts, after being much puzzled how to act in a cafe entirely new, at 
length interpreted them, according to the circumftances of each cafe, into leafes 
for life, or for certain terms of years ; fo that they have all, long fince, expired. 
The rentallers of Lochmaben alone efcaped ; owing to the latenefs of their fupe- 
rior's application for their ejection, which made his long acquicfcence be inter- 
preted into an homologation of their right to poflefs as they had pofTelled hi- 
therto. 

Many of thefe Lochmaben rentallers, wc are informed (Si 'atifiical Account, 
Vol. VII. page z/io), can inflrucl the poffcffion of their lands in their families for 
$co years; and may, therefore, in point of antiquity, though probably net •: 
vie with moll of the nobles of enr land. 



NOTE B. 50$ 

In the prefent mere fuperiority ; conferring only political power, 
but without profitable ufe of the lands ; and that of the latter, 
in the property, or valuable ufe, with the full command of the 
fubjett. The hiftory of the actual cultivators of the foil, of 
more importance than that of either, as to the increafe of its 
powers of production, is involved in impenetrable obfcurity : 
from the want of record, we can, however, fafely infer, that 
their ftatement was, originally, mean, unprivileged, and de- 
fpifed. 

It feems extremely probable, that the lands, occupied by 
the military chiefs, or their more confiderable military retain- 
ers, were originally cultivated by flaves, who had no intereft: 
themfelves in the produce, but were compelled to labour under 
overfeers, at no expence to their mailer, but merely that of 
their maintenance. But as men are not eafily brutalized into 
the quiet pafhvity of labouring cattle ; as their fuperior powers 
of memory, comparifon, and judgement, are apt to kindle their 
feelings into permanent paffions, dangerous to their tamers, in 
proportion to their fuperior reach of contrivance ; it would 
feem to have been found expedient, in Scotland, as in every 
other country of which we have more diftin£l record upon this 
fubjecl, to admit the flave into a participation of intereft with 
his mailer, in the produce of the foil *. 

To 



* The lands of the Romans were originally cultivated by flaves. And it is 
furprifing, that, under fuch a mode of culture, their agriculture fliould have fo 
much excelled. Having no commerce, there was no other road to wealth and com- 
fortable fubfifrence, but the mod accurate cultivation of the foil. The fuperin- 
tendance of the proprietor feems accordingly to have been fo very conftant and 
minute, as to palliate, in a great meafure, the evils of fuch a conltitution of cul- 
tivation. Superior accuracy of fuperinteiidance might become equally the teft of 
fuperiority; as is the fame accuracy in doing bufinefs, in our manufacturing and 
commercial towns. 

The inconveniences, however, of this fyftem, made it gradually give way to x 
better : Slaves were admitted to a copartnery intereft with the mafter : Their Ih- 
very was firft mitigated, in their being made adferipti £>cb<r, like the peafants in 
die Northern parts of Europe; fo that they could not be torn from their h 



2p5 NOTE B. 

To flimulate the flave's induftry, a fenfe of intereft was found 
a more powerful motive, than the fear of punifhment. He was 
therefore no more confined to his mere maintenance, but ob- 
tained the privilege of being capable of acquiring and tranfmit- 
ting feparate property of his own ; and was admitted into a 
joint copartnery intereft, with his mailer, in the produce of 
the foil which he cultivated : The mafter provided cattle, feed, 
and inftruments of labour, and the villnine received the half of 
the produce, after deducting what was neceiTary to replace, or 
repair, the flock which belonged to the mailer. The villaine, 
however, could have fmall inducement, when capital accumu- 
lated in his hands, to fix any of his own capital in improve- 
ments of the land : The fnaring of the mailer, to the extent 
of one half of improvements, fo efte£ted, would have been an 
effe&ual bar to the attempting of fuch improvements ; befides 
that, probably, the villaine's fecurity of endurance of polTeiTion 
was not fuch as to give him aiTurance of even this proportion 
of a fuitablc return. To give, then, a rational inducement to 
the cultivator, to launch out his own capital in the improve- 
ment of the foil, various encouragements would be given ; till 
the cultivation of the fend was at lad brought to its prefent 
footing •, as undertaken by farmers, properly fo called, hiring 
the ufe of the lands from the proprietor, at a fpecified rent, and 
for a time certain, and cultivating it entirely by the outlay of 
their own capital : The various progreflive fteps of this ame- 
lioration of the fyflem of cultivation, is, however, . nowhere 
diltinctly recorded. 

In gradually communicating privileges to the cultivator of 
the foil, it feems reafonable to fuppofe, that the mode which 
would mod obvioufly occur, would be, to follow the analogy 

of 



or fold flparatc from the L.nd : Tlicy were afterwards made ahni fartiarii, like 
the metaysrt of France, who cultivated by means of the proprietor's Hock; receiving 
one halt of the produce, after replacing the Hock; and leaving the flock behind 
them, upon quitting po.T.flion of the land. The author of the Wealth of Na- 
tions conceives, that the Weft Indies could not afford the expence of unptoduc- 
tivc Have culture, but fur the lliperior value of their kind of produce. 



NOTE B. 297 

of that mode by which the privileges of military tenants had 
been enlarged : And it is probable, that the profecution of this 
analogy, joined to the reafons already fuggefted (page 282), 
might lead to the adoption of the abfurd notion of the right of 
a delectus perfona being effential to the proprietor of the lands — 
a conftitution which confiderably weakens both agricultural 
credit and enterprize, but which is fo interwrought into our ac- 
cuftomed habits of thinking, that moft of proprietors, and bu- 
iinefs-men of the law, with their feudal-ridden imaginations, 
adhere to it more tenacioully than to any other article of their 
creed. Accordingly, we find, that, as military tenants, at 
firft, became tenants for life, from being tenants at will ; fo, 
the firft notion, of giving the fecurity of independence to the 
cultivator of the foil, in Scotland, as elfewhere, was to give 
him fecurity of pofleflion for life. The liferent tack feems the 
firft adopted fpecies of tack-holding, rendering the poffeflbr inde- 
pendent, his fituation refpectable, and his rights and interells re- 
garded : Superior privileges were accordingly beftowed upon 
the liferent tack j the property in this tack was, and is, confi- 
dered to be fo complete, as to imply the full power of its alie- 
nation, in defiance of the proprietor's fuppofed eflential and in- 
herent right of the delectus perfona ; and, when granted to a 
woman, was not confidered as forfeited upon her marriage, as 
implying afiignment contrary to the proprietor's right of delectus, 
in confequence of its falling under the hufband's jus maritl ; 
although fuch is the abfurd construction of Scots law, in regard 
to the effect of a woman's marriage, upon a tack for definite 
time, to which fhe fliould fall heir by inheritance, or even, 
perhaps, acquire by perfonal contract. The period of nine- 
teen years, feems, in Scotland, to have been confidered as equi- 
valent to the life of a perfon of age to enter upon a liferent tack j 
and, from this analogy, various privileges, originally communi- 
cated to the liferent, would fcem to have been extended to this 
fpecies of tack. As nineteen years may, however, be confidered 
as a favourable exchange for a liferent, this is probably the rea- 
fon why the Scots tenant feems to have generally preferred 
this fecurity ; infomuch, that the mention of a tack, without 

Qj fpecmcation 



298 NOTE B. 

fpecification of the term, in common habit fuggefted the idea 
of a nineteen years leafe. The privileges granted to cultiva- 
tors, by legi flating proprietors, feem to have been granted 
flowly, with reluctance, and to no greater extent than what 
obvioufly indifpenfable utility required : A fhort-fighted avarice 
wifhed to grefp at the fruits of the cultivation effected by the 
tenant's flock, as fpeedily as poflible j even fo prematurely, as 
to allow no fufficient iecurity of time for their being effected at 
all : And the genius of law feems to have been univerfally ini- 
mical, both in modern and in antient nations, to the long du- 
ration of leafes, which feemed to keep back the proprietor from 
reaping the benefit of the increafed value of his property *. 

When fubfequent views of utility fuggefted the propriety of 
tacks of ftill longer duration, they were ventured upon with 
timidity, as an extenfion of a fpecies of tenure, to which the 
genius of law was unfriendly •, which, as yet, fhe had not re- 
cognized to that extent, and which fhe might be fcrupulous in 
fanctioning. Such tacks, therefore, fought fhelter under the 
form of the privileged tack of nineteen years, which had ac- 
quired an analogical ftability, and whole talifmanic influence 
was thought able to protect them : The whole term meant, 
durft not be avowedly exprefTed ; but the tack was granted for 
two nineteens, or three nineteens of years, till the number of 
years propofed fhould be completed in nineteens. 

Originally, the cultivator's right of pofTefTion was confidered 
as only perfotial in regard to the proprietor, but not as a real 

right 



* Till the days ef Juftinian, the legal term of a Roman leafe was only five 
years. The tenant could alfo be ejected by an heir, or a purchafcr of the lands*. 
In France, a leafe had no fecurity from law but for nine years, till 1775 ; the fecu- 
rity was then extended to twenty-feven years — Whether the ephemeral decrees of her 
late Aflemblies, afTetfing legiflation, have ever reached this fubjetl, I know not ; or 
whether they were fo occupied with conflitutions, or the forms in which bufinorfs 
was to be carried on, as to hate found no lcifure to do any bufinefs at all ; or 
whether they reitritled therfffelves totally to demolition, upon the Godwinian prin- 
ciple, that cftablifhment, implying flationary ftability, was in diametric oppofi* 
tioH to improvement, whofe very tflence confifted in an unfcttled progreffian,- 



NOTE B. 29;; 

right in the foil. His right, then, terminated upon the ceflix- 
tion of the proprietor's right of property, whether by death 
or alienation ; by the fucceflion of an heir, or of a purchafer ; 
and the heir, or the purchafer, could eject him. By aft of 
the Scotifh Parliament, of fo early date as 1446, he was fe- 
cured for the whole term of years fpecified in his leafe, in 
whomfoever the right of property might come to be veiled., 
whether heir or purchafer. 

Originally (in confequence, probably, of the whole ftock of 
the farm being the property of the mailer •, probably, in part, 
owing to the undiftinguifhing nature of the policy of barba- 
rians, which, in other inftances, made the firft merchant of a 
nation, that could be feized, anfwerable for the debts of the 
other merchants of that nation ; or a whole family punilhable 
for the crimes of its head), the whole crop and ftock upon the 
farm could be at any time poinded and fwept away, to fatisfy 
the debts of the proprietor of the lands : And this would ap- 
pear to have continued, as the law of confuetude, even after 
the lands had begun to be cultivated, by the outlay of the te- 
nant's own proper capital. This change of the mode of culti- 
vation, evidently demanded a change of the law: And, by 
aft 1469, the tenant was fecured againft fuch hardfhip •, it be- 
ing thereby enaaed, that the crop and flock mould not be lia- 
ble to the creditors of the proprietor, excepting in fo far as the 
tenant was indebted to him in rent, by the terms of his leafe. 

Two fuch remarkable ftatutes, enaded at fuch an early pe- 
riod, and within the fpace of twenty years, mow the early in- 
trodudion, and the rapid progrefs of the change of fyllem of 
cultivation, from that of villainage to that of freemen, cultivat- 
ing by their own proper outlay, and at their own riik. 

The ad 1469, in its literal fenfe, is indeed univerfally un* 
derftood to have gone no farther, than to fecure the tenant 
from being attached, in this manner, for the perfonal debts of 
his landlord; but is not underftood to have riven him any 
relief, in regard to the debits futuli, or rtW debts, for which 
fc the 



3^3 NOTE B. 

the land itfelf had been pledged *. Accordingly, lb late as 
1628, a decifion appears upon record, in which the goods of 
the tenant are found liable for payment of annualrent, confti- 
tuted by infeoffment and fafine, in all the years and terms due 
to the infeoffee, preceding the date of the poinding, and alfo 
for the current term's rent ; ' although the tenant, at the time, 
fhall owe no rent to the proprietor, in terms of his leafe. ' By 
a liberal interpretation, however, of this a61, now perfectly 
eftablifhed in practice, the tenant is fecured againft all debts of 
the proprietor, except in fo far as he is indebted to him by his 
tack •, fo that, though the proprietor's heritable creditors may 
force him to pay fooner, they cannot force him to pay more 
than the proprietor would, or could have done. 

The tenant's own property is thus completely fecured by the 
operation of thefe two (latutes •, in the liberal manner of their 
interpretation, through the nobile ojfichim of our Judges, in in- 
terpreting law according to equity, which has fupplied the de- 
ficiencies of our law — (See foot note, page 290). The tenant's 
own perfonal creditors are left, however, in a more precarious 
fituation ; to the confiderable diminution of the extent of his 
credit, in enabling him to borrow money to carry on his im- 
provements. Wherever land is appropriated, it is probable the 
proprietor, on leafing out his land?, has ever polTelled, in right 
of hypothec, a preference over all other creditors of his tenant, 
for at leafl one year's rent, upon the crop and flock •, and it 
feems highly reafonable, that he who furnimes the land, which 
is the fine qua non, mould ever enjoy this extent of preference. 

There 



* When a prop; ictor pledges his land, in fecurity of an annualrent, or of the 
payment of principal and interefl of borrowed money, he places the antmalrenter, 
or mortgagee, precifely in his own fituation, according to the forms of the feudal 

Lw, a> proprietors quoad Lie e/flcfa. 

He, accordingly, fymbolically d'vefls himfelf of the property, by fymbolical re- 

fjgnation of it into the hands of a pcrfon conrtitutcd to reprefcut the iuperior ; 

from whom the annualrenter, or mortgagee, receives fymbolical redelivery of it 

by in feoffment. The tranfaction is atteftcd by the notorial written deed, called 

. 1 which, t< : it ' - I be engr [T.U in 1 public regiftcr ol 



NOTE B. 



301 



There Teems, however, no good reafon, why the fuperior* or 
other creditors of the proprietor in debitis fundi, mould enjoy — 
not only the fame extent of preference as the proprietor him- 
felf, into whofe place they can ftep when they pleafe, to make 
good their claims, which is reafonable — but an extent greater 
than the proprietor, in coming before all the other creditors of 
the tenant, not only for one year's rent, but for all arrears of 
rent due by him to the proprietor, and alfo for the current 
term's rent. In die latter of thefe inltances, the law bellows 
an extent of preference upon a derivative right, greater than 
what belongs to the original it is derived from ; and feems to 
have loft fight even of analogy, as well as of utility. 

The agricultural credit of the cultivator is, however, lefs 
hurt in thefe inltances, which may occur feldom, than from 
that perpetual obftru&ion to it, which is conftituted in die re- 
fufal of the law, to fupport him in the fully complete, alienable, 
and eviclable property, which he ought to have in his leafe ; which, 
in many cafes that might be figured, may prevent him from 
freely fixing his own capital in the foil j and which may pre- 
vent others from lending theirs, from the well-grounded appre- 
henfion, that, if once there fixed, it may never again be with- 
drawn. The right of delectus perfona, which, very oddly, has 
been magnified into a confequence that does not belong to it, 
in the eye of law equally as of individual conception, obftructs 
the tenant's credit, by depriving him, in n great meafure, of the 
power of alignment, or of fubfets. In all tacks, where aflig- 
nation and fubfet are debarred by covenant in the leafe, the 
proprietor can prevent either ; although he fliould be able to 
produce no reafon, but his own whim or fancy, and cannot in- 
itrucl any diminution of fecurity ; or, even although he fliould 
have all reafonable additional fecurity offered him, which would 
be held fatisfactory in any other cafe. There is indeed an ex- 
ception, in the cafe of tacks of very long endurance, where (as 
the law has never recognized, or lpeedily relinquilhed dip ab- 
furdity of the right of tack being undefcendible to legal heirs) 
the proprietor, from the distance of time, though held a very- 
conjuror in the difcernmeut of ' fpirils, is confidercd is having re- 
nounced 



30a note B. 

nounced his dtkclus ; from the impoflibility of his knowing the 
characters of the eventual fucceffors, either through fimple vi- 
rion or the fecond fight : Our Supreme Court have, I am told, 
upon thefe principles, within thefe few years, fuflained the va- 
lidity of a fubfet cf a tack of 38 years. What length of tack 
ihall be confidered, thus, upon legal principles, as implying 
power of fubfet, or where the point of time lies, within which 
the law fhall fay to that power, ' hitherto fhalt thou come, and 
no farther, ' remains hid in the counfel of our Judges, to be 
determined in fome future decifion. In 1791, it was decided, 
that, in a tack of 19 years, it was implied, in law conftruc- 
tion, without any formal ftipulation in the leafe to that effect, 
that the power of deleElus was retained j and that the tack was 
neither affignable nor fubfettable. 

In fubfetting, the original tackfman is confidered as bound 
to the proprietor, as well as the fubtenant j whilft, in affign- 
jnent, the original tenant is free, fubftituting the other in his 
place. In conformity to the analogy of the feudal law, there- 
fore, as well as to the greater fecurity of the proprietor, the 
Scotifh law is confidered as more favourable to fubfet, than to 
affignation ; becaufe, in fubfet, the firfl tenant does not relin- 
quifh his pofition as a quafi vaflal, and the purpofes of the me- 
taphorical delectus may be, thus, confidered as metaphorically, 
or analogically fulfilled, by this fifi'io juris, or quafi : moreover, 
too, the fecurity of the proprietor, fo far from being weakened, is 
greatly ftrengthened, in having his right of hypothec unimpair- 
ed, and the fecurity of two inftead of one. Upon this princi- 
ple, it was confidered, by our law oracle, Erfkine, that a power 
of fubfet was implied, in all cafes where the contrary was not 
direclly expreiTed •, till the aforementioned decifion, in 1791, 
came to rectify our mifconceptions. 

Even Erfkine allows, that, upon legal principles, an exprefs 
ftipulation in the tack againfl affignees, both legal and volunta- 
•",•, would prevent the tack from being evicted by the tenant's 
creditors : Otherwifc, a tack, unaffignable by the tenant's vo- 
luntary deed, would, according to him, be eviclable by adjudi- 
cation, at the inftance, of the tenant's creditors: But, even \:\ 

that 



NOTE B. 3°3 

that cafe, the creditors would be guilty of lefe-Majejte towards 
the facred right of the ddcBus, were they to bring the reverficrt 
of the leafe to a fair fale to the belt bidder : They are debarred, 
therefore, from fuch unhallowed and irreverent meafures ; they 
can only enter upon adminiftration, as refponfible fa&ors of 
the tenant's concerns. 

The great foundation of law, conftituting, at leaft, the dif- 
ference betwixt right and wrong, is public utility. When law 
reafoning confines" itfelf to the attempt of fymbolizin'g, in prac- 
tice, ufages long fince obfolete, and whofe reafon has ceafed— 
though, In refped of the exadnefs, or want of exaanefs, with 
which the affimilation is efa&ed, it may be juft or incongruous 
—yet, in its own nature, as it is neither true nor falfe, fo neither 
can it be either right or wrong. There is, however, a neceflity 
of fixed rules of procedure ; without which, there can be no 
fecurity or confidence in law. Decided views of utility are 
flowly evolved j and, meantime, the molt obvious rule is the 
analogy of known ufages. 

Views of utility, however, excepting perhaps in the in- 
ftance already quoted, feem progrefiively to have been gain- 
ing the afcendant over fyftematic law reafoning. And though 
the tack, in Scotland, is ftill fomewhat encumbered by a rem- 
nant of the {hackles of feudalifm, in a confiderable degree ob- 
ftru&iye of agricultural credit and enterprize ; yet, under the 
benign influence of the ena£fcments of 1446 and 1466, with the 
liberal fpirit of interpretation fubfequently followed up by our 
judges, the Scotifh tenant probably enjoys., more fecurity than 
what was ever beftowed upon the aaual cultivators of the foil, 
either in ancient, or in modern times. Comparing ourfelves 
with others, more caufe of fatisfaaion will prefent itfelf, ia 
having attained the relatively bell, than of regret, in not hav- 
ing attained the bed fuppofeable. 

Proprietors, in their covenants, might redrefs all deficien- 
cies of the law, in exprefsly renouncing all retention of the jus 
deh'Bus : Or, fliall we fuppulc them grafping after the chances of 
forfeiture— or that, in their wifdom, they fliould conceive a 
fnirited cultivation to proceed under fuch riik ? 

I: 



304 NOTE B; 

It might be mentioned, that the policy of entails, through 
the reftri&ion often contained in them as to the endurance of 
leafes, militates alfo, in a very great degree, againft liberal out- 
lay of capital in cultivation. A feeming relaxation of their re- 
itraint has been indeed obtained by act. of Parliament, 10th of 
his prefent Majefty. Obfervations upon that a£t have been 
made (pages no, ill, & 253 of the Report.) 

In this Note, the leafe or tack has been confidered, chiefly 
in an hiftorical point of view. Some additional confideration 
of its circumftances, in the view of public utility, will be re- 
fumed in a fubfequent one. I have been much indebted for 
Information to Rofs's Lectures on Conveyancing. 



NOTE C. 



Where manufactures are eftablifhed, an effectual demand, 
in offers of larger rent, will arife for fmall fubdivifions of land, 
to be pofTefTed by cow-feeders fupplying the manufacturers 
with milk ; or by thofe keeping pofl-horfes for travelling, to 
tranfadt bufinefs ; or by carters, who find occupation in trans- 
porting fuel, and the materials and produce of manufacture. 
Even where agriculture has arrived at confiderable improvement, 
fuch demand will arife, in a mere farming diftri£t, from the ad- 
vantage enfuing upon fubdivifion of labour ; the farmer finding 
it cheaper to hire all his carriages from the profeflional carter, 
than to perform them himfelf ; as he is thus allowed to apply 
his whole capital, with entire undivided attention, to his own 
proper profeflional occupation, the cultivation of the foil *. 

The 



• The fame argument applies to the retailing of meal. Could the farmer find 
it advantageous to intercept the profit of the carter, by performing his own car- 
riages, he needs no other inducement to make him do it. The very fame reafon 
would make him the retailer of his own grain. But the profeflional carttr can 
ca/ry cheaper, as the profeflional retailer can alfo retail cheaper tban the farmer, 
with Whofe Cher bufzncf*, fuch occupations wcmlcl oWtruftin£ly intcrfe/e. 



KOTE L. 305 

poflefibrs of fuch minute tenements; cannot properly 
be defigned farmers : they depend not upon farming, nor does 
it constitute their chief occupation. It marks a progrefs in 
improvement, when labour and employment are fo much fub- 
divided, as that their diPcin£t branches can afford chief and prin- 
cipal occupation to their diitincl: feveral profeffionalifts. But the 
completion of improvement implies their complete and perfecT: 
feparation. And there is an universal, unremitting tendency 
to fueh completion j every one's intereft necefTarily leading him 
to confine himfeif to that occupation, in which, through prac- 
tice, his undivided attention would render him more and more 
expert, fo foon as he can find fufficient employment in that 
particular occupation, as to enable him to devote to it, exclu- 
sively, his whole time and attention ; every other profeffional- 
ifl, meanwhile, engaged chiefly in fome other branch, finding 
it for his intereft to take his furnifhings from tire former, that 
he may alfo, in like manner, exclufively devote himfeif to his 
own particular employment. In great towns, where there is 
fufficieney of employment in one particular line of profeffion, 
we find, accordingly, that land is very feldom occupied by cart- 
ers, cowfeeders, &c. ; they difincumber themfelves of that in- 
terruption to their bufmefs which would arife from the cultiva- 
tion of the foil, finding it much cheaper to purchafe the farm 
produce they need from the profcflional cultivator. For the 
fame reafon, merchants dealing in the retail of corn, potatoes, 
hay, or other farm produce, do not take land in leafe ; finding 
that the profefiional cultivator can furnifh it to them cheaper 
than they could raife it. Nor is the practice of fuch profef- 
fionalifts, of not pofleffmg land, the effecl: of any regulation, 
or even public prejudice. On the contrary, as to the latter fort 
of profcffioualirb, it is the univerfal, ineradicable prejudice of all 
it towns, that every retailer of farm produce mould him* 
felf be the producer of the article. Neither will any landlord 
refufe the higheft rent offered him ; fo that there is nothing to 
prevent merchant; from outbidding profeffional farmers, if it 
■ . f ir i.'it'ireft to produce, as well as to fell. 

R r So 



f $<$& NOTE C. 

So long, however, as the circumftances of a fociety arc 
fuch, as not to admit of perfect fubdivifion of employment, 
there will exift a clafs of fuch minute occupiers of land ; not 
for the immediate profit derived from land, but on account of 
its fubferviency to other more profitable employment. It is 
needlefs to fay that fuch minute occupation ought to be encou- 
raged ; for, fo long as the circumflances of fociety require it, 
it will force its own way, from its being able to afford more 
rent. But it would be equally abfurd, either unnaturally to 
force it into, or out of, exiftence, by inftituted regulation j it 
ought to be left to be fettled by the actual demand. 

Inftituted regulations counteracting natural tendencies, wil} 
ever be themfelve3 counteracted : And, therefore, there is very 
Kttle danger to be apprehended of the introduction of a fort of 
general cottage-fyftem of the occupation of the lands — a fort 
of Agrarian law, of late fo much cried up. So long as fuch 
paftorico-poetical politicians content themfelves with attempt- 
ing to enlighten the landed proprietors, in convincing them 
that fuch minute occupation would tend to their intereft, no 
harm can enfue. The proprietors of land, after liftening to 
their declamation, will judge of the expediency, by the offers 
of rent which are made them ; and their confciences will be 
kept eafy as to the propriety of fuch procedure, from the con- 
fideration, that the higheft rent can be afforded only from the 
higheft production raifed at the leaft expence. 

Of all forced artificial regulations, the moft abfurd (con- 
demning the earth to fterility, and its inhabitants to poverty) 
would be an Agrarian law, dooming the lands to fubdivifion, 
into equal poffefnon, among the inhabitants of every country ; 
whether to be held in property or in leafe. In a common paf- 
turage, (the only conceivable mode of holding pafture lands in 
equal poffeffion), is it poffible to imagine that any thing could 
be effected, in the improvement of breeds, in the prevention 
of intermixture, in proper flocking of the land, in hirfeling or 
herding ? Among fuch puny proprietors, or farmers, having 
each an equal intereft in the half or quarter of a common 
horfe, might not the animal be oftener idle than occupied, for 

want 



NOTE C, 3°7 

want of agreement as to the time when, and the purpofe tor 
which, he was to be yoked ; or ftarved, before his matters 
fliould agree when, or whereupon, he was to be fed ? Every 
individual being thus, in a manner, adfcriptus gkbe, and doom- 
ed, per force, to be a farmer ; and no one being at liberty to 
devote himfelf to any other profeffion ; of courfe, each indi- 
vidual muft, of neceihty, become Jack-of-all-trades, and pro- 
vide himfelf in every kind of furnifhing he required ; and the 
ftrange uncouth fyftem of univerfal awkwardnefs and bungling 
that muft enfue, may more readily be conceived than defcribed. 
Nothing but the continued interpofition of the moil violent re- 
gulating force, counteracting the ftrongeft natural tendencies, 
could ever preferve luch an unnatural conftitution of things, 
for any time, in exiiience : As every fuch fmall poffeffor mult 
conftantly be endeavouring to difpofe of his minute poffefTion, 
which cannot fufficiently occupy him, which he cannot occupy 
to any purpofe, and which prevents him from betaking him- 
felf to more profitable employment, to thofe who could readi- 
ly afford him more for it, than he can pofhbly make of it him- 
felf. It would, indeed, be extremely Angular, if that fubdivi- 
fion of labour and employment, which is the characteristic of 
civilization and improvement in every other inftance, mould 
form an exception to the generate rule, in the fole inftance of 
the cultivation of the foil, The Agrarian fyftem is, in fome fort, 
exemplified in the common-property lands belonging to burgh 
corporations ; the occupation of which, by detracting their at- 
tention from their proper profefiions, has generally the effect: of 
beggaring the members of the corporation. It is happy for 
them, when they have the good fenle, and fortunately alio c?a\ 
agree, to let their corporation lands, in undivided pofleflion, to a 
practical profeffional farmer. The inhabitants of the town of 
Peebles, in this county, poflefe lands in common property, 
chiefly confifting of hill pafture, but containing alfo arable 
land : Particular domiciles, in the town, have different pro- 
portions of btereft in this common property attached to them 
as appendages, the whole integer of the property being ideally 
confidercd as confifting of a certain number of founts, and the 

particular 



308 NOTE C. 

particular intereft of each domicile being designated by a fpe- 
cified number of thefe foums. Before thefe lands were, hap- 
pily, by univerfal content, let to a (Ingle farmer, the value of 
one foum was confidered as equivalent to 5s. yearly ; without 
taking into the account the lofs untamed by the proprL 
of the domiciles, in diffraction cf their attention from their 
proper employments in the common management of this com- 
mon concern. Now, that the lands were let to a profcffional 
farmer, the yearly rent divided among the proprietors, amount- 
ed,- at once, to about 13s. for each foum •, and the lands have, 
even fubfequently, been fubfet, by the original farmer, at a 
considerable over-rent *. 



NOTE D. 



The topics of inquiry, fuggefted in Chap. IV. of the pre- 
scribed form of the Agricultural Reports, are curious and im- 
portant : viz. the proper fze of farms ,- — the genen "V- of 
farmers; — the proper conjlruElion of the f Each of 
them merits particular diicufiion. I QiaH ftate what has occur- 
red to my reflection ; 1/?, In regard to the character or 
farmer; 2//, In regard to the conftrufition of leafes? 3//, In 
regard to the proper fize of farms. 

Cbara&er 



* When a contiguous proprietor wifhevd, of late, to ptrchafe this cemmon - 
prcperty land from the domiciled proprietors of the foums, fomeofth< I 
politicians protefred againft this disjunction of the foums from the domicil' 
the burgh Jbould be defirted of its inhabitants; an opinion fanetioned l" 
acts of the Town Council, recorded in the To-iii's hooks, declaring any one it- 
famous who fhould propofe focJi a meafure. A curious mode, : ' 
population, to preferre TcfpeftabiKty tothc burgh ; though, perhaps, upon 
with other entails of land, intended to preferve confer:: 1 
family name*, merely, or as defig native of rank. 



NOTE D. 309 



Cbara&er of the Farmer. 

The origin of profeffional farmers, as conftituting a diflinct 
clafs in focicty, is not to be attributed to any artificial regula- 
tion of political contrivance ; it is an arrangement that muft 
neceffarily take place, in toe natural courfe of tilings ; and that 
hath therefore exifted, in every age and nation, fo foon as men 
have emerged from the Jack-cf-all-trades ftate of favagifm, and 
attained to any degree of civilization. In proportion as civili- 
zation advances, through the effecl:, and as the additional caufe 
of the proper fubdivifion of employment, the prorcffion of the 
farmer has become more and more exclufive, appropriate, and 
diftinft. 

In the progrefs of civilization, under the protection of laws, 
or cuftoms equivalent to law, fecuring property in its acquifi- 
tion, enjoyment, and tranfmiffion, two diilinct defcriptions of 
perfons will arife, into which every fociety may be divided ; 
thofe ivhofe fortunes are already made, and thole nvhe have their 
fortunes to make : The firft trained to habits of enjoyment, rather 
than to thofe of acquifition ; tire fecond to habits of acquifition, 
more than to thofe of enjoyment : The firft comprehending the 
landed and the monied intereft ; the fecond comprehending thofe 
who have not equal property in land, or in money, and who 
are willing tor give rent, or intereft, for the ufe of the one cr 
the other, which they pay out of the profits refulting to them 
Frcyn their fkilful and induftrious ufe of either : Tliefe, again, 
employ under them, all mannei : -labourers, and artificers. 
The two clafles are deftined to be mutually fubfervient to each 
other: They are, indeed, mutually indifpenfable to cadi other's 
exiftence *. In thofe born to opulence and independence, 
and trained up to the proper enjoyment of a fortune^ the fame 
adventurous ipirit of enterprize, or induftry, or mil 

.ntiou 



* Nothing could be more abfurd, than the Jacobinical attempts of repitfcat 

the firft of thefc clafles as a nuifance ill foci G. 



3IO NOTE D. 

attention to oeconomy, in the acquisition of gain, are not to be 
expecled, as in thofe who have their fortunes to make : And 
:t is happily fo ordered, to preferve forne fort of equality in the 
conditions of men, and to give their chance of rifing in the 
world to thofe in more poor circumftances ; otherwife, thofe in 
obfcure fituations, could never poflibly emerge from their ob- 
fcurity, if they had to compete againft equal induftry, joined 
to the advantage, of which they are deftitute, the poffemon of 
wealth : But, in the ordinary routine of human affairs, poverty 
begets induftry; induftry, riches; and riches, when long enjoyed, 
and the habits by which they were obtained forgotten, leads 
to that prodigal profufion, which terminates in poverty; — when 
the rotation recommences. Meantime, men of {kill and enter- 
prize, but deftitute of capital, are accommodated with the ufe 
of land, or of money, by thofe poflefled of fortunes in either ; 
whilft the latter are equally accommodated by the former, who 
enable them to live at eafe, by maring with them the profits, 
in name of intereft, or of rent, which they were enabled to 
make by their induftry, through the loan or hire of money, or 
of land. It is not from mutual attachment, but from mutual 
need of each other, that thefe two clafles are fubfervient to 
each other's intereft : It is not from any view to the other's 
accommodation, that the monied, or landed proprietors, grant 
the ufe of their money, or land, to the man of {kill and enter- 
prize ; but becaufe, with their habits, they receive more from 
him, in fliaring his profits, in the name of intereft or of rent, 
than what they could obtain, by directing, themfelves, the out- 
lay of their monied capital, or overfeeing the cultivation of 
their own foil : It is not from any defire of obliging the mo- 
nied, or the landed capitalifts, that the man of enterprise con- 
fents to fhare with them in the fruits of his induftry, in fuper- 
intending the proper profitable ufe of their money, or their 
land ; but becaufe, without the ufe of land, or of money, his 
fkill and induftry could be turned to no account. The fame 
obfervation is equally applicable to the mutual accommodation 
of thofe who employ labourers, and thofe who give their ma- 
r.'.ial labour for hire : The former give employment to the lat- 
ter 



NOTE D. lit 

ter, becaufe, without their labour, neither Mock nor land could 
be turned to any profitable account ; and the latter, labour for 
hire, to the former, becaufe they need their maintenance to 
be daily, or at fhort periods, advanced to them in wages ; be* 
ing unable, for want of ftock, to await the ultimate return of 
the product of their labour. The benevolent intention of mu- 
tual accommodation, is, in the general, director of nature ; not 
in thofe who are thus mutually fubfervient to the accommoda- 
tion of each other — though the practice of mutual accommo- 
dation has, by the ordination of nature's Author, a ftrong ten- 
dency to beget fentiments of mutual good-Will *. 

In an induftrious Mate of fociety, though the whole mem- 
bers are thus mutually fubfervient \ it is not, through the fub- 
ferviency of gratuitous donation on the one hand, and fervile 
obligation upon the other ; but through the fubferviency of the 
interchange of equivalent values -, by which, in the midlt of mu- 
tual dependence, in one fenfe, they are mutually independent, 
in another. 

To return, however, from this digrefiion, which, I pre- 
fume, will not be confidered as very foreign to the fubje£t •, 
the character of the independent country gentleman, the pro- 
prietor of land, Hands clearly diftinguiihable, upon the prin- 
ciples laid down, from that of the farmer who rents land for 
hire. 

Independence is, no doubt, a relative idea. The country- 
gentleman, however, who, either wifely (in consideration of 
the general ftandard of wealthinefs), or foolifhly, confiders him- 
felf as independent, is not at all likely to acquire that character, 
and thofe habits, that mall fit him to become a very fuccefsful 
cultivator of the foil. From his fituation, he is bad under a 
refponfibility ; and from the education, and habits fuited to his 
fituation, he is fuppofed to poiTefs that liberality of mind, and 
extension of views — that public fpirit, and difengagement from 
the contracted purfuit of private emolument, which point him 

cut 



* The good- will produced by interchange of mutual accommodation, 
preflcd, in Latin, by one word, neccjfitudo. 



012 S0TE £). 

out as proper to be entruded with, and as having mod leifure 
to manage, meafures of public concern : Hence a variety of du- 
ties are impofed upon him, which mud neceiTarily occupy a 
considerable flrare of his attention, if he would wifh to pre- 
ferve his proper refpectability. He lives upon an income, the 
extent of which is publicly known ; and, from the publicity of 
his income, a certain fuitable expence in his dyle of living, is 
exacted of him, by cudom and fafhion. From the numberlefs 
avocations to which he is thus neceiTarily expofed, in the dif- 
charge of his public duties, and in his focial intercourfe, he 
cannot be fuppofed to beftow that habitual and minute atten- 
tion, fo indiipenfable to fuccefsful hufbandry : That penurious 
attention to all the minutie. of ceconomy, which fo well fuit the 
profeffional firmer, would, in his fituation, be even degrading. 
Neither can he remedy thofe deliciencies, arifing from his fitua- 
tion and confonant habits, by the fubditution of an overfeer : 
For, admitting the latter to be as active, fkilful, and honed, 
as can well be fuppofed, it is not in nature to expect from him, 
as acihig for another's intereji t and at another's rijk> the fame 
drenuoud exertion, with the fame attention to ceconomy in ex- 
pence, as what may be reafonably expected from the profef- 
fional farmer, atling for his own iniertjl^ and at his onvn rifk ,- 
when, from proper duration, and ether fecurity of his tenure 
of pofleffion, he is certain of reaping the whole profit of 
the utmod exertion of his fkill, induftry, and ceconomy, in the 
proper outlay of his dock *. But, further, the funds for im- 
provement, in the hands of the independent country gentle- 
man, mud, in general, be extremely limited. From the rate 
of living, impofed upon him by fafhion, in his odcnfible fitua- 
tion ', from the ambition of didinction, which even the mod 
prudent can hardly reftrain within the bounds proportioned to 
their means •, from all the habits afiumed in an independent fi- 
tuation, in which he hath been taught to confider it as his bu- 
finefs to enjoy) rather than to acquire; from all thefe circum- 

dances, 



* Profeffional farmers fimttimcs complain of the vicinity of gentlemen ini- 
i , the idlenefs of the letter's fei v'aiits being iou:iJ epntagious. 



NOTE D. 313 

fiances, his favings, from his annual revenue, can be but in- 
confiderable. Inconfiderable as are thefe favings, they, how- 
ever,, conftitute the only fund which he is inclined to riik upon 
agricultural improvement* He fcruples to borrow money for 
this purpoie ; becaufe it is feldom found that his improvements 
make a fuitable return ; for, though he often does excel in 
theoretical knowledge, his practical {kill mult ever come far 
ihort of that of the profeiuonal farmer : He is univerfally, too, 
confidered as an eafy and a lawful prey to all thofe in his em- 
ploy ; nor is he poiTeffed of that Uriel:, unremitting attention, 
which h ncceiTary to his felf-defence : His fchemes are there- 
fore executed, at an over-proportioned expence ; and, for want 
of practical Ikill in direction, and, ftill more, of ceconomy in 
execution, his return of profit is feldom adequate to his ex- 
pence of outlay*. The habits, of his ftation lead him alfo to 
attach himfelf to t 7, as much as to vfcfal and profitable 

improvements ; the former being, in the univerfal mode of 
thinking, that tife of money which fuits thofe born to inde- 
pendence ; and whofe minds, in the courfe of an education 
fuited to their circumftances, may be fuppofed to have imbibed 
a relifh for the liberal arts. Even to borrow money for the 
purpofes — of ornamental architecture — -of dreiTmg up a lawn— 
of placing here a piece of water, and there an artificial ruin for 
a vifto : Even to borrow for fuch purpofes, is not judged pie- 
pofterous ; though no return of profit is, in any ihape, ex- 
petted. 

If, even when the mind is ftotcd v, it«li all the acquisitions, 
and the energy, that c.;n render a date of independent fortune 
moft highly reipectablc, little, iucceis is to be expected from 
the proprietor's cultivation of Ins own foil : What can poilibly 
be expected, when independent fortune pleads privilege oi 
worthlefs infignificanice ; and the power of enjoyment displays 
itfplf in mere debafing and itupifying fenfuality ? 

S s The 



* It U proverbial in thi and piobably every where befidei, ' That a 

■Zonal farma rd, as rent, the whole farmers profit ■, rea| 1 

-. Ln Is, akin n.'.'i hfl has no rent to pay.' 



314 



not£ £)'. 



Tlie farming moft fuited to the ftation, and congenial to 
the proper habits of the refpe&able independent country gen- 
tleman, would feem to be great outline improvements — beneficial, 
not to firigle farms alone, but to a whole eftate ; and in which, 
farmers, having intereft merely in fingle farms, will not, of 
courfe, fo immediately intereft themfelves; leaving the detaib 
to be filled up by the particular profeffional farmers, who have 
an immediate intereft in their execution. The only detail farm- 
ing, fuited to the independent country gentleman, is experimental 
farmings for the purpofes of invention, or of verification •, con- 
dueled, too, upon a fcale that could involve no important con- 
fequences : That minute attention and ceconomy, which would 
degrade him, if applied (like thofe of the profeffional farmer) 
for the mere purpofes of gain, would do him credit in con- 
dueling experiments, producing refults of general utility. It 
is not, indeed, to be expected, that the inventions of the gentle- 
man farmer mould be immediately adopted ; nor is it fit they 
mould s "What is perfectly ascertained as ufeful, will, neverthe- 
lefs, fooner or later, force its way into practice. 

The character of the profeffional farmer is, from the oppo- 
fite nature of his circumftances and fituation, formed in generic 
diftinction,. to that of the independent landed proprietor. 

Having to acquire, not to enjoy, a fortune, his faculties are 
iharpened by neceffity •, his whole energy is called forth, as he 
mult either do or die - y his attention is ever alive to the moft 
minute details, that can contribute, in any way, to his purpofe. 
In this manner, like all other profeffionalifts, he acquires more 
perfect practical (kill in the bufinefs of his profeffion ) his plans 
are laid down with judgement, conducted with accuracy, 
and with the moft minute attention to ceconomy in expence. 
Subjected to almoit no public duties, his attention is not di- 
ftracted from the peculiar bufinefs of his profeffion ; he can 
perfonally ovcrfee every operation, and attend to the whole de- 
tail of practical oeconomv. Like as with all thofe who live 
upon profit, his income is unknown ; and no particular rate of 
living is exacted of him, by cultom and faihion : If his rent, 
then, is fufficiently moderate, and his encouragement to induf- 

try 



NOTE D. 315 

try otherwife proper, his annual favings may amount to much 
more in proportion to the produce of his farm, than thofe of 
the independent country gentleman in proportion to the rents 
of his eftate. And as his habits' are formed, not to enjoyment, 
but to acquifition, thefe favings are neither devoted to orna- 
ment, nor other expence of living, but are added to his farm- 
ing capital ; which he would certainly rather employ himielf, 
in the way of his profeffion, to the fuperior or more extended 
cultivation of the foil, that he might reap farmer's profit, than 
lend it to other profeflionalifts, who could afford him only com- 
man interejl. From the duft thefe favings arofe, and to the 
duft they have a natural tendency to return. Unlike to the in- 
dependent proprietor, he can even, with fafety, borrow money 
for the purpofes of agricultural improvement ; as, under his 
©economical application, capital may reach to double extent of 
efficacy *. 

The 



* A prejudice feems generally prevalent againrt: the expediency of a tenant 
farming opon a borrowed capital. In the reafon of the thing, were this fubjecl 
placed upon a proper footing, there feems no fufficient caufe, why the borrowing 
of money fhould be more inconfirtent with this profeffion, than with that of other 
gainful profeffions, requiring the outlay of capital. 

Indeed, the ridiculous abfurdity of the retention of the dcLSlus p:rfon<e, a right 
fo highly favoured by the feudal conrtrutiion of Scotiih law, together with equally 
ahfurd articles voluntarily covenanted — all tending to prevent the tenant's interest 
in the foil, by his leafe, from being an article in commercio ; mnft neceffariiy pre- 
clude the tenant from obtaining money to borrow, by difabling him to offer any 
proper fecurity to his creditors ; muft even, in many cafes, difcourage him from 
the free outlay of his own capital ; and muft operate to the difcourngeme.nt of his 
credit and exertions, as entails do to thofe of tl*e landed proprietor. There is a 
general complaint of deficiency of capita! inverted in agriculture: This deficiency 
feems not., however, to originate in any thing peculiar to agriculture, making it an 
object of particular antipathy to credit; but to iuch abfurd obltrucrions to agricul- 
tural credit, as arife from artificial regulation; which tend to banilli capital from 
agriculture, into other kinds of irvertiture, under which it remains more fecuicly 
in the power of its proprietor ; rertridYsug the extent of invert ment of capital in 
agriculture to that of thofe who have been trained to agriculture as their peculiar 
profedion, anl who follow it out from habit as much as in view of intercrt. 

Farmers are, at all events, difadvantageonfly fituated as to borrowing money. 
Jlonied men generally prefer, for their f:at of reficjence, the fociety of great towns s 

the 



3 1<5 NOTE D. 

The general improvement of the productive value of the 
lands, muft, for thefe reafons, depend much more upon die 
exertions of profeffional fanners, than upon thofe of independ- 
ent landed proprietors. 

But thefe exertions will fteceflarily depend upon the encou- 
ragement given to exertion, from the fecurity of reaping its 
fruits. And as, in Scotland, no indirecf fecurity is polleffed by 
the tenant, in the way of his political influence ; his fecurity 
muft direStlx arife from the legal or conventional conditions of 
his tenure of pofTeffion *. This leads to the confideration of 

Lcafes. 

This tenure of the farmer's poffefuon may he confidered 
under three points of view,, viz. Its duration : The extent of 
the right of property in it, during its continuance : And the 
extent of the ufe of the foil, communicated by it. 

T/?, Duration of the Leafe. — The fhorteft poffible period of 
duration, to which the cultivator of the foil can be circumfcrib- 
ed, even though he is retained as a mere tenant at will, muft 
jrjlow him at lead the fecurity of one year's pofleffion •, elfe he 
could have no fufucknt inducement, to lead him to make jpre- 
tionj even for a tingle crop, by merely tilling and fowing 
the land f. 

the natural rtfidence of merchants and manufacturers : They, of courfe, get ac- 
quainted with pcrfo.is of thefe claflcs, ard place confidence in them : They car) 
have lefs interccurfe with farmers, who necefiarily live difperfed. Why then, ar- 
tificially, increafe this natural difadvantaee as to credit ? 

The farmer rpon Neidpath eftat'j, who, in the leaf) * i rr. c , has executed the 
grcatefr quantity of permanent improvement upon his farm, Logan his farming 
career about 30 years ago, without a capital of his own ; or, at leaft, with one no 
way adequate to the extent of his undertaking. His 1 , ed, have ever been 
of that long duration, which, even in the eye of law, implies the dereliction of the 
proprietor's inherent right tf dt!<.il::t ferfon<e : His credit therefore was good 5 he 
could pledgfhis leafe in fecurity ; and his creditors couid fell, to the hightft bidder, 
the riveifion of his right in the foil, enriched by the fixture of their capital. 

* See fubfcquent note E. 

1 ,: -. ! etnpri re we are Informed, that, in Morocco, the lands all belong to 
ndcring Arabs (when they find it convenient, in refpec'fc 



NOTE D. H7 

The moft important agricultural improvements are of flow 
return •, the capital, meanwhile advanced in effecting them, 
mult be fairly fixed in the foil ; whence it cannot be with- 
drawn at once, but gradually, in the profits of each fucceeding 
vcar ; and not entirely, till the expiration of that period which 
had been held in contemplation when they were made. If we 
attend to the complicated farming operations, necefTary to 
bring the lands to their highe't itate of production, but which 
yield no immediate advantage adequate to the expence of their 
execution — fuch as, breaking up of wafte lands, with fallow- 
ing and liming — reducing the farm into a connected fyftem of 
fubferviency, by regular rotation of pafture and tillage — im- 
provement of breeds of cattle, &c. particularly if we take into 
the account, the expenfive operations of draining, enclofure, 
and accommodation of houfes — then fome idea may be form- 
ed of the extent of ieafe necefTary to give the tenant a fulH- 
cient intereft in the execution of fuch pemanent improve- 
ments. 

Let the tenant poffefs at a rent not over racked •, and let 
his leafe be of fuch extent of duration, that the advance of his 
capita], and of his favings, and of what capital he has credit 
to borrow, in executing improvements cf the moft permanent 
duration, fnall afford a profped! of better return, than under 
any other mode of their application ; and fuch improvements 
will immediately be fecured, much mere effectually, than by 
any fyftem of compuifatory regulations*. Under his frugal 

management, 

of pafluring their cattle, to pitch their tents in any particular difhict, for fuch 
length of time, as to allow them to wait for the return of a crop) plough and fow 
what quantity they pleafe ; the officers of the Crown go through the country, af- 
ter harveft, and collect the tenth of the produce, in name of the Emperor's rent. 
It were to be wifhed, that our travellers, in ft cad of confining their obfervations to 
the manners of cities, and the revolutions of political power, would attend to the 
moral excitements held out to agricultural irvtidry, in the various tenures of pof- 
illlirn bellowed upon the actual cultivators of the foil : — the fuhjeel is, at kali, 
equally intercfting. 

* Witnefs the improvements ori the Ncidpath eftate (p. io>i, etfcfxehiia, of the 
Report}. 

la 



31S NOTE D. 

management, too, annual favings would foon accumulate into 
a new capital ; which, in his judicious and ceconomical mode 
of application, will go much farther in improving the produc- 
tive value of the lands, than a much larger capital under the 
more lavifh expenditure of the independent proprietor; where 
alfo the application fo often tends to deviate from ufe to orna- 
ment. 

The advantage of improving quickly, with a large capital, 
and the whole farm at once, rather than flowly, gradually, 
and partially, as ftock {hall accumulate by degrees in the 
hands of the improver, is exceedingly obvious. But, where 
are fuch capitals to be found, as would at once reach to the 
extent of the improvement of a whole unimproved diftricl: ? 
Capital can alone be created from favings : according to the 
Scots proverb, the ground mufl build the dike. Proprietors might, 
no doubt, pledge their lands, in fecurity of fuch capital as 
they might borrow ; but capital is not to be had, to ferve all 
the purpofes for which it might be wanted. Upon proper 
encouragement of farming induftry, it would gradually accu- 
mulate in the hands of the tenantry, to ferve every agricultu- 
ral purpofe. 

The intereft of the tenant, the proprietor, and the public, 
if well underftood, are ultimately the fame: vi2. that the te* 
riant, tinder every proper encouragement f Jhould be excited to the im- 
provement of the productive value of the lands. But, in regard to 
the duration of the leafe, the intereft of the tenant and die pro- 
prietor are, in appearance, immediately at variance. 

It is, without doubt, the immediate intereft of the proprie- 
tor, to let his lands at the higheft poflible rent — to have them 
brought, during the leafe, to their higheft pollible cultivation, 
by the exertions of the tenant's induftry, and the outlay of his 
capital — and to feize upon thefe advantages as fpeedily as may 

be, 



In an age of awakened induftry, enlightened, too, by more interchange of com- 
munication, nothing icems awanting, but proper moral excitement. The torpor 
that prevailed in Scotland till within thefe jo years, may be, in part, afcribed to 
■ - j-cr.cral ignorance; but partly alfo, no doubt, to the debit/id ftate of the tc* 
•, in refpe£t of their tenures. 



tfOTE D. 3ICJ 

be, by granting the (horteft leafe that a tenant can be found 
to accept of; and even that expofed to various chances of for- 
feiture. Such fhort-fighted avarice mud, however, overreach 
itfelf, and neceflarily defeat its own end ; as advantages, that 
can only be reaped through the voluntary co-operation of 
others, cannot, in reafon, be expected, where the advantage is 
not mutual. If the rent is too much racked, or the duration 
of the leafe too fhort to encourage induftry or outlay, no fuch 
advantages can arife ; and the tenant's folly or obftinacy may 
be very abfurdly blamed, when he merely refrains from doing 
what he has no intereft to do ; where, with more juftice, the 
blame might be imputed to the narrow-minded and illiberal 
policy of the proprietor. The proprietor has it more in his 
power to let his lands in what manner he will ; the tenant is 
more under neceflity of receiving them upon fuch conditions 
as can be obtained. 

To think of fupplying the tenant's want of intereft, by 
compulfion in his leafe, is as idle, as to think of extorting, by 
the whip, from flaves, the fame ftrenuous exertions as may be 
excited in free men, when paid in proportion to the work they 
perform. All compulfory regulations enforcing improvements, 
in which the tenant enjoys not his equal ihare of advantage, 
will neceflarily by him be evaded, or reftricted within the 
mod confined fenfe of the letter — a difinterefted regard to the 
public good, being as little to be expected in this clafs, or lefs 
fo, than in that of their fuperiors. But, fuppofmg that fupe- 
rior cultivation could thus be enforced by regulation, without 
imparting to the tenant a proper fhare of the advantage, and 
that the immediate advantage refted all with the proprietor ; 
the advantage accruing to the latter would, ultimately, prove 
to have been more apparent than real : For, if the tenant had 
been admitted to his proper fhare of the immediate profit, it 
would not have been diflipated ; but would have accumulated, 
in his ceconomical hands, into an addition of capital; enabling 
him, in proportion to his increafe of (lock, to afford more 
rent for land, upon which it might be profitably occupied. 

It i3 not eafy to determine wjiat is the proper duration of 
z leafe. It may, with propriety, be fnorter upon a farm aire?.- 

dy 



320 NOTE D. 

dy improved, where immediate profit is reaped by the tenant, 
without much expence of outlay. It Teems probable, that, 
with few exceptions, the error through Scotland has lain, 
hitherto, in too fliort duration. There is certainly, however, 
a juil medium of endurance, if it could be hit upon, neceffary 
to preferve the tenant in his proper ufeful character. Upon 
a leafe of exceffive length, though the original leffee might re- 
tain the profeilional habits in which he had been trained, even 
after he had accumulated confiderable wealth ; yet his fuc- 
celTors might be tempted, however awkwardly at firft, to at- 
fume the manners of thofe bom to independence -, to com- 
mence gentlemen ; and, of courfe, to degenerate in their 
farming capacity. When fuch revolution of character does 
take place, public utility, as well as the intereft of all concern- 
ed, requires, that the farm were in better hands. It would 
pafs into better hands, if there is no claufe debarring afligna- 
tion or fubfet •, as a farmer of the true breed, poffeffmg the 
true profefiional character, could afford to give him more rent 
for his farm, than, with his new affumed character, he could 
make of it by farming it himfelf. The grudge at feeing a 
profit thus made of his lands, in which he does not mare, is, 
with fome proprietors, a reafon for preventing the power of 
fubfet \ but the lands could never have become worth fo 
much, had they not been fo held by the tenant, that a profit 
could be made from them, in which the proprietor could not 
ihare. 

After all, though long leafes can alone, without doubt, 
lead to improvements of permanent duration; and to the 
greater quantity of fuch improvements, in proportion as capi- 
tal, under the adminifhration of the tenant, will go much far- 
ther than in any other hands : yet, neverthelefs, towards the 
clofe of every leafe, there mud be an unimproving interval, 
during which, all attempts at melioration on the part of the 
tenant muft ceafe ; and where the compuKion of regulation, 
under penalty, muft be fubllituted to the fpur of fclf-intereit 
in the tenant, to enforce melioration, or to prevent deteriora- 
tion- 



note D. 3Z r 

lion. — A weak and Inefficient fucccdiu:enm % whdfe effe£fc will 
ever be attempted to be declined and evaded. 

To remedy this defect, Lord Kaimes (probably the fir ft 
who has conlidered farming in the view of its proper moral 
excitements) has fuggefted the indefinite, or perpetual leafe. 
He proposes, that the tenant fhould poffefs the farm at a rent 
certain, and for a term of years certain (fuppofe 20 years) 5 
after the expiry of this flrft term of years, that the tenant 
fhould continue to poffefs for a fecond term of 20 years, the 
rent for this fecond period to be advanced in a fpecified pro- 
portion (for example, to one third part more than for the firft 
20); and fo to continue, from 20 years to 20 years, upon 
proportional rifes of rent, ad infinitum — with fucceffion, un- 
doubtedly, to heirs, and liberty of alienation ; without which, 
even this leafe could prove no proper inducement to induftry. 
As, however, at the end of any of thefe 20 years periods, it 
may fo happen, that the tenant fhall judge the fpecified rife of 
rent too much for him to pay •, or the landlord fhall judge it 
too little for him to accept of: It is therefore farther propofed, 
that it fhall be optional to either party to vacate the leafe at 
that period, upon giving twelve months notice to the other ; 
when the farm fhall be laid open to the competition of bid- 
ders-, with this provifion, in favour of the prefent tenant, 
" that he fhall be at full liberty to bid for the farm ; and that 
either his offer fhall be accepted, or otherwife he fhall receive 
from the proprietor fo many years (fuppofe 15 years) purchafe 
of the advance of rent offered by him ; " it being left optional 
to the proprietor to do either, left the tenant fhould offer ad- 
vance merely with a view to the purchafe-money. 

In this manner, the proprietor would be certain, at mode- 
rate intervals, of receiving a rent adequate to the improved 
value of his fubject (at leaft, if proper provision in the rifes 
could be made to correfpond, not merely to the money price 
of the improvement at the time of fixing the provifion, but 
making allowance for the eventual variation in the value of 
money *) ; whilft the tenant, meanwhile, would be eucourag- 

T t ed 

* Perhaps, this could not be done, but Gy rraking the rent in grain. (S«e 
p. 86. of the Report.) 



322 X0TE D", 

ed to go on improving to the very end of his leafe, under the' 
certainty of either receiving back the farm at fuch a rent as 
he could readily afford, or of obtaining an adequate compen- 
fation, if another were preferred to the leafe. 

Befides the difficulty of fixing the rifes of rent at the end 
of each of the 20 year periods, fo as to keep (in a money rent) 
due proportion to the eventual value of money, other difficul- 
ties prefent themfelves, as to this effort of Lord Kaimes at 
the idea of a perfect fyftem of continual moral excitement to 
the tenant's induftry. 

iwo, As, under this fyftem, the farm is locked up, ad in- 
jinitum, againfl alteration j it muft have been fo perfectly con- 
ftru£led,as to its fize, for the moft profitable occupation, as to 
need no alteration in this refpedt. ; otherwife, this advantage 
can never afterwards be obtained. But how is this to be per- 
fectly forefeen ? 

2cio, All improvements of the eftate at large, to which it 
might very probably be neceffary to facrifice the particular in- 
tereft of this fingle farm, are precluded, from the unalterable 
nature of its conftitution. 

^tio, All chance of its undergoing the ornamental improve* 
meats, at the leaft, which fuit an abfolute and perpetual pro- 
prietor, are excluded ; as it can never fall out of leafe. 

The extent of the right of property in his leaft; which is com- 
municated to the tenant, falls next to be confidered. 

The univerfal prejudice in regard to the propriety of cramp- 
ing, fhackling, and circumfcribing the extent of the tenant's 
right of property in his leafe, through the proprietor's reten- 
tion of the right of delectus perjbna in the tenant, by which the 
latter is deprive I of the power of alienation of his right of 
leafe, has been already adverted to in Note B. It hath origi- 
nated in that particular cafl of thinking, which has been im- 
preffed upon us, through familiarization with the ufages of the 
feudal law •, which would lead us to force into an unnatural an- 
alogy with thefe ufages, a fubje£t, which bears no fort of re- 
ference to feudalifm, and which ought to be regulated upon 
principles diametrically oppofite. 

Had 



NOTE D. 



323 



Had there been any propriety in enforcing, in regard to cuU 
iivating tenantry, the fame perfect dependence upon the pro- 
prietor, as, in times of turbulence, was necefiarily enforced in 
military tenantry, upon their military chief ; then, the cultivat- 
ing tenant ought never to have obtained the fmallcft degree of 
emancipation — he ought to have been retained as a mere tenant 
at will : The cultivating tenant of one property-chieftain ought 
never to have been forced upon the acceptance of another pro- 
perty-chieftain ; and the act 1446 was an iniquitous encroach- 
ment upon the inherent, inalienable rights of delectus perfona of 
heirs and of fmgular iuccerTors : The cultivating ufufructuary 
tenant ought, like the military tenant, to have been ever confi- 
dered as identified with his mailer ; and ought to have continu- 
ed anfwerable for his debts, as the ether for his depredations : 
And the act 1466, relieving him from fuch reiponfibility, mull 
alfo be confidered as a violent and iniquitous interference, diffe- 
vering a connexion which ufage had imprefTed with tlie cha- 
racter of nature. 

The principles applicable to a military tenant, are as oppo- 
fite to thofe applicable to a cultivating tenant, as the principles 
which regulate fighting, are to thofe which regulate induftry. 
Abfolute defpotic rule is alone fuited to the foldier ; but indu- 
llry is extinguifhed by its touch. When the cultivator of the 
foil was fitted to become a farmer, properly fo called, (cultivate 
ing the foil, at his own rifk, by the outlay of his own flock, 
and paying rent to the proprietor for the ufe of his foil), it was 
found indifpenfably necelTary to depart from military maxims, 
under which the tenant's induftry could not poiTrbly thrive ; 
and accordingly, the fecurity of the acts 1446 and 1466 were 
extended to him. 

Still, however, die fecurity of the cultivating tenant is, 
through the ridiculous adherence to the jus delectus, very far 
from being fo full, as what is found neceflary to encourage in- 
duftry in other profefiions, requiring, like his, the ihduftrious 
outlay of a capital. 

Suppofe a tenant holding a Ieafe, which is not of that long 
duration, which, ipfo facia, implies the relinquifhment of the 
jus delectus ; and fuppofing lie has no children ; and fuppofing 

that 



324 NOTE D. 

that his heirs are perfons whom he docs not love, or whom he 
hates : If he (hall fix his capital in improvements of the foil, 
he cannot devife it to whom he will, as he has no power of 
alienating his leafe to whom he pleafes ; but the right of leafe 
to the farm, together with the capital he had fixed in it, is 
thus carried, by a fort of entail, to heirs for whom he has no re- 
gard. Is it fuppofeable, under fuch circumfkmces, that the te- 
nant will ever fo fix his capital ? Will he not rather retain ft 
under his immediate pofleffion, and fubject to his own devife- 
ment ? He will be equally barren of improvement, as an heir 
of an entailed eftate, fimilarly fituated in point of connexion ' y 
having, like him, but a mere liferent intereft in the fubject. 
(See page 35, and foot note, page 105.) 

Or, fuppofing a tenant upon a leafe, fubject. to the embar- 
go of the jus deleEluS) has no family but a daughter : What 
rational inducement can he have to fink money upon the im- 
provement of his farm ; when, after his death, his daugh- 
ter mud either remain fmgle ; or, if me marries, mud incur 
a forfeiture of the leafe, through the abfurd fyftem adopted 
in Scotilh law, of forcing the incongruous fubjecls of tenures 
for the purpofes of fighting and of mduftry, into analogy ? 
(See page 297.) 

Or, fuppofing a tenant to have a family of fons ; as we are 
not yet arrived at the high civilization of being aflortcd by law 
or cufLom into cafts (fee foot-note, page 254), it is very 
bable none of the fons may choofe to follow their father'-, 
profefiion ; but may have all fettled thcmfelves in- more lucra- 
tive employments, which they ceuid not relinquifh, without: 
great lofs, in order to take up the occupancy of the fathei'a 
\zz.{z> by fucccfiion after his death. Would any father, pof- 
fefl'ed of common fenfe, or common affection, in fuch cir- 
cumflances, launch cut more upon his farm, than what he 
had a profpect of reaping full advantage from during his own 
'.-■ —when he knows, that, upon the event of his death, his 
Ions are debarred, by the jus chkBuSy from reaping the profits 
of a liberal outlay, by difpofing of the reverfion of the leafe 
to the bell bidder'-, and that they mult cither difpofe cf it, by 
rclinqvifhing it to the proprietor lev nothing, or for any thing 

he 



MOTE D. 325 

he pleafes to allow ; or otherwife continue themfelves the 
poffeffion, under the unprofitable management of an overfeer, 
adling at their rifk, and without any intereft of his own at 
flake * ? 

In all thefe inftances, whatever may be the fecurity of du- 
ration, nominally fpecified in the terms of the tack, the real in- 
terejl of the tenant amounts, in effect, to no more, through 
the operation of theyz/j - dekclus^ than a mere liferent intereft. 

Through the operation of the jus dele&us, the tenant is, in 
a manner, an adfcriptus gleba ; he cannot lid himfelf of his 
leafe to the beft bidder, fo as to recover the capital he had 
fixed in the foil, when a move lucrative profeflion opens to 
him; or when he might have the opportunity of transferring 
his fuperior ikill, and induftry, and capital, with the gresteft 
advantage to himfelf, and alfo to the public at large, to feme 
other farm, in fome lefs improved diftricft ; where fuperior 
profits might be made, from the incapacity of inferior im- 
provers to compete with him in offers of rent, and where his 
example might be of general benefit. 

In other profeffions, it would certainly be cenfidered as a 
moil prepofterous mode of improvement, to force capitals to 
remain where they were once fixed, or induftry to continue 
to be employed about the identical fuhjecl to which it was 
fir ft applied. What could we judge of regulations of trade, 
which fhould bind the trader to the continued occupation of 
the fame herring-bufs, or Weft Inciiaman ; or the merchant 
to the fame fhep ; or the manufacturer to the perfonal occu- 
pation of his cotton-mill ? 

Induftry retains unirerfally the fame character : its proper 
excitement, to whatever fubject applied, is fecurity and free- 
dom. 



* A cafe of this kind occurred lately in the farm of Blythbank, in Linton pa- 
r:fh. A fpiiited farmer, who had laid out great expence in melioration, died at 
an early period of his leafe. His heirs, oil a wife engaged, could not take up the 
occupancy ; and the proprietor, had he ufed the powers of his jus dtk&a, might 
have had the leafe given up for an old fong : tie gencioufly allowed them to dii- 
pofe of it to the beft bidder. Where, however, is the encouragement to improve- 
ment, when the riik of forfeiture is only avoided through forbearance of the land- 
lord. ? 



325 NOTE D. 

dom. If there is a reluctance againft the inveftiture of capital 
in agriculture ; if capital more freely directs itfelf to inveftiture 
in manufactures or trade, the reafon I mould conceive to be 
extremely obvious. Capital will ever more readily be directed 
to thofe employments where it enjoys moft freedom and fecu- 
rity, where it remains moft at the free difpofal of its proprie- 
tor, and where it incurs leaft rifk of forfeiture. 

In the a£ts 1446 & 1466, the Scotifh Parliament broke through 
the analogy of fcudamm, in favour of the fecurity of capital 
invefted in agriculture : Nor would it appear a very great 
flretch of power, in the Imperial Parliament, to break through 
the analogy of the military deleilus, by declaring an unaihgn- 
able, inalienable leafe (excepting, perhaps, in a very few fpe- 
eified caies) to be a prelum illicitum — that every encourage- 
ment might be held out to the invefting of capital in agricul- 
ture, by rendering it equally unfettered, as to life and trans- 
ference, when fo invefted, and equally fecure againft rifk of for- 
feiture, as when invefted in any other induftrious occupation. 

For obvious reafons, Parliament will ever be reluctant a- 
gainft interfering with the free ufe, or even abufe, to a certain 
extent, of property. And every reftraint of this kind upon 
agricultural induftry might be removed, by the terms of bar- 
gain, by landed proprietors ; who might exprefsly renounce the 
jus deletlus, confidered as inherent in them, in the eye of law •, 
— unleis, indeed, poiTefhng heirs of entail might be confidered, 
in fo doing, as acting ultra vires, in thus trenching upon the 
inherent prerogative of the heirs of provifion of the entail. 

In many cafes, the jus ddeclus mult operate, in the ftrongeft 
manner, in refh-aining the tenant from ever fixing his own ca- 
pital in the foil : in all cafes, it mult militate againft agricul- 
tural credit. Where the leafe is cvictabie at law by creditors, 
this entitles them, not to difpofe of it by fale to die higheft 
bidder, but merely to adminiftrate for the tenant. Farmers 
might do fo, though with conliderable inconvenience : monicd 
men, not profeffional farmers, might ruin themfelves by fuch 

iniftration. But where the proprietor debar:; all affigna- 
tion, whether legal or voluntary (a folly, of which, it feems, 
.'hey are fuppofed capable^ as the law makes provifion for the 

cafe) : 



NOTE D. 327 

cafe) ; even tins recourfe, for the money lent to the farmer, is 
denied. Under the reftraints of the delectus, a monied man 
would jult be as fcrupulous of lending money to a farmer^ 
upon fecurity cf his leafe, as to a pofTe fling heir of entail up- 
on fecurity of his eftate. [See foot -note, page 315.) — The latter 
will, in general, more eafily obtain credit, from his real or fup- 
pofed political influence ; through the deluhve influence of 
which upon expectation, the lender may fwindle himfelf out 
of his money, relying upon a fecurity of repayment, which 
has no exiftence but in his own imagination. 

The reafons why leafes fhould ever be completely alienable, 
like every other fpecies of property upon which capital is 
launched out, are abundantly obvious. The reafons why the 
alienation of leafes fhould be clogged by the proprietor's jus 
deleclus, have never appeared to me to be of any weight : Some 
fuch reafons as the following, I have heard fuggefted. 

The delectus has foraetimes been defended, upon the fuppo- 
fition that it gave a tie upon the tenant's political principles, in 
preventing the fubilitution to one with whofe principles the 
proprietor was originally fatisfied ; of another, whofe principles 
he might have caufe to diflike. Were it a matter of fuch im- 
portance, that landed proprietors fliould have the regulation of 
the tenant's principles ; and were it proper and expedient, for 
this purpofe, that fecurity fliould be withdrawn from agricul- 
tural induftry ; the beft regulation would be, that the whole 
cultivators of the foil fhould be kept as tenants at will. This, 
however, would be to attempt to preferve a country, after re- 
ducing it to a (late not worth preferving ; like to the policy of 
extirpating the inhabitants, to prevent their riling in rebellion. 
To communicate a flake worth defending, I fliould apprehend to 
be a preferable mode of fecuring attachment to any exifting order 
of things. In regard to the late danger of the infurrecrion of 
the poor againft the rich, for the divifion of their funds, upon 
Rouffeau and Godwin's fyftems of {avage liberty and equality, 
I think it will not be denied, that the efiential intereft'at ftake, 
in the farming clafs, had the moft powerful efledt in preferving 
the country from revolutionary madnefs. Much was certainly 
effected by the fpdrited and heartily afre&ed fervices of the 

Yeomanry : 



323 NOTE D. 

Yeomanry : Nor would the zeal have been lefs, in proportion 
to the largenefs of the capital inverted in agricultural induftry. 
And though, perhaps from miftaken principle, or perhaps from 
mifcalculation of confequenccs, and the defire of being of the 
fide of what was apprehended would become uppermolt, there 
might be exceptions among the Yeomanry ; yet, from fimilar 
caufes, were not exceptions equally to be found among landed 
proprietors, and even titled nobility * ? 

The delectus has been defended upon the principle, that if 
alienation was allowed, the proprietor would be fubjedted to 
the rifle of getting a worfe farmer to his farm. But, upon the 
common principles by which other matters are regulated, the 
proprietor may be allured, that, upon the fyftem of free aliena- 
tion, the farm will always fall into the hands of the higheft 
bidder \ and the man who gives molt, can do it in no other 
way, than from the raifmg cf molt produce at leatt expence, 
through fuperior (kill, or induftry, or capital. 

Devastations, it is faid, might be committed, in allowing a 
tenant's creditors, or affignees, to enter upon his leafe. Sucli 
deraftatiqna of an eftate, no doubt, inevitably enfue upon the 
creditors of the proprietor entering into his place, naith full 
command of the fubjccl : Nothing of this kind could happen from 
thofe fubftitutcd in the original tenant's limited right ; as they 
can do nothing but what he could do— will do nothing for their 
interelt, but what he would have done for his— -and are obliged 
to perform every thing to which he was bound. 

The retention of the chance of forfeiture of the leafe, after 
the farm has been improved, by fixing in it the tenant's capi- 
tal — if ever fuch an idea was entertained by any pretending to 
the name of gentleman — is unworthy of refutation. Under 
rift cf forfeiture, who would rift his capital, when, in other 

profeffions, 



* A ludicrous incident happened in this county. — A proprietor, through mif- 
takc of names, though, no doubt, in confequence of his having offered moll rent. 
Jet a. farm to the ringleader of the county militia mob. The matter is of no 
confequence, however much fnch things may be magnified into importance : Any 
other he had pitched upon might, in the courle of a nineteen years leaie, have 
become a militia mob leader; and might have needed a Tranent military execu- 
tion to enlighten him, and to keep him correit. 



NOTE D. 329 

l^tofeffions, it may be outlayed without fuch rifk ? In an un- 
allignable lcafc, tenants, no doubt, lay out their capitals under 
naore or lefs riik of eventual forfeiture ; their fecurity lies in 
the faith they repofe in the honourable character of landed 
gentlemen ; and I believe there have been few inftances in 
which that faith hath been fruftrated. But of what ufe is it to 
retain a chance of forfeiture, when there is no purpofe of exact- 
ing it when it occurs? An independent fecurity is furely a 
more encouraging footing, for the liberal unreftrained outlay 
of capital, than the more precarious one, founded in depend- 
ence upon another's character. In the latter fituation, there is 
a degradation, which, other things being equal, would lead men 
of capital to prefer other fituations of greater refpe£tability *. 

The manners of the tenant have been confidered as a rea- 
fon for retaining the delecius\. Upon the general principle on 

which 



* In the pattern county of Berwickshire, improvements, feeming'y originating 
among proprietors, were completed, over the county, by tenants holding by leafes 
of from thirty to fifty-feven years endurance. In the fpecimens of leafes, exhibited 
in the Repoit of that county, the tack is more or lefs ftriftly confined to heirs 
and fucceffors. And the exclufion of affignees, of affignees legal or voluntary, 
and of executors and fubtenants, are found more and more explicitly exprcfled, 
as we approach the prefent times. Were the proprietors become more and more 
anxious of retaining the chances of forfeiture, in proportion as land became more 
and more improved throujh the more habitually liberal outlay of the tenant's 
apitals ? Did the tenants ever apprehend, through preconception, or from ex- 
perience, that advantage would be taken of thefe excluding claufes, when oppor- 
tunity offered ? 

Thefe probabilities of virtual forfeiture, which may occur through the di- 
USut, as already dated, reducing the tenant's real intereft to that of a mere liferent, 
make it not unforeign to relate what has been dated to me, by Mr Alexander 
Daliiel, formerly f.-.ctor on Lord Glencairn's edate of Kilmarnock, ' that the 
very worft-managed farms upon that eftate (yielding, by far, the lead produce, 
aid probably, alfo, the leaf! profit to the occupiers) wen; two, which had been 
let, in liferent leafe, at a mere quit-rent, to two favourites of the familv. ' Here, 
through the injudicious mode of its adminilf ration, we fee an indance of liberality, 
at once, moll expenfive to the donor, mod unprofitable to the receivers, and 
mod detrimental to the public, in condemning a proportion of the lands to a 
date of comparative dcrilky ! 

f A kind of morbid fenfibility is excited upon this fubjeit, from a grotefque 
identification of the proprietor with his property, as if it, Literally, cenftituted his 

U u fr<V*r 



33'o note D. 

which lands are let, of preferring the higheft bidder who feems 
to have fuflicient (lock, I mould apprehend, that little refpect 
is paid by proprietors to the companionable qualities of their 
future tenant ; nor that they intereft themfelves much in his 
being a man of wit or agreeable converfation, or whether his 
complexion is fair or black, or that he anfwers to the name of 
Hugh, rather than to that of Peter. If a regard to neighbour- 
hood had influenced the mode of thinking, in law or prac- 
tice, as to the dekfius, it would particularly have appeared in 
urban tenements. But all leafes of thefe are, by law, aflign- 
able. The mere apery of feudalifm, is the origin of the de- 
lectus in the perfon of the farmer. 

A more ferious objection to the granting a power of aliena- 
tion, in' whole or in part, feems to found itfelf in actual ex- 
perience. From the miferable ftate of the a6tual cultivators, 
in the Highlands of Scotland, and in Ireland, under fubtacks held 
by them from the original general tackfmen of farms, an appre- 
henfion feems to be entertained, that if power of alienation, by 
aflignment or fubtack, were granted in leafes, the cultivation 
of the lands would be, in a fimilar manner, devolved upon a 
parcel of mere beggars. In this objection, it appears clearly, 
in my opinion, that the effect is mifapprehended to be the 
caufe. It is the deficiency of farming capital, and the beggary 
of the cultivators of the foil, that give rife to the middlemen, 
or tackfmen j not the tackfmen that caufe the beggary of the 
cultivators. The mi&pprehenfion, however, is readily fallen 
into : It is not unprecedented in other fimilar inflances : It is 
like the prejudice which would lead us to conceive, that the 
retail fhopkeeper enhances, inftead of cheapening, to the con- 
turners, the articles got by him, at firfl hand, from the farmer, 

or 

proper fuljlance ; and from a drained analog)', thence derived, betwixt the drejftng 
of his land and the drefling of his per ion. It would indeed be an unjultifiable piece 
of arrogance, in a valet, were he to delegate the (having or fkfh-brufhing of his 
matter to other hands, without confidcring him as having ay'w ddeftut in the mat- 
ter, or afking his confent. It would, however, be a very fanciful fcnfibility, that 
would lead a perfon to feel as jealous of the handling of his coat, as of his natural 
epidermis ; and to object to the tailor, whom he had entruftcd with its repair, for 
devolving the execution upon his journeyman or apprentice. The tailor is paid; 
•.he farmer pays. 



NOTE D. 33S 

or the manufacturer. In fa£t, the middle tackfman is only 
factor for the proprietor, who, rather than collect his rents 
from fuch a beggarly tenantry, choofes to let his lands a little 
cheaper to one who will be at the trouble of collecting, and 
who wiil thus alfo fubjecl: himfelf to become bound for the 
whole rent *. No South-country farmer, who has gone to farm 
in the Highlands of Scotland, has ever yet been found to parcel 
out his lands among fuch minute beggarly cultivators, equally 
deftitute of both capital and hull : He has ever found it more 
advantageous, to cultivate upon the ftrength of his own ca- 
pital, under the direction of his own fkill, than to accept of 
the higheft rent which fuch tenantry could pretend to offer j 
and to give them more in wages, as fervants, than they could 
ever make for themfelves as occupiers of the foil. In confe- 
quence, is it not evident, that, even under the newly intro- 
duced occupancy of fheep, Highland diftricts have become more 
populous ? Without pretending to preternatural forchght, I mail, 
without hefitation, rifk the character of my fkill, in predicting, 
that, fo foon as effective military force (hall have reftored quiet, 
and fecurity of property, in Ireland, the fyitem of middle 
tackfmen, and beggarly cultivators, fhall inftantly difappear 5 
whenever capitaled and fkilful farmers, from the improved dif- 
tricts of Britain, fhall, as no doubt they will, find it convenient 
to fettle in that country ; and that there fhall be, tht re, no more 
of minute occupancy of land, than what neceffarily takes place, 
upon the principles explained in the preceding Note C. 

I offer no kind of apology for dwelling, at fuch length, upon 
this part of the fubject. I know, that, in the opinion of vari- 
ous perfons, Agricultural Reports ought to be confined (as to ge- 
neral obfervation, over and above the mere report of facts) to 
practical directions to the farmer as to modes of farming. If 
proper encouragement is given to attract capital to farming, 

equally 

■ — T 1 

* A e'ergyman of my acquaintance obtained, through fucedfion, fome old 
houfes, at Edinburgh Weft-port ; they were occupied as low ba wdy-houfcs j and 
he gave a houfe to a crook-backed barber, for collecting the other rents. It was 
not the intermediation of the barber that made the other occupiers whores ; 
it was their being whores that ocealioned the intermediation of the barber, as 
tackfman of, or factor upon, the whole, 



332 NOTE D. 

equally as to other profefTions ; by eftablifhing it in equal fc- 
curity, as to pofTefTion, and tranfmiffion* and alienation ; the 
farmer would need no more inftruction from byftanders, than 
any other profefTionalift, whom it would be confidered a? 
impertinence to inftruct : In an age of general knowledge and 
communication, he would find no difficulty in inftructing 
himfelf. It would be incongruous to attempt to inflrucl a gal- 
ley-Have in the art of navigation, or a Weft Indian negro in 
the proper management of a plantation of fugar canes. Give 
men fufficient intereft in the practice, and they will find out 
iiiftrudtion. The encouragement for capitated men, to betake 
themfelves to farming, is good : it might be made better. If 
it is not equal to what is found in other profefTions, no capital 
will remain in it, but what has been addicted to it, through 
habit ; and, of that., even a part may deviate into other employ- 
ment. There can be no harm in bringing fuch an intereft ing 
fubje£t under difpaffionate difcufiion — though, unhappily, the 
prefs is oftcner applied to the infamous purpofe of inflaming 
the mob, than to that of enlightening the public. 

The Extent of the Ufe of the Soil, communicated by. the Lefe, is 
the next circumfiance to be confidered. 

Though the independent proprietor cannot farm his own 
lands to advantage ; but finds it ncceflary to his intereft to 
.let them in leafe to the profefhonal farmer; yet, it feem to 
be with reluctance, that he confents to part with the command 
and management of his fubjett ; and he parts with as little of 
it as poflibie. I doubt not but that the monied man might fed 
the fame reluctance, in relinquishing the command of the mo- 
ney he lends ac intereft. He mult confent, however, to loie 
fight of his fubjeef entirely : He underftands not, nor pretends 
to underftand, the fecrets of trade and manufacture ; and his 
confidence mult be entirely placed in the men, and not the 
meafures. There can, on the contrary, be no fecrets in the 
out-of-doors profeflion of hufbandry; and every one affe£ts to 
judge of what he thinks he fees pulling daily under his nofe. 
The proprietor, therefore, frequently affects to direct the 
whole of the fara .rations, during the whole cor.vfe cf 



note D. 333 

the leafe. A refident proprietor, v. ho has paid fome attention 
to farming, may, indeed, aflume fuch direction, without any 
great degree of abfurdity : It is not a little ridiculous, to fee 
fuch direction affumed by a bufinefs man, of the profeffion of 
the law, very commonly a refident Edinburgh cit ; and provided, 
probably, with one univerfal model, like the bed of Procruftes, 
to which all practice muft, equally everywhere, be adapted : 
With equal propriety might he, in general, prefume to regu- 
late the practice of manufacture, or of trade, in thofe profef- 
fionaliits who rent the houfes belonging to his employer, or 
who borrow his money at intereit. 

Even when mofl judicioufly planned, according to the exil- 
ing rate of agricultural fkill, reftricled management, through, 
the whole courfe of the leafe, is but of very ambiguous tenden- 
cy. It may prevent the heft prefently known fyftem from re- 
trogradation ; an event little to be dreaded, as its fuperior pro- 
duction, if it is really an improvement, would infallibly infuie 
its continuance — fo long, at lead, as tenants, like other people, 
are fuppofed to be guided by a fenfe of felf-mtereft : But, on 
the other hand, they as effectually prevent the tr'ul, or even 
the adoption, of all new improvements, however fuperior. Per- 
haps, an improved mode of management may thus, fometi n s, 
be forcibly introduced, a little fooner than it would have been 
voluntarily adopted *'. The fubftiiution of enforcement, under 

penalty, 



* At the laft leafing of Count Lockhart's eftate in Clydefdale, a mode of ma- 
nagement was prefcribed, fc judicioufly planned, in reference to the foil, climate, 
and local citaimftances ; and i'o confiderately attentive to the tenant's intereft and 
accommodation ; and with fuch latitude nf difcretional management, to fuit fuch 
eventual circumftances, as could not be forefctn or provided for — that, not only 
did the rtflriaed tenants fet about the prefcribed management, with unrehiclant 
alacrity, from conviction of its tendency to f cure their own advantage; but thofe 
who jtofleffed upon unexpired leafts, liable to no fuch reftriftions, immedi- 
ately adopted the prefcribed mode of management. 

In the inllancc of the reftricled tenants, reftridion would appear to have pro- 
duced the beft efforts : In the inftance of thofe not reftrifted, mere ir.il ruction had 
equally good effects. So that this experiment is, as to inference, juft fo broad and 
i > long. — The reflric'Hons of management were planned by Mr Lowe, a profef- 
fional farmer of long-tried ability, experience, and integrity. — Such men may pre- 
%eud to pttfciibe rules to profiflwiial farmers. 



334 note D. 

penalty, to a fenfe of interefl in the tenant, is, however, at 
beft, but an awkward, unkindly, and up-hill fort of introduction. 

Let men of capital be attracted to the prcfeflion of farming, 
by rendering the fituation of tenants as fecure and independent, 
and confequently as refpe£lable, as that of peribns launching 
out their capitals in any other gainful profeflion, and no pre- 
fcription of management would be at all neceflary, during the 
currency of the leafe, in an age of awakened induftry, arid of 
prompt and univerfal communication. The tenant's intei"eft 
would lead him to wifh for, and* his means to procure, the very 
bell information j and he would infallibly be led to adopt that 
mode of culture, which infured the largeft production. If ca- 
pital is banifhed from agriculture, by fuch reftraints as beggars 
only would fubmit to, beggars alone can we have for tenants ; 
and it is in vain to think of enforcing management, which they 
have not capital to execute, under the fanction of penalties, 
which they are unable to pay. 

But though, during the currency, no prefcribed form of ma- 
nagement feems neceflary ; though the matter may be, then, 
left to the tenant's fenfe of his own intereil ; yet, during a few 
years near to the expiry of the leafe, regulations would feem 
indifpenfably neceflary. For a few years, it is evidently the te- 
nant's interefl:, unlefs indeed he has already contracted for a 
new leafe, to draw from the land every thing it can produce, 
without being at any expence in recruiting its power of produc- 
tion, as he is not to fuffer by its enfuing flerility : Or, if it 
chance that the farm has been taken by another tenant, the 
connexion of long pofieflion (probably the only original right of 
appropriation of land) may make him entertain a fort of feel- 
ing of injury, upon his ejection ; and may lead him to adopt 
deteriorating practices, emuloufly, and to his own hurt, merely 
to gratify his refentment againfl: his fucceflbr, who (as he half 
conceives) has ufurped his place. Reftrictions, as to the laft 
three years of pofl'eflion, would feem lufficient to fecure the 
interefl: of the proprietor ; whilft they prevent not (in a leafe 
pf 20 or 30 years endurance) the adoption of improvements 
during the currency •, which, if evidently advantageous, might, 
by mutual cenfent, fuggeft alterations as to the rcftrickd years, 

In 



NOTE D. 33$ 

In 57 years leafes, leading to fuch permanent improvements as 
thofe which, in Tweeddale, are carrying on upon the eftate of 
Neidpath, no reftrittio'ns whatever would feem at all neceflary ; 
as no farming practice, towards the clofe, could undo what had 
been done at the beginning of the kale. — (See p. 104, &c.) 

Reftridlions, in Tweeddale, are but of late introduction. 

In regard to hill fheep pafture, it feems generally under- 
ilood, that the outgoing tenant fhall not plough fuch land as 
had not formerly been in ufe of tillage. In regard to the ara- 
ble croft land of (heep farms, there feems no reftri£tion to have 
been in ufe ; excepting, merely, that no dung fhall be carried 
off the farm, but lhail be either applied to raife crops, or be 
left to the intrant tenant, at a fair valuation. As to the outfield 
arable land of lheep farms, the practice feems not at all ac- 
curately defined. Attempts have been lately made by proprie- 
tors, to have it afcertained, that no fuch land mall be broken up 
from grafs, without previous liming, teathing by folded cattle, 
or other manuring. As the meafure of the execution muft, 
however, be referred to arbitration, arbiters (who can have no 
equitable rule but the cuftom of the country) will fuftain a ve- 
ry lax execution, when melioration is enforced beyond the ex- 
tent of cuftom : It would be, indeed, iniquitous, to enforce me- 
lioration upon the tenant who came to a fcourged farm, and of 
courfe expecled, from cuftom, the fame advantage at his re- 
moval. Where there is pofitive law, or exprefs ftipulation, 
there can be no injury in being compelled to perform what was 
forefeen and aflented to : It is iniquitous, to deprive any one of 
advantages he was reafonably induced to expect, by any ex pojl 
faElo law, regulation, or adopted interpretation. 

The regulations, formerly, as to arable farms, extended no 
farther than what has been dated as to the croft lands of iheep 
farms. 

In regard to the reftriction proper for the laft three years in. 
arable farms, and the rotation land of fheep farms, the follow- 
ing reftriclions would feem proper, and at fame time all that 
are neceflary. For the proper underftanding of their proprie- 
ty, it will, however, be proper previoufly to ftate, That the 
term of entry to all Tweeddale farms is at Whitfunday, as to 

the 



33^ We D> 

the pafture grafs and houfes ; and to the arable land, at die re- 
paration of the crop from the ground ; the crop being the way- 
going crop of the outgoing tenant * : That the poffeffing tenant 
mall, in his laft crop but one, low out, with clover and rye- 
grafs in fpecified proportion, one fpecified portion of his rota- 
tion land, anfwering to one of its divifions in the courfe of ro- 
tation j the faid portion, the year before, having been under 
green crop fallow, with all the farm houfe-dung applied to it : 
That he lhall, in his laft crop, allow the incoming tenant, or 
the proprietor, to fow grafs feeds, along with his crop, upon 
a fimilar portion of his rotation land j faid portion having, the 
preceding year, been under green crop fallow, with all the dung 
applied to it : That the Martinmas before the Whitfunday of 
his removal, he lhall plough a fimilar portion, which he fhall 
leave to the intrant to fallow •, and that he fhall lay no dung 
upon his waygoing crop, but leave his dunghill to the intrant 
tenant, that he may apply it to his fallow green crop : That the 
intrant tenant fhall purchafe the hay crop at a fair conjectural 
valuation at Whitfunday, fown as per firft mentioned reftric- 
tion : That he fhall pay the outgoing tenant, per valuation, 
for the eftimated damage that may be fuppofed to accrue to his 
crop by fowing grafs feeds, per fecond mentioned reftriftion, 
in taking nourifnment from faid crop, as weeds : That he fhall 
pay for the third portion, left ploughed at Martinmas, for him 
to fallow, per third reftriction, at the rate of the eftimated pro- 
fit which the outgoing tenant might have derived from crop- 
ping it : And alio, that he fhall pay for the year's dung left, at 
fair valuation of its worth ; ov elfe, that the outgoing tenant 
mail be at liberty to difpofe of it by open auction ; in which 
cafe, the intrant tenant has, at leaft, the preferable advantage, 
of being excufed carriage. 

Perhaps, it might alio be eligible, that the intrant mould 
have privilege of fowing grafs, to produce an earlier fward over 

all 



* The cuftom in Tweeddale is fo well underflood, that, inftead of the tack ex- 

preffing that the removal from the grafs is to he at Whitfunday, and from the 

D of the enfuing crop ; meft of the tacks merely bear, that 

the entry is at Whitfunday, and the rrtnoval at Whitfunday : The reft is under- 

flood. 



mote D. 337 

a]} the crop ; paying, as already fpecified, for the eftimated da- 
mage that might accrue to the outgoer's crop, by abflra£ling 
nouriihment. 

The incomer would thus, at once, be fet a-going in the bed 
rotation fyftem prefently known ; having fown grafs, for green 
houfe-feeding, the firfl feafon ; gi*afies fown, to come in the 
next feafon; fallow, for green Winter feeding the firft year, &c. 
So that, at once, he would be in proper rotation, which he need 
not be again thrown out of. 

Size of Farms. 

In regard to the fize of farms, as in regard to every other 
condition of their tenure, it is my opinion, that this Ihould be 
left to regulate itfelf, by the effectual demand of the market ; 
upon the fimple principle of who bids more ? 

More rent cannot be offered for a farm, under one condi- 
tion of tenure, as to fize, duration, or other circumflances, 
than under any different condition of tenure ; but folely from 
this caufe, that, under the former, it can be made to yield more 
produce, at lefs expence, than under the latter f. So foon, 
then, as there exifts in any country, a fufficiency of agricul- 
tural fkill and flock, to occupy the whole lands in the mofl 
profitable, becaufe the mofl productive manner, the interefl 
of the proprietor, and of the farmer, will both concur to reduce, 
in time, the whole under this mofl productive mode of occu- 
pation. The farmer follows this mode for his own interefl j 
and he who does fo, can offer mofl rent for the farm. This 
is an irrefiflible tendency, which artificial regulation may 
foolifhly attempt to counteract ; but which will infallibly 
counteract: every oppofing regulation. [Seepages 202, 203, as 
a!fo the fubfequent note F.) *, 

X x Whim. 



f More produce at lefs expence, is a fyftem declaimed againfl as inimical to po- 
pulation. The fame clamour might, with equal reafon, be raifed againfl mashm* • 
in manufactures. 

* The maxim of the Latin poet can no where be better applied — 
Nataram txfellas furca } tamen ufque recurrtt. 



33S NOTE D. 

Whilft agricultural fkill and {lock are deficient, farms may 
be either too large, or too fmall. They may be too large, 
when a farmer gets upon his hands a tract of defert wafte, 
which he has neither fufHciency of flock to improve by furface 
culture, or even to plenifh up with cattle to con fume the na- 
tural paflure ; becaufe, through deficiency of agricultural 
flock, the landlord found no competitors for a divifion, and 
wifhed, neverthelefs, to have the farm taken off his hands. 
They may be too little, when, from want of the proper efla- 
blifhment of the fubdivifion of labour and employment, (to- 
wards which, too, there exifls an irrefiflible tendency, through 
the mutual interefl of all concerned — See preceding Note' C y 
and page 48.)} and of outlet to more profitable bufinefs, a 
farmer's family continue to occupy his farm in the unprofitable 
modes of minute fubdivifion, or of conjunct counterthwarting 
management ; inflead of lending their flock at interefl to one 
of the individuals, which would be more profitable, the reft 
betaking themfelves to other profeflions ; and no relief being 
to be obtained by fpreading fuch minute capitals into the occu- 
pation of a greater extent of lands, as fuch farms would be 
too large. 

Till fufficiency of capital has accumulated out of fav- 
ings, we mufl reft fatisfied with the beft practicable, inflead 
of the befl conceivable, mode of occupation. As flock and 
(kill increafe, the interefl of all concerned begets an invariable 
tendency to the mofl productive and mofl profitable occu- 
pancy, independent of any artificial regulation to that effecT:, 
and in defiance of any regulation to the contrary. Our tribe 
of difinterefled politicians, who are continually torturing their 
brains in devifing fchemes for the public good, may refl fatis- 
fied, that, if they are good for any thing, they will take place 
without any interference ; if they are good for nothing, 
though the public good may be embarraffed, it will not alto- 
gether be defeated, by regulations attempting to enforce them. 
This natural tendency to arrangement, under the mode of mofl 
profitable occupancy, is obflrudled, through the retraining in- 
fluence of the proprietors' deUElus perfona. , which prevents the 

alienation 



note D. 339 

alienation of leafes, or commodious interchanges of lands 
held under leafe, on the part of the tenants ; and by the 
cramping influence of entails, which obftruct fimilar profit- 
able arrangements among proprietors. 

The fubject being an interefting one, it may not be im- 
proper to enter into a more minute difcuflion ; and to endea- 
vour to inveftigate the circumftances that conftitute the mod 
profitable mode of occupancy of farms ; together with the 
principles that lead to their dilatation to their proper fize, 
and to their circumfcription within their proper bounds ; upon 
the fuppofition that there exifts a fufficiency of agricultural 
fkill and capital for the beft poflible occupation of the whole 
lands. 

In every particular inftance, the fkilful and experienced 
profeflicnal farmer is the only competent judge of the arrange- 
ment of any particular diftrict into farms, fo as to render each 
farm of the moft commodious conftruclion for the molt 
productive and the moft profitable occupation. There are, 
however, certain obvious general principles relative to farm- 
ing ; from whence any perfon of reflection, though but mo- 
derately {killed in the practical details of farming, (as I con- 
fefs myfelf to be), may deduce fome decided general conclu- 
fions as to the moft profitable mode of occupation. 

Every perfon, in the flighted degree acquainted with the 
fubject, muft know, that, in farming, every fcheme of ma- 
nagement comprehends under it a long detail of practice, 
which muft be gone over within the feafon j as alfo, that 
there is a particular period of each feafon exclufively adapted 
to each particular part of the practice, which, if neglected, 
cannot again be recalled. This takes place, to a confiderable 
degree, even in a mere pafture farm, where the neceflary o- 
perations are comparatively (ew and fimple. It takes place, 
to a very great degree, in an arable farm, where the operations 
are more numerous and complex : There, every variation of 
of the feafon ; every change of the weather, varying often, 
in our uncertain climate, many times in a fingle day ; every 
variation in the ftate of preparation of the foil, or of the ftate 
and fituation of the crop \ all conftitute emergencies, call- 
ing 



24 * note D, 

ing for inftant decificn as to meafures, and as prompt and 
vigorous execution. 

In the fimilar fituation of war, to the operations of which 
thofe of agriculture bear, in this refpe£t, the moft ftriking 
analogy, every nation of the earth have ever perceived the ne- 
ceflity of fubmitting the management entirely to the conduct 
of a Jingle will : — from the fubject of the defpot, accuftomed 
to unreafoning, implicit, and inftantaneous fubmiffion ; to the 
fubject of the moft anarchical democracy of ancient or of mo- 
dern times, where temporary will is the only law, and where 
the bufinefs of government might often be at a ftand, till the 
prevailing party could rid themfelves of the oppofition of their 
antagonifts, by the affaffination or banifhment of their majori- 
ty. In the like fituation of agriculture, the jarring of counfel 
and contention for preference of fchemes, are equally incom- 
patible with that promptitude of execution, which, in both 
cafes, is alike indifpenfable : The inftant of execution muft, 
in either fituation, be feized, left opportunity evaporate dur- 
ing protra£ted deliberation : The republican adminiftration can 
only fuit fituations, where there either is no bufinefs, or a 
great fuperfluity of time. 

It would appear, then, one indifputable maxim, in regard 
to fuccefsful farming, ' that, other things being equal, a farm 
can be occupied to much greater advantage, by z.Jmgle Jarw.er y 
where the management is directed by a fingle will, than con- 
junctly, by more than one, in conjunct pot-lemon.' U.ndei; 
i'uch fingle unembarrafied direction, a moderate proportion of 
intellect and of energy will go much farther towards profit- 
able farming, than a much greater proportion of both, in a 
conjunct farm under conjunct management; where the time 
of action muft often be confumed in jangling contention about 
preference of counfel. Our Scotifh proverb is here moft 
ifrictly applicable, ' A mogen pot never played well. * 

Small farms, of fuch diminutive extent as not to do /heir cirn 
turns, that is, of fuch fmall dimenfions as to be infufficient to 
maintain upon them fuch an abundance of labourers and work- 
ing cattle as fhall fufficc for everv different work, which muft 

of tea 



NOTE D. 3)1 

often be carried on at once in each period of the feafon, with- 
out being idle for want of employment for a great part of eve- 
ry feafon ; and where, of courfe, neighbouring farmers are ob- 
liged to join in mutual co-operation ; implying, neceffarily, 
concurrence of wills ; or otherwife to keep, each, an expenf ve 
fuperfluity of labour in conftant preparation : Such farms may 
juftly be confidered as a fpecies of conjunct farms, and as liable 
to the fame defects, in point of productive conftruction. 

So far as we have proceeded, it feems indifputably effential 
to the moft profitable occupancy, * that the farm fhould be 
held by a fingle farmer ; and that it mould be able, in point of 
fize, to afford conftant employment, at ail times, to fuch a 
number of labourers and working cattle, as fhall fuffice to exe- 
cute every neceffary operation, at every time, without neceffity 
of co-operation. ' 

It is the evident intereft of every farmer, to afpire after the 
occupation of as great a quantity of land, as the extent of his 
capital can enable him to manage, in this plenitude of occupa- 
tion ; where every part of the farm is kept in its moft produc- 
tive ftate, by fufficiency of labour ; and where no preparation 
of labour is kept in readinefs for emergencies, but idle for the 
moft part ; but where the whole capacity of labour is in con- 
ftant productive employment. And this appears to be the 
principle of intereft, which will uniformly cperate in dilating 
farms to their proper fize. 

But what then are the principles which will confine farms 
within their proper bounds ? And how are we to be fecured 
againft the fo much dreaded danger of farming monopoly ? 
Will the circumfcription of farms enfue of itfelf, when mat- 
ters arc left to take their natural courfe, to be directed bv the 
fenfe of felf-intereft in thofe immediately concerned ? Or mult 
we apply to the cunning men to devife for us a fet of proper ar- 
tificial regulations to counteract all natural tendencies in the 
fubject ? 

To me, it appears clear, that this matter will, alio, arrange 
itfelf, in the bell: poflible manner; when things are left, with- 
out 



342 NOTE D. 

out difturbance of intermeddling interference of regulation, to 
take their natural courfe. 

For, perfonal undelegated management feems juft as effentially 
neceffary to productive profitable farming, as Jingle direction. 
To conduct a farm by means of an overfeer, is the pitiful re- 
source of an independent gentleman farmer •, when, with the 
habits of his ftation, he commences practical farmer in detail ; 
and the fuccefs is anfwerable to the fyftem. An intelligent, 
induftrious, and ceconornical farmer, can outbid all his farming 
profit, in his offer of rent. To what elfe, indeed, do farmers 
paying rent, owe their exiftence as a diftinct clafs ? Compared 
to the active, fharp, and interefted Superintendence of an acute 
farmer, acting at his own rifk, and for has own fole benefit, 
the Superintendence of an overfeer, without rifle, and without 
profpecr. of proportional gain, is like the turning of ferious bu- 
fmefs into farce *. 

Although the farmer's overfeeing of his own overfeer, is 
conducted in a much more accurately Sifting manner, than the 
gentleman's overSight of his overfeer ; yet, as the farmer can 
outbid, in rent, the gentleman's whole profits in acting by an 
overfeer, it Seems readily to follow, that an equally intelligent, 
active, and rich farmer, can readily carry off any farm from 
another farmer, who is obliged to commit the management of 
it to an overfeer ; by being able to afford more rent for it, in 
proportion to the fuperiority of perfonal to delegated manage- 
ment. 

Where, then, Skill and capital have arifen, Sufficient Sor the 
moft profitable occupation of the whole lands, the bounds of 
the capacity of accurate perfonal Superintendence, will limit the 
bounds of the Size of farm : The competition of equal capital, 

together 

* Tlicre are exceptions to all rules ; there are exceptions in this county : But 
our prefent bufinefs is with general rules, and not exceptions. The keen fenfe of 
perfonal intertfi mud tver be acknowledged a. more powerful fpur to energetic in- 
duftry, than the generally more languid fenfe of mere obligation of duty. 

An overfeer, coining from a more improved diftrictto one where improvements 
are lefs underftood, may, for a while, excel the farmers of the latter diftritf, who 
farm at their own rifk, 



note D, 343 

together with the fuperiority of accurate perfonal fuperintend- 
ence above that which is either too much diftra&ed, or under 
neceflity of being delegated, will neceflarily hem every farmer in 
within thofe bounds where he can occupy with mod advantage. 

The limits of the capacity of perfonal fuperintendence, will, 
no doubt, vary with the different degrees of ftrength of intellect: 
or of energy to be found in individuals ; :.nd the boundaries, 
within which farms will be circumfcribed, will keep pace with 
fuch variations. In farming, however, as in other profeffions, 
eminence is confined to a few ; the generality are nearly upon 
a par ; and even eminence is finite — and the monopoly of 
farms is a bug-bear. 

The limits of perfonal fuperintendence will be lefs confined, 
in a pafture diftri£t, in proportion to the paucity and fimplicity 
of the operations. It will, for the oppofite reafon, be more 
narrowed, in an arable diftricl. Even a fuperior ftyle of more 
accurate cultivation of each particular acre, will more and more 
circumfcribe the limits of fuperintendence, as to the extent of 
land occupied ; though not as to the extent of capital laid out, 
or of rent yearly paid. The bed arrangement of extent will 
neceflarily find its own way. 

When Laputa projectors come gravely forward, the one 
with his fcheme of ioo acre farms, the other with his of 50, 
and a third with a fort of agrarian cottage fyftem, it is difficult 
to determine, whether our fpleen or our laughter ought to be 
moved. So long as they fhall confine themfelves to the prag- 
matical pointing out of their proper interefts to the parties con- 
cerned, but who, it feems, have not fenfe to perceive their own 
advantage ; in fo far they can do no harm, and the parties will 
judge for themfelves. When, however, they would attempt to 
enforce their fpecific noftruths by legiflative authority, their in- 
terference is of a more ferious nature than mere pragmatical 
impertinence. 

The Parliament of Great Britain has not been in the habit 
of carrying meafures by acclamation : A fort of prevalent, 
philofophic, native phlegm, feems unfufceptible of enthufiaftic 
admiration of the brilliant fchemes of projectors. The filent 
operation of the writings of the profound and ingenious Doctor 

Adam 



344 note D. 

Adam Smith, fecms to have given a check to the intermeddling 
fpirit of regulation. 

In all difquifitions of this nature, public utility is the point 
of reference upon which all reafonings mufl bear. In many 
inftances, however, private duty Hands, in part, oppofed to 
public utility. It is mod conducive to public utility, that he 
who can pay the higheft rent, mould be preferred to the farm, 
as he can only afford to pay it from fuperior production ; yet 
there may be a call upon the landholder's generofity to prefer 
his old tenant, though, from inferior (kill in rendering the foil 
productive, he mould be unable to afford quite fo much rent. 
But, even here, the principles explained will have their operation : 
For if generofity is a duty, on the one hand, there is furely a 
degree of modefty incumbent upon the expectant from libera- 
lity : And where, in confequence of more profitable occupancy, 
more i-ent can be afforded, an old tenant cannot have the face 
to afk from his landlord the facrifice of the whole advantage in 
his favour : He will find himfelf therefore obliged to alter his 
accuftomed fyftem of occupancy to that fuperior one, upon the 
credit of which, more rent has been offered ; that he may offer 
more rent alfo, although he expects a preference without giving 
the mofl. Productive occupancy, when adopted, enables high 
rents to be given ; and high rents offered, enforce the adop- 
tion of the mo ft productive occupancy. 

In thofe violent changes, enluing upon fudden and unforefeen 
revolutions, it may be impoflible to devife new methods of fa- 
mily fobfiftence, upon difpoffeflion : In thofe that take place 
gradually, through the progrefs of the demand for them, as 
they may more readily be difcerned at a diftance, it is more 
eafy to provide for them ; Yet, in an infulated fituation, like 
the Highlands of Scotland, where there may be Iefs informa- 
tion as to the various different modes of employment that may 
be reforted to, it might be cruel to introduce fuch changes, fo 
foon as the demand ihould require, or as even public utility 
fhould dictate. 

In regard to the principles regulating the fize of farms, I 
have been much indebted to a chapter, intended for part of a 
large work by the Board of Agriculture, which was circulated ; 

and 



NOTE E. 



345 



lich was drawn up by my refpected friend the late Rev. 
Dr Thomas Robertfon, minifter of Dalmeny. 



NOTE Ev 



Although this opinion is fan&ioned by the autliority of the 
late Dr Adam Smith, it feems admiillble only to a certain ex- 
tent. 

Many facts are brought to light in the Englifh Reports, from 
which it appears (contrary to the commonly received notions 
in Scotland), that, in point of improvement, England in gene- 
ral falls far mort of thole parts of Scotland where improve- 
ments have been of any length of (landing. In particular, it 
appears, that the great bulk of Englifh farmers are kept in a 
miferable (late of dependence, preventing all exertion on their 
part — from their pofleffing as tenants at will, without any 
1-eafe •, or upon mere liferent leafes ; or leafes of very mort 
duration : under which impermanent tenures, too, the whole 
mode of management is in general fpecifically prefcribed, in 
regulations fan£Honed by heavy penalties ; enforcing ofttimes a 
practice of hufbandry the mod prepofterous and- unproduc- 
tive *. 

If conjectures may be allowed, till a fufneiency of fa£ts are 
eftablifhed to form foundations for certain conclufions ; may it 
not be prefumable, * that the extenfion of the right of franchife 
among the farming intereft, as adopted in England in the ftrug- 
gle of Monarchy againll Ariftocracy, lias both given origin to 
more early improvements in that country ; and has alfo, fubfe- 
quenily y proved the caufe of their retardment ? ' In England, 
the pofieiTion of a farm by liferent leafe, from which the pof- 
fefibr can inftrudt, that he derives a profit of forty (hillings 
Sterling yearly, without deducting parliamentary or parochial 

Y y taxes, 



I am indebted, for thefe views of the iltuation of Englifh farmers, to Dr 
-Robevtfon's agricultural chapter upon the fize of farms, and charaftcr of farmers. 



346 NOTE E. 

taxes, confers the right of voting in the election of a county 
reprefentative ; a qualification fuppofed equal, at the time of 
enactment in the beginning of the fifteenth century, to what 
20I. would be now •, from the difference of the denomination 
and value of money. As the moft ufual mode of holding land 
in farm, for any length of endurance, known at the time of 
this enactment, was that of liferent leafe, it feems extremely 
probable, that the political importance, thus generally confer- 
red upon the clafs of farmers, would procure for them the 
advantages of fecurity and refpedt for their interefts, as an en- 
couragement to their induftry, more early and more completely^ 
than they were obtained, in Scotland, from mere views of in* 
difpenfable utility, or enlightened felf-intereft. As, however, 
in procefs of time, the poffemon, entitling to the privilege, 
came, in courfe of the gradual depreciation of money, to be 
an obje£t of trilling importance to both landholder and farmer - y 
is it not equally probable, that the landholder would create, 
upon every farm, little liferent holdings to the extent of the 
qualification, merely for the purpofe of creating a voter to fup- 
port his own political coniequence •, and (as the pofleffors of 
fuch fmall holdings could not live upon them, independent of a 
larger extent of farm) that, in regard to this larger extent, he 
Ihould retain them as tenants at will, or upon very fhort leafes, 
in order to fecure their votes in abfolute dependence ? 

In this county, the inhabitants of the Royal burgh of 
Peebles held a fmall farm, for grazing their milk cows, from 
the Nobleman who managed the political intereft of that burgh. 
They however poflefled it, as is prefumably the cafe in all fimi- 
lar Situations, only from year to year. 

It would be worth inquiring into, whether the generality of 
Englifh tenants at will, or upon very fhort leafes, are not alfo 
voters at elections ? No improvements of importance can be 
expected from farmers having fuch unpermanent intereft. It 
is no wonder proprietors fhould place little confidence in their 
management, and find reftricYions neceflary. 

An injudicious extcnfion of the right of franchife, may 
thus readily be conceived as a mcafure which might reduce the 

enfranchised 



note E. 347 

cnfranchifed to tlie mod abject ftate of dependent ferviiity, 
deitructive of all exertion. The extenfion of complete fecurity 
to every clafs, in regard to perfonal liberty, life, and property, 
is the very life and foul of indu-try ; and this, in all probabi- 
lity, depends more upon the enlightening efficacy of the prefs, 
under a form of government infuring publicity to all public 
meafures, than upon any precife diftribution or arrangement of 
political power, whether in the direct ratio of wealth or popu- 
lation, or the compound ratio of both. 



note F. 

Do not the laws againft ufury fall exactly under the fore- 
going defcription ? 

It is without doubt proper that a legal rate of interefl mould 
be fixed, at different periods, as near to the exifting market rate 
as can be guejfed — to take place in all fuch cafes as afford no op- 
portunity of making an optional bargain. Where, however, 
there is an opportunity of voluntary agreement, there feems 
juft as little need of legiflative interference, in fettling the terms 
as to the price of the ufe of money, as in regard to that of any 
other article in commerce. In all fuch cafes, the terms may 
be left, with equal fafety, to be fettled at the difcretion of the 
parties concerned. 

Where capital, properly employed, yields a profit ; it is 
certainly equitable that this profit fliould be fhared betwixt the 
advancer of the capital, and the perfon who profitably em- 
ployed it ; -being the joint product, of the one's capital, and the 
other's induitry. Even if borrowed merely to fpend it, it is 
juft that its owner fhould receive, for its ufe, what he would 
have received from one who fliould have employed it, fo as to 
replace itfelf with a profit ; in the fame manner as it would be 
equitable in the proprietor of an horfe to exact the fame fare 
from one who hires him for a pleafure ride, as from another 
who hires him to work in his plough. — What is given in cha- 
rity, or lent in friendihip, is out of the queftion. — In the cafe 

of 



348 note F. 

of money lent for hire, for mutual accommodation, upon mere 
principles of equity, it feems perfectly juft, that the hire, or 
intereft, mould not be determined in an invariable fpecific pro- 
portion to the capital advanced, or at fo much per cent. -, but 
that the lender mould receive more or lefs, in proportion to the 
profit which the ufe of money can afford. Nor can any ftand- 
ard be devifed for apportionating the refpe£tive (hares of profit 
betwixt the borrower and lender, but the exifting rate of the 
money market. Where capital is fcarce in proportion to indu- 
ftry, and its profits confequently high ; an higher rate cf inter- 
eft will be afforded by the induftrious for the rife of capital : 
Where the reverfe takes place, the rate of intereft muft be beat 
down, by the competition of capital for employment. Nor docs 
there appear to be any iniquity in demanding more, or offering 
lefs, for the ufe of money, according as the market will allow, 
than for any other article in commerce. All laws, counteract- 
ing thefe natural tendencies, will themfelves be counteracted. 
Laws fixing the maximum of intereft, and condemning an high- 
er rate under the name of ufury, are evaded, in difguifmg the 
intereft received, under the names of premiums for the rijle, co- 
partneries, 8<c. 5 devices to which the conveniency of traders 
will give rife, and which the laws will, afterwards, recoguife 
and fanction, as exceptions to the general rule. 

Laws, in regard to the markets of grain, originating in 
mobbifh infeigation, have fometimes fixed a maximum price, 
but never a minimum. In the fame manner, laws in regard to 
the ufe of money, have, in every country where they exift, 
(hown an anxiety merely to fix a maximum rate of intereft, and 
to brand all excels with the imputation of criminality ; and 
probably, in almoft every language, there is a term equivalent 
to the term ufury, and, like it, implying blame. It feems pro- 
bable, that laws againft ufury have generally been enacted 
when legiflators \ i y-borvowers and fpendthrifts. 

The legal rate of intereft is different in every different 
nation; it has varied in every particular nation, at different 
periods : The criminality of ufury cannot, then, coniiit in or- 
acling five, ten, or twenty per cent, for the ufe of money ; but 
in exacting more than the ufual rate of the market. In all op- 
tional 



KOTE F. g 4 p 

tional tranfaftioris, the rate of intereft might certainly be left 
to the difcretion of parties, as well as the rate of any other 
marketable commodity : Nor does there appear any call for 
the ftatutory conftrudtion of fraud, in the exaction of more hire 
for. the ufe of money, than the market rate, into a fpecific crime; 
more than in that of exacl'wg more than market rate for the ufe 
of an horfe, or the day's labour of a nun. There feems even 
lefs necefiity for Legillative interference to guard againfb im- 
pofition in bargains about money, than in bargains about al- 
moft any other fpecies of commodity : For whereas the qua- 
lity of every other commodity may vary ad infinitum, under 
one and the fame denomination ; the denominated money, fpe- 
cified in the bargain, is always of an afcertained value at the 
time : The horfe I hire or buy, may be, in any degree, fervice- 
able or unferviceable ; and the workman I hire, may perform a 
good or a bad day's work : but the number of guineas or (hil- 
lings, for the ufe of which I contract, mud prove, upon de- 
livery, exactly what I contracted for. 

Art may no doubt take advantage of ignorance and fimoli- 
city, in exacting more than market value for the ufe of money, 
as well as in other things : There feems, however, no aflign- 
able reafon why fuch frauds might not be left to be profecuted 
at common law, as well as other frauds. 

Doctor Adam Smith, however inimical, in o-enera!, to the 
prevention of fullering matters to take their natural courfe, 
feems to approve of the regulation of intereft of money, as 
preventing the lending, at high intereft, under rifk of ftatu- 
tory infamy, to enthuiiaftic projectors. I fhould, however, 
doubt, if progrefs, in any tiling, is to be expected from mere 
dull plodders, confining themfelves entirely to beaten tracks. 

If heirs in reverfipn borrow money, cither neceffarily or 
unneceiTarily, (which i: certainly is not the bufinefs of the 
lender to intermeddle with, having no right of tutorv eon- 
troul), they-.ought to bind themfelves to higher intereft, in 
proportion to the rilk of their fuccertlon, and future capacity 
of repaying. Upon eventual fucceflion, if poflefled of ho- 
nour, fuch heirs will undoubtedly fulfil their engagement. If 
they take advantage of laws againft ufury, and refufe to fulfil 



35© NOTE F. 

it, the law will fanction fuch breach of faith : But, in fo do- 
ing, does not the law, at belt, only betray its partiality to one 
clafs of fwindlers, in preference to another ? 

The ftatutory infamy annexed to ufury, throws the bufinefs 
of adventurous loan, upon high intereft, entirely into the hands 
of perfons regardlefs of character, who are thus put in poffef- 
feffion of an exclufive monopoly •, and the projector, with dubi- 
ous profpect of fuccefs, together with the heir apparent, with 
dubious profpect of fucceffion, are precluded from obtaining 
money upon the molt reafonable terms, from the prevention of 
free competition among thofe who have money to lend. 



Note G. 



In civilized fociety there will neceffarily arife two claffes of 
perfons, who may be confidered as unproductive : Firfl, thofe 
who do not labour at all, becaufe their cireumftances exempt 
them from the neceflity of labouring : Second, thofe whofe 
labours themfelves are unproductive. 

The firft confifts of thofe born to independent fortunes, 
who do not follow the bufinefs of any particular profclnon ; 
who may be faid to be trained up to the enjoyment, and not to 
the acquifition of a fortune ; and whofe fyftem of enjoyment 
may be, in any degree, dignified and rational, or irrational 
and mean : This clafs comprehends the landed and the monied 
interefts. It was the clafs which, in the late feafons cf politi- 
cal ferment, was particularly fmgled out by the Jacobinical le- 
vellers, as a public nuifance, and its funds held out to the poor 
as the fair fubject of divifion. Perfons of this clafs were re- 
prcfented as the lilies of the field, who neither toil nor [pin ; as 
the drones in the hive, which confume, but do not make the honey. 

This very fimple, and moft obvious truth, feemed to have 
been either overlooked, through incapacity, or fuppreffed, in 
malice — that the allowed exiftmce, with the perfeB protection and 
fecurity of this clafs, is indifpenfably neceffary to the formation and 
exigence of the clafs of the productively inditfrious. The abfur- 
dity of its having been ever called in queftion, is the only a- 

pology 



KOTE G. 25I 

pology that can be offered for endeavouring to confirm a ma- 
xim,, whofe truth is fo obvioufly apparent. For induftry, un- 
queftionably, is not at all a primary paffion ; it is only zfecond- 
ary one : Irs object is not ultimate, but refers to a farther end. 
Nobody is capable of the abfurdity of fetting about acquiring, 
merely for acquifition's fake •, but for the purpofe, and in the 
view of future ufe and enjoyment: Take away the profpedt 
of enjoyment, and the paffion of acquiring immediately be- 
comes extin£t. The paffion of acquifition keeps, indeed, ex- 
a£t meafure with the profpect of enjoyment — grows with its 
growth, and Jlrengthens with its ■Jlrength. Contract the pro- 
fpect of enjoyment to the term of mere liferent poffeffion, 
and the paffion of acquifition will form itfelf into a confon- 
ance with this limited profpect : Enlarge it to the fucceffion 
of heirs, or other natural objects of affection, and the fecond- 
ary paffion will undergo a Gmilar enlargement. Thus, in 
countries where there is no fecurity of the tranfmiffion of pof- 
fcffions after death, he who has acquired what he thinks will 
fuffice, according to his plan of enjoyment, for his own life, 
ceafes, we are told, to be any farther indullrious. — Hence, al- 
fo, the high veneration for old trees ; becaufe few plant — as 
the planter cannot expect, himfelf, to be benefited by the fhade, 
and has no direction as to the perfons who may enjoy it. — 
Hence, in fhort, every indultrious exertion limited to the view 
of almoft prefent ufe ; excluding the poffibility of the accu- 
mulation of extenfive capitals *. 

In this inltance, as in others, the fecondary paffion, no 
doubt, will frequently ufurp the place of the primary ; and at- 
tachment to the means, though originating folely in attach- 
ment to the end, will take fuch entire poffeffion of the mind, 
as abfolutely to banilh the original purpofe out of view ; and 
the man, become thoroughly avaricious, will expofe himfelf to 
fuffer all the hardfhips of extreme poverty, from his original 
anxiety to avoid them ; much in the fame manner as, in for- 
mer times, the ftudy of the antient languages, undertaken ori- 
ginally as the only key to knowledge, came ofttimes to be con- 
fid ered 

* Yolney's Travels into Syria, 



35^ >;ot£ G, 

fidered as a primary object •, to the total neglect of its life. E af- 
file queftion is not, as to the modifications which the primary 
paffion may undergo •, but, as to the origin and the pofhbility 
of die formation of the fecondary paffion : In which view, 
there can be no doubt whatever, but that the protection and 
fecurity of the etijoyers of fortune are perfectly indifnenfable to 
the original exiftence and formation of indujtrious acquirers. 

In this clafs of men of independent fortune, we expect to 
find an extent of intellectual range, in tafte and literature, fuit- 
ed to their greater leifure — more of generofity, liberality, and 
difinterefiednefs, though, generally, fomewhat lefs of enter- 
prize and activity, than what are to be found in thofe whofe 
habitual bent is directed towards acquisition — more of public 
fpirit, with move enlarged views of public utility, than in thofe 
whofe minus are narrowed to the continual purfuit of private 
intereft. Their fituation, and the habits confonant to their fi- 
tuation, point them out as proper to manage matters of public 
concern. Our expectations may, too often indeed, be belied : 
and, without doubt, no clafs of men is exactly what it ought 
to be. Many of this clafs may be considered as mere fruges 
confu — mere cumkerers of the ground. Worthlefs, how- 

ever, as they may chance to prove, their protection and fecu- 
rity is, neverthelefsj indifnenfable to the exiftence of the clafs 
of the induftrious — in a moral view, juft as generally worth- 
lefs *. 

fecond clafs of the unproductive, are thofe whofe la- 
bours themfelves are unproductive. To this clafs may be re- 
ferred, i phyficians, and divines •, together with the 
profeffors of the liberal arts ; and thofe who cultivate the mere 

abftract 



* In '.very thing by nature progreffive, our eftimation is formed by compa- 
rison. The general rate of attainment conftitutes the ftandard of mediocrity; 
i which, the great bulk will ever be comprehended. Extraordinary excefs 
or deficiency, art alone considered as deserving of high praifc or cenfure. During 
the late war, for example, . : high rate of attainment in the Britiffi 

navy, in regard both to -, and to ikill'ul, fpiritcd, and fuccefiful 

execution ; that the feaman could expect no more than mere j unification , who did 
not both undertake and execute what, it would, formerly, have been accounted 
ely to have attempted.. 



note G. 353 

obftract. iciences of quantity and number. None of thefe, at 
leaft immediately, reproduce their confumption by their la- 
bours. 

In a manner more circuitous, a number of thefe labourers are, 
neverthelefs, by far the moft productive of all ; tending to in- 
creafe, often in an almoft incalculable ratio, the effect: of im- 
mediately productive labours, by the difcovery and application 
of the mechanical and other natural powers. All of them have 
the common tendency of awakening the powers of intellect: ; 
without which, mere brute force muft remain pitifully circum- 
fcribed in its operations. They all tend to enlarge the fphere 
of human knowledge — to aroufe, into energy, the nobler facul- 
ties of the human foul — to vindicate the fuperiority of the man 
over the brute. They may not, at all times, either immediately 
or ultimately, tend to produce wealth : But of what ufe is ac- 
quifition, but for the purpofes of enjoyment ? And they hold 
out the means of dignified enjoyment, in which there is no de- 
bafement or degradation. 

Mendicant idlers, who contribute nothing either to the ufe 
or to the ornament of fociety, by the labour of the body, or of 
the intellect, fall under neither of thefe claffes — are, absolutely, 
good for no valuable purpofe — and deferve no toleration. 



note H. 



In a correfpondence with the late Doctor Robertibn of Dal» 
menv, upon the proper fize of farms, I found, that the only 
advantage fuggefted by him, in favour q{ fmall farms, was, the 
prevention of the too great, or the too early heightening of the 
market price of grain ; in ccnfcquence of the neceflity fuch. 
fmall poflefibrs laboured under, of felling immediately, to pro- 
cure money, from deficiency of ftock to enable them to keep 
up their grain for a high price : not, however, that fuch advan- 
tages were either lb certain, or of fuch importance, as to call 
for eirher public or patriotic individual interference, in order to 

Z z force 



■$54 NOTE Hi 

force the lands into fuch (mail divifions, to a greater extetH 
than what would naturally take place in courfe of the demand 
for them. 

In this view of the matter, the quefcion as to the utility of 
fmall farms, naturally refolves itfelf into the queftion, as to the 
good or bad effects upon the market of grain, of a deficiency or 
fuperabundance of capital ftock in the hands of farmers, or other 
merchants of grain. 

In the firjl place, then, we fhall attempt to trace the natural 
and neceflary effects of a deficiency of capital. 

Were we, then, to fuppofe a large proportion of the crop 
veiled annually in the hands of fmall farmers, who, from defi- 
ciency of Itock, are obliged immediately to bring their grain to 
market ; and were this not remedied, by the intervention of a 
iufficiency of com-merchants poflefling ftock to enable them to 
buy it from them, and to abftra£t it from the confumpt-market, 
by ftoring it up ; the confequence would be, an over-cheap- 
nefs at the beginning of the feafon, which would caufe a rate 
of confumpt be entered upon, that would infallibly terminate 
in abfolute famine in the end of the feafon, were it to continue 
at the fame rate till all was exhaufted. Luckily, however, the 
remaining few of the holders of grain, who had capital fuffi- 
cient to keep it up (fo long as the market was glutted by the 
fales of thofe deficient hi capital), would be enabled to over-* 
enhance their price now, in proportion to the over-cheapnefs 
that had prevailed before; proportionally to the over-fcarcity 
now taking place in the market, in confequence of the over- 
plenty in which it was before fupplied : And this comparative 
dearth, which would of courfe take place, would alfo be indif- 
penfably neceflary, in the view of public utility, in order to re- 
duce the confumpt from its former extravagant rate, to fuch a 
rate as fhould enable the remainder of the fupply to laft till the 
return of another crop. — To the confumer, the confequence 
would be, a furfeit, followed by a fhort allowance, inftead of 
moderate, equal feeding ; a cheapnefs, followed by a propor- 
tional dearth, inftead of a moderate, equal average price of 
the feafon -, the dearth and fcarcity, too, aggravated probably 

by 



NOTE H. 



!5S 



fey that abfolute wafte occafioned by the over-plenty and cheap- 
nefs in the commencement of the fcafon, which would not 
have taken place under the average price. — The advantage, it 
is evident, could never accrue to the confumer ; it would re- 
main entirely with the few farmers or corn-merchants poffefled 
of large capitals : What takes place in every bufinefs requiring 
capital to carry it on, would take place here — where capital is 
fcarce, its profits are high. 

In the fecond place, let us attempt to trace the effects of zfu* 
perabundance of capital. 

Upon this fuppofition, as none of the holders of grain would 
be under the neceflity of felling it immediately, it might be 
withheld from market till an over-dearth of price took place, 
from mifcalculation, in the holders of it, as to the exifting fup- 
ply of grain in the country ; a Subject fufceptible only of a 
rough guefs, even by thofe who have the ftrongeft perSonal in- 
tereft in afcertaining it, and far lefs ascertainable with precifion 
by Magiftrates, or by the Legiflature. In proportion, how- 
ever, as the victual-holders felt a flacknefs in the demand at 
the exifting prices, which made it feem probable that a furplus 
would remain undifpofed of in their hands, they would cer- 
tainly endeavour to avoid this, by lowering the price, as every 
other dealer would do in like circumftances, efpecially with a 
commodity of fo perifhable a nature. Upon fuppofition, then, 
of the worft effecls to be dreaded from a Superabundance of ca- 
pital, the confequence would juft prove the reverfmg of that 
(late of the market which has been noticed as the effecl: of a 
deficiency : The confumer might firffc experience a temporary 
dearth and fhort allowance, to be followed by a Succeeding pro- 
portional cheapnefs, and full allowance. 

In judging betwixt the worft effecls to be dreaded, as to the 
rate of the market, from a deficiency on the one hand, or, on 
the other, from a Superabundance of capital in the poSfeffion of 
farmers, or other merchants of grain ; the two alternatives are 
left to the confumer to decide upon, viz. (to uSe an homely 
phraSe) whether he would prefer, firjl a turf, and then a 
hunger ; or, firjl a hunger, and then a bur'j 

The 



356 NOTE H. 

The effects of deficiency are, however, necciTary and una- 
voidable. From the neceflitous fituation of fuch dealers, their 
conduct is not with. them a matter of choice. In regard to the 
capitaled corn-holder, his conduct is optional, and no way 
forced upon him by the neceflities of his fituation. It is in his 
power to alleviate the dearth which enfues, upon withholding 
too much his fupplies, from mifcalculation of the crop ; and it 
is as evidently his intereft fo to do, by then bringing forward 
his fupplies more liberally, left they fliould reft undifpofed of 
upon his hands. Where there is univerfally a fufficiency of 
flock among the dealers in grain, none of them are then obliged 
to fell in glutted markets ; none of them can withhold from 
market, in any reafonable expectation that others are obliged 
to fell in glutted markets — to the increafe of confumpt from 
cheapnefs, and the enhancing of the price of the remaining 
fupply, through the thus occafioned fcarcity. As every one is 
equally ready to fupply the demand as it arifes, and as each is 
equally enabled to withhold from glutted markets ; the ten- 
dency of thefe univerfal efforts of the whole dealers is, to keep 
the fupply and the price at an equal rate through the feafon. 
None can form a reafonable expectation of felling at a price 
above the average price, proportioned to the plenty or fcarcity 
of the crop ; and it is the intereft of each to fell, fo foon as 
he can obtain what, to his heft calculation, is the average price. 
Where capital abounds ', its profits would thus be reduced \ from 
competition. 

Judging of the deficiency or abundance of flock in the 
hands of farmers and other corn-dealers, by the fluctuation or 
fleadinefs of the price of grain, we fliould feem in mofl danger 
of fuffering inconvenience from its deficiency ; for though the 
certain profpedt of a very plentiful crop will fometimes produce 
a fall, in price, of the remainder of the preceding crop upon 
hand, yet, in general, the price is higher towards the termina- 
tion, than the commencement of each crop. Lefs variation, in 
this rcfpecl, takes place now, it is believed, than what took place 
twenty or thirty years ago ; which is a favourable fymptom of 



the increafe of agricultural flock. 



The 



note H. 357 

The fluctuation or fteadinefs of the market price of grain, 
through a fingle feafon, feems greatly to depend upon the de- 
ficiency or abundance of capital ftock in the hands of farmers 
and other dealers in grain j except in fo far as tire immediate 
profpecl: of more than ordinary plenty or fcarcity in the fuc- 
ceeding crop, has an effecl: in lowering or heightening the price 
of the remainder then upon hand. The enormous variations 
in price, which take place from feafon to feafon, depend, 
however, upon the variations of the crop as to plenty or fcar- 
city ; and the prices mull, of neceffity, follow thefe variations 
of the crop, till fuch time as fome method be invented of pre- 
ferving grain for a continuation of years, fo as to enable the 
merchant of grain to embrace, in his calculation, a feries of 
feafons, inftead of confining them, as he does now, to the exift- 
ing fupply from the crop of fingle feafons. 

Could a method be devifed, of preferring grain through a 
continuation of feafons, fo as to render it poilible (net merely, 
as at prefent, to transfer a fmali quantity of the furplus of one 
feafon of plenty, to the relief of one fucceeding year of fcarcity, 
but) to carry on the fuperabundance ol fever al fucceeding years 
of plenty, to cover the deficiency of feveral fucceeding years 
of fcarcity, as was done by the Patriarch Jofeph, with the tho- 
roughly ripened grain of Egypt, in the cafe of the feven years 
of plenty, fucceeded by feven years of barrennefs ; and, were 
there abundance of capital in the hands of farmers and corn 
merchants to fuffice for fo extenfive an undertaking : In 
that cafe, the calculations of the market would no longer be 
confined to the mere exifling fupply of fingle feafons, but 
(through mere ftrength of natural fagacity, tracing the ufual 
run of feafons, though unaffilted by the revelation of dreams) 
might be extended to embrace confiderable periods of time; 
and might thus give a ftcadinefs to the market prices of 
grain, fuited to the average of years, in (lead of that of fingle 
feafons ; reducing the variations of price to differences of five, 
ten, or fifteen/*?/- cent., inftead of the prefent ufual fluctuation, 
from feafon to feafon, to the enormous differences of fifty, an 

hundred, 



358 NOTE H. 

hundred, or two hundred per cent. — In {hort, the price of grain 
might then be kept to fomewhat of the fame unvarying ileadi- 
nefs as the price of broad cloth ; and though a forfeiting excefs 
of plenty woidd thus be prevented, a dearth or a famine could 
never poiubly occur. 

Till fome method is devifed, of preferring grain for a con- 
fiderable number of years, each year mull continue to depend, 
for its fuppiy, chiefly upon its own crop ; and, in cafe of defi- 
ciency of the crop, as it is not in the power of men to create 
grain out of nothing, fhort allowance becomes neceffary, to pre- 
vent famine ; unlefs the deficiency can be fupplied by importa- 
tion from other countries. Suppofing the ufual annual con- 
fumpt of a country to be equal to the crop of an year of ufual 
plenty j and fuppofing, in a bad feafon, the crop to amount on- 
ly to three fourths of that of an year of ufual plenty ; it is evi- 
dent, that if this crop is confumed at the fame rate as in an year 
of ufual plenty, it will laft only for nine months, and leave no 
provifion for the other three. It is fhort allowance, alone, that 
can then prevent a fcarcity from ending in abfolute famine. 

Dearth is the natural means of producing diminution cf con- 
fumpt, fo as to prevent famine j it is an harfh remedy, but a 
fure one j and one that will occur of itfelf, exactly in the pro- 
portion neceflary for that purpofe, if things are left to their 
natural courfe. Every farmer, or other dealer in grain, (what- 
ever they may pretend to the contrary, to avoid popular odium), 
will, for their own intereil, endeavour to obtain the highefl 
price that can be afforded ; proportioning the price in fuch manner 
to the power of purchaftng, as that the whole exi/ling fuppiy may be 
difpofed cf at that rate, without leaving on hand any remainder 
undifpofed of If the price is either over or under-calculated 
for that purpofe, the iutereft of the dealers will lead them to 
ve6lify the miftakc. If the price is over-calculated, it will foon 
be found, from the diminution of the demand, that the whole 
cannot be purchafed at that rate of price, and that a furplus 
undifpofed of mult remain on hand. To avoid, then, the di- 
minution 



NOTE H. 359 

minution of price that muft take place upon that fuppofition, and 
to obtain, if poflible, the exifting price ; more fupplies will be 
brought forward, and the greater influx to the market will, of 
eourfe, reduce the prices. If, on the other hand, the price is under- 
calculated, it will as foon be found that the demand is fo great 
in proportion to the fupply, that, in a ftiort time, there muft be 
a very great fcarcity ; and that thofe who keep up their grain, 
will then be enabled greatly to increafe their price. Thefe 
views will lead the dealers to withhold their grain, and to fup- 
ply the market in lefs profufion •, till the increafe of price de- 
creafes the confumpt, fo as to beget a probability of the alter- 
native before mentioned. Under, or over-calculation of the 
price, or (what is in effect the fame thing) the too liberal or 
too fcanty fupply of the market, will thus, of eourfe, redrefs 
itfelf, from the views of the dealers to their own intereft. The 
intereft of the dealers and of the public, however feemingly at 
variance, would thus appear cxaclly to coincide in the fame 
thing ; viz. that the fupplies fhjould be brought forward in that pro-* 
portion, and (which is in end the fame J that the price fhould be 
fo proportioned to the power of purchasing, as that the cxijling fup- 
ply fhould lafl through the whole feafon, without either a deficiency 
or a remainder. If, towards the end of the feafon, the appear- 
ance of the fucceeding crop affords a certain profpect of plenty, 
it will then be the intereft of the dealers to get off what re- 
mains fpeedily, while a good price is obtainable ; and the com- 
petition for fale in the market will lower the price. If, on the 
contrary, the fucceeding crop is more deficient than the one 
before, the certainty of a ftill higher price, will lead the deal- 
ers to be more fparing in their fupply of the market : The price 
will, of eourfe, rife ; the confumpt will be diminifhed ; and a 
part of the prefent crop will remain, to cover the deficiency of 
a itill more fcanty fucceeding one. It feems not eafily conceiv- 
able how thefe operations of grain-dealers upon the market, 
ran ever be productive of any thing but the advantage of the 
public, fo long as they are directed by their own private inte- 
reft -, a principle, for whofe conftant operation they may cer- 
tainly 



3&3 NOTE H. 

tainly be trufted, till a more fteady principle of action (hall be 
found to exiil in hitman nature. 

Men pinched with flraits, are, however, unwilling to afcribe 
them to neceffity, becaufe againft neceflity they know there is 
no refource. They would therefore fondly wilh to attribute 
them to voluntary caufes ; againft which they can, with more 
feasibility, utter their complaints ; and from which they may 
flatter themfelves to obtain redrefs, by regulation. Hence, the 
invention of the imaginary crimes (as they appear to be) of 
fore/tailing, regrating, and monopolizing ; the call upon Govern- 
ment to interfere, by internal regulation of the market ; and the 
inept affumption of this power, even by enlightened govern- 
ments, from the impulfe of popular clamour ; together with all 
thofe deftructive outrages fo often perpetrated by meal mobs. 
Had, however, thefe evil genii, the corn-dealers (who, like 
phantoms, haunt and diflurb the imaginations of fo many ho- 
ned people, in times of dearth) any intere/led, or rather dijin- 
terejled defign in the death of the people, they certainly go ve- 
ry awkwardly about their bufinefs : Their defign might be mofl 
readily, and with perfect certainty, effected, if, inftead of raif- 
ing the price, fo as to enforce diminution of confumpt, they 
fhould bring forward the fupply in the fame profufion, and re- 
duce the price, fo as to communicate, to all, the fame power 
of purchafing, as in years of ordinary plenty. The exifting 
fupply, if juft equal to a nine months fupply of an oi'dinary 
year, would then mofl: certainly be confumed in nine months ; 
and abfolute irremediable famine would be enfured for the o- 
ther three. 

ijly Monopoly. Of all imaginary evils, that of a monopoly 
of grain feems the leaft to be dreaded in a free country, or in 
any country. Stocks, perhaps, may be found, amaffed in fuch 
a fmall number of hands as renders combination poihble, which 
may purchafe up the whole of an article, exifting only in very 
limited quantity, fuch as fugar or fpiceries •, but, in regard to 
an article of univerfal confumpt, and raifed in quantity to an- 
fwer an univerfal, a conftant, and a daily confumpt, it is im- 

poflible 



NOTE II. 361 

poflible to find flock fufficient, in fuch a number of hands as 
are capable of combination, to command any perceptible quan- 
tity of that article. With all the advantages for combination 
potfefTed by manufacturers, and with all the exclufive privileges 
which they have generally had the addrefs to procure from eve- 
ry government j was there ever any apprehenfion entertained of 
a monopoly of the general clothing of a country ? How much 
lefs reafon, then, is there to apprehend a monopoly of the arti- 
cle of general food ; which certainly would require an extent 
of Hock three or four times greater to command it ; where 
thofe who fir ft raife it, and in whom the property of it is firlt 
vefted, are, from their difperfed fituation, utterly unfit for com- 
bination * ; and in regard to which, every government (fo far 
from bellowing exclufive privileges) have univerfally fhown an 
anxiety to prevent an imaginary combination, which, in fact, 
feems impoffible in the nature of the thing ? In the anxious 
fituation of a dearth, it is not, however, furprifing that the 
minds of the people fhould give way to the terror of imaginary 
evils and imaginary crimes ; particulai-ly, fince their belief in their 
exiilence, receives fanclion from flatutes, gravely enacted with 
a view to their prevention or their punifhment f . When dearth 
occurs, the ftatutory crimes of monopoly and foreflalling im- 
mediately prefent themfelves to the terrified imagination ; the 
alarm is given, and the cry raifed, that the dearth is artificial t 
that the criminals fhould be punifhed, and their wicked machi- 
nations counteracted. If by artificial is meant, whatever takes 
, place through human conduct, in confequence of forethought ,- mofl 
undoubtedly, every dearth is artificial; being the refult of the 

3 A conduct 



* Til? impoffibility of a monopoly of farms, feems abundantly evident, from 
rinciples which neccfLiily lead to the circumfcription of farms within their 
proper bounds; already explained in note D. 

f Since the repeal of the penal ftatutes againft witchcraft, the belief in it hath 
ceafed : — an horfe can now be quietly feen to die of the botls, without having his 
death imputed to the incantations of an old woman. Were the flatutes againft 
l'Ttftalling, regrating, and monopoly, repealed, it is prefumrable alio,, that a 
dearth would quietly be afcribed to the natural caufe of fcarcity. 



3 62 NOTE HL 

condu£t of the dealers in grain, upon their calculation of the 
exilting fupply. If, however, the foregoing ftatements and 
reafonings are juft, it will be found, that, fo long as the deal- 
ers continue to act with a view to their own intereft, (which is 
furely the beft fecurity for their conduct that can be wifhed), 
their interefts, and that of the public, mud exactly coincide, in 
fo proportioning the fupply and the price to the power of pur chafing, 
as, that the exifling fupply may lafl through the feafon, without de- 
ficiency, and leaving no remainder. The more extenfive the 
ftock, the dealings, and the information of the grain merchants-; 
fo, in proportion, will their continued efforts to buy where 
cheapeft, in order to fell where deareit, tend to make the great- 
er plenty of one diftrict contribute to the relief of the greater 
fcarcity of the reft ; equalizing, everywhere, the fupply and the 
price, 

2. Foreflalling. The hue and cry, in regard to monopoly of 
grain, feems to have greatly fubfided. What is called the 
crime of Foreftalling or Regrating, feems to be the crime of the 
day ; and, to judge of it by the newfpaper accounts of the exor- 
bitant fines impofed in various inftances, it would feem to be 
confidered as a crime of a deep dye, So far as it is poffible to 
collect the meaning affixed to the term foreflalling or regrating, 
the effence of the crime would feem to confift in the practice 
of buying, upon a market day, articles of food of any kind, already 
upon their road to market, or arrived at the market ; with the in- 
tention, manifejled by the overt atl, of felling them over again, 
with a profit, in that market-place, and upon that fame day. There 
is furely, however, no crime in fimply dealing in victuals, with 
a view to profit, more than in drink, or clothing, or furniture, 
or any other fpecies of merchandize. The criminality, if there 
is any, mult originate in the circumftances under which they 
are bought and fold. It appears difficult, however, to conceive 
wherein lies the criminality of buying, to fell over again, with 
a profit, upon the market day, more than upon the day preced- 
ing, or upon the road •, or in the market-place, more than in an 
lujufc, or in a field. To attempt to impute criminality from 
fuch circumftances, feems about equally confident with the 

gravity 



note H. 3 6 3 

gravity and good fenfe of magiftracy, as to attempt attaching 
witchcraft to an old woman, by pricking her for the devil's 

mark. . 

An imperious public neceffity may caufe an innocent aftion 
be conftrued into a crime ; like that of the fentinel, who is mot 
for involuntary fleeping upon his poll: In thefe cafes, however 
we may regret the innocent fufferer, the neceffity of the regu- 
lation reconciles us to his fate. But, before we can confider 
the fines hitherto' impofed, as any thing elfe than oppreflive ; 
or the interference in any fhape, as any thing elfe than imper- 
tinent i it would be neceffary to point out the neceffity of 
conflruing into a crime, an aftion, in itfelf confidered, which 
is neither cenfurable nor meritorious ; to point out, as in the 
cafe of the fentinel, the harm that would enfue, from the to- 
leration of a praftice indifferent in its own nature. 

There are only three interefts, to which the pradices of 
the foreftaller can bear any conceivable relation, or can in 
anywayaffed: That of the foreftaller himfelf; that of the 
farmer or original producer ; and that of the confumer. 

In regard to the intereft of the foreftaller, it is evident 
that no intereft has been, or is taken in it, either by the law, 
or by the magiftrate ; it is left entirely to his own difcretion, 
though generally the moft in hazard of any of the three. 

In regard to the farmer, in no country do the laws, rela- 
tive to this fubjeft, feem to have originated in any view to his 
intereft -, but to have been obtained from another quarter. 
Every dealer, who fits in a work-fhop or behind a counter, 
within the precincts of a Royal burgh, feems to grudge that 
the farmer or vidual- merchant mould obtain any profit from 
their refpedive profeffions ; and has the aflurance to con- 
demn, in them, the maxims by which his own whole conduct: 
is regulated, of taking all the profit upon his commodity that 
the market will afford him •, unfairly narrowed, too, as is the 
competition againft him in his own market, by the exclufive 
privileges with which his little corporation is invefted ; en- 
abling him to reap fo much over- proportion of profit upon the 
drink, or clothing, or furniture of his euftomers, as leaves 

them 



364 NOTE H. 

them lefs than in due proportion to lay out upon their vic- 
tuals. In every view of utility, the profeffion of the farmer 
or the victual-dealer feems, at leaf!:, equally entitled to pro- 
tection and encouragement, as that of any producer or mer- 
chant. Stunned, however, by the inceffimt clamour with 
which his ears are continually affailed, and which is fo ready 
to overfet the firmeft conclufions of reafon ; the magiftrate of 
a burgh, too, generally confiders it as eflential to his official 
character, to fet himfelf in a flate of direct hoftility agaitift 
the farmer and victual-dealer. The contagion of fuch fenti- 
ments feems, alfo, more or lefs to have infected every legif- 
lature *, leading to the adoption of the mobbifh idea, of forc- 
ing every farmer to become alfo retailer ; in the filly concep- 
tion of thus faving the retailer's profit to the confumer ; 
though, in contradiction to that beft eftablifhed of all political 
axioms, that, in proportion to the fubdivifon of labour and em- 
ployment) more biifwefs is performed, in lefs time, and in better 
manner, and at a cheaper rate. 

The interefl of the foreftaller and farmer being out of the 
queftion, and, in fact, never attended to in the difcuflion ; the 
only other intereft that can poffibly be affected, is that of the 
confumer ; and the only conceivable manner, in which his in-r 
tereft can be hurt, is, by the enhancing of the price of the com- 
modity. 

The confumer may, perhaps, in his great wifdom, conceive, 
* that, as the original holder of the commodity did, in fact, fell 
it to the foreftaller at a certain price ; it was from thence evi- 
dent, that faid holder was willing to have parted with it at that 
price : that, confequently, if the foreftaller had not ftept be- 
tween, but allowed it to come to market, the original holder 
would have fold it at that price : but, now that the foreftaller 
has paid that price, he will not part with it without a profit; 
which profit, therefore^ the confumer vnf pay.' This ftate- 
ment certainly contains every fhadow of a reafon drat can be 
adduced, to fubftantiate the hurt which can accrue to the con- 
fumer. If the fallacy of his argument, however, does not ap- 
pear from the italics in the printing, it will be abundantly evi- 
t from the following confiderations. 

The 



NOTE II . 365 

The price in the market depends, not upon any fingle inte- 
reft, or view, or will ; but upon the general combination of all 
the views, interefts, and wills, of the whole buyers and fellers 
in cumulo ; when (after higgling and mutual explanations of 
views, with their reafons on both fides of the queftion, as to 
the prefent ftate and future profpects), the prices fettle in a 
rate conformable to what is generally conceived to be the pro- 
portion betwixt the a£tual or preiumeable fupply to the demand, 
To this alone, both fellers and buyers refer, in endeavouring 
to fix their ideas of what the market price mould be ; and no- 
thing elfe is by either taken into confideration. If the foreftal- 
ler has, or thinks he has, a clearer preconception of what will 
turn out to be the market price, than thofe upon their way to 
the market ; and finds, upon trial, that they expect lefs than 
he imagines the market will afford ; in that cafe he buys : If, 
on the contrary, he finds that their expectation exceeds his 
ideas of what the market will afford ; he does net buy : well 
knowing that he can have no expectation of profit from the 
tranfa£tion?out upon the firft fuppofition ; as the market price 
muft determine his profit, and not his profit the market price. 
Had Lis ivill to obtain profit, the power of regulating the mar- 
ket price, he would buy equally upon either fuppofition. He 
pretends not, however, to be poffeffed of the wiihing cap of 
Fortunatus. Had fellers, indeed, the power of realizing their 
wiflies, bankruptcy would be unheard of among merchants. 

The confumer buys in the market at the market price : If 
the foreftailer has given more for commodities upon the road to 
market, he muft be contented to fuftain lofs ; and it would be 
ridiculoufly fimple in him to think, that the confumer will con- 
ceive himfelf under any obligation to pay him more than mar- 
ket price, to prevent him from fuftaining lofs, or from going 
without a profit. It would be an equally fimple conception in 
the confumer, or foreftaller-hunter, to imagine, that the farm- 
er (whofe conceptions of the market price, while upon his way 
to market, fell fhort of what turns out, in fact, the price) 
fhould conceive himfelf as under any obligation to reft fatisiied 
with what he 'would then have been willing to have accepted, when, 
upon arriving at the market, he finds he can obtain more : If 

he 



$66 NOTE H. 

he is conceived to be under any obligation to that purpofe, he 
fhould be put to his oath as to the price he had expe&ed, and 
be compelled to accept of that price. 

The profit or lofs, then, from the previous operations betwixt 
the foreftaller and farmer, reft entirely between themfelves, ac- 
cording as either has formed the more juft preconception of the 
market price. Thefe operations can, in no fhape whatever, af- 
fect the confumer, whole price is uniformly the market price *. 

The foreftaller can hardly expe£t to obtain profit, by buy- 
ing in a market, and felling over again in that fame market ; 
as, after the market is feen, every one's ideas are more up to 
the market price. If, indeed, a knowledge of fcarcity has re- 
cently occurred (from failure of Crop, for inftance, elfewhere), 
which is, as yet, only in pofleffion of a few •, he may, in that 
cafe, buy up with a profpeCl of profit •, if not in that market, 
at leaft in a fucceeding one, by the time fuch knowledge fhall 
have become general ; when, if his information turns out well- 
founded, he will obtain profit ; and his practice, inftead of 
proving hurtful, will only contribute to the more timely pro- 
duction of that dearth, which alone can infure that diminution 
of confumpt which is necefTary to prevent fcarcity from ending 
in famine : If his information turns out ill-founded, he will ob- 
tain no profit, but may fuftain lofs. 

"Were we to fuppofe a chartered company, invefted with the 
exclufive privilege of purchasing all the grain and butcher meat 
of a country, at fuch a price as they chofe to give, and of 
compelling all the confumers to purchafe it from them, at a 
price fixed by the company : Or rather, to make the fuppofi- 
tion bear fome faint refemblance of poflibility, were a govern- 
ment to affume this privilege over a conquered country, and to 
enforce it by all the power of the military eftablifhment : In 
that cafe, it is at leaft a pofiible fuppolition, that (in order to 
fave warehoufe room) the one half of the provifions might be 
deftroyed, and that the price of the remainder might be railed 
fo high, as to force out, in the purchafe, the whole fubllance 

of 



* The market price is that to which every bargain tends, but which none at- 
tains : In every market, almoft every particular bargain is made a little hisher cr 
lowtr than tbc average of the whole, which is the market price. 



NOTE H. 367 

of the inhabitants who did not die of want in the interim. 
Here would be, not an artificial dearth (which is ever necefTary 
to prevent famine, in real icarcitv), but an artificial farcity 
with a vengeance ; though, certainly, it would be a much more 
eafy and lels circuitous mode of obtaining the wealth of the in- 
habitants, at once to murder and to rob them. If one fcourg- 
ing crop were thus taken off a country, it would be idle to ex- 
pert a fecond. — It is probable, however, that fome monftrous 
chimsera of this nature haunts the imagination of foreltaller- 
hunters ; infpiring terrors, fimilar to, and equally reafonable, as 
thofe of children for hobgoblins in the dark *. 

Mr Burke jufhly obferves, in treating of the power of lan- 
guage to excite the paflions, that the effect, is not produced in 
confequence of ideas conveyed, but merely through the power 
of fympathy. AVhen, from infancy, we have been accuftom- 

ed 



* Though the deflruiftion of piovifions is a tiling not unufual in meal mobs, I 
have heard of no infrance of the defhuc~tion of vivres by dealers, which feemed in 
the fmalleft degree probable ; except in regard to Edinburgh butchers, who, it is 
faid, ibmetimes bury their meat remaining upon hand after a glutted market, 
when beginning to grow tainted. 'Tis pity, any thing fhould be thus deftroyed, 
which can afford luftenance to man : It were better fold, at a low price, to poor 
people. The fault, however, does not lye with the butcher, but mull be afcribed 
to the interference of regulation. The magiftrates are conceived officially bound 
to infpect the markets, and to take care that no damaged provifions are expofed 
to fale; a delinquency which they are empowered to correct, by forfeiture of the 
commodity, and the impofition of fines : To be catched in this mere ftatutory 
dclinquency, expofes the perfoti to a fort of ienominy, attached to it by rote. The 
magifirate, upon infpefting the market, condemns, at dilcretion, the flefh meat 
which he confidcrs as damaged by taint, or even what he conceives merely to he 
too lean ; and, I am told, fends it to the poor's houfe. Rather than lofe his meat 
in this fort of ignominious manner, the butcher may he expected to bury it out of 
the way, 10 foon as he apprehends rilk of its being condemned by the arbitrary 
power of a magifirate. As nobody, however, can be compelled by the butcher to 
purchafe his meat when it is tainted, or lean : it does not appear, that any harm 
could enfue from leaving this matter entirely to the difcretion of the purchafer. It 
fecms hard, to deprive the poorer clafies of the option of having meat of inferior 
quality, at a low price, rather than no meat at all. Flefh meat, lean from fcanty 
feeding, or too much cxerrile, is even more wholefome than pampered, flail-fed. 
fat meat. Even after it hath acquired a confiderable taint from keeping, flefh 
meal feems no way noxious to the conflitut'.ons of thofe whofe forr.acks can re- 
ceive 



3<53 NOTE H. 

ed to hear certain words always pronounced in the tone of in- 
dignation, we are, from fympathy, fired with the fame indigna- 
tion ; the word and the paffion get aflociated from habit ; fo 
that, when one is prefented, the other is excited. This ac- 
counts for numberlefs prejudices of education, and might be 
illuftrated in the powerful effects produced by many words end- 
ing in tan or ifm. If we would with to rife fuperior to mere 
prejudice, we muft analyze the fubje£t of our prejudice, to 
difcover, by its proper teit, whether it is weil-founded. I 
have known a perfon entertain a mod violent antipathy to 
fwine's flefh, though he had never tailed it in his life ; and 
who, of courfe, could not know, by the proper teft, whether 
he really liked or difliked it. When we hear the cry raifed a- 
gainft foreftallers, regraters, and monopolizers ; inftead of al- 
lowing ourfelves to be hurried away by an inflindHve terror 
and anxiety for their extirpation, we would do wifely to inquire 
into the nature of the objects of our terror, that we may 
know whether there is real danger, or whether we ourfelves 
only are panic-ftruck. 

Grain is a property diffufed neceffarily through fo many 
hands, that, unlefs an univerfal combination, fuch as never did, 
nor can. happen, were to take place, the deftru£ticn of any part 
could only redound to the advantage of thofe who pieferved it, 
and to the lofs of the deftroyer. 

Were 



o-ive it. In country places, at a diflance from market, it is well known to be ne- 
ccflury, even in genteel families, to keep flelh meat, for chance of Grangers, till it 
hath often contracted a confutable degree of taint; fo that mod of it is ufed in 
this ftate, and without any fenfible inconvenience. In fneep countries, the herdi- 
men live very much upon the flefh of fheep, dead of the ficknefs or iliac paffion, 
the very fmell of which is intolerable to thofe unaccuflomcd to it ; and they are a 
clafs of people who arc certainly upon a par with any clafs inhabiting great town?, 
in point of flrength, or agility, or foundnefs of constitution. If fuch meat can be 
digefled by the aged and infirm in an alms-houfe, it could furely do no damage to 
the (trongcr organs of a flreet-porter, or other day-labourer. It would be abfurd 
to fuppofe, that poifonous aliments are knowingly fent to the poor's houfe, in or- 
der to get rid of the petitioners ! or, that the butcher is fraudulently made to incur 
a forfeiture ol his meat, that they may be fupported at his expence, without charge 
t<> the funds. A zeal, without difcretion, may, however, betray the beft-inten- 
tioncd into inconiiftencies ; or rather, an abfurd imputation cf duty may force men 
iijon absurdities, which they fee and lament, but cannot avoid. 



KOTfi H. 369 

Were the laws againft thefe imaginary crimes repealed, the 
:f ill them might ceafe, as in the cafe of witchcraft ; and the 
magiurate might be faved much difagreeable embarraffment. — 
Innovation, however, is dangerous •, and it is, perhaps, better 
that they ihould die their natural death, by becoming obfolete. 
Meanwhile, it might probably be expedient to remit the cogni- 
zance of all fuch caufes to juries ; who, as they judge both of 
law and fact, might gradually caufe the whole to fall into non- 
execution, in proportion as good fenie began to prevail. 

3^/, Interference of Government. The profpeBus annonXy or 
care of the annual fupplies, is a duty which every people have 
imputed to their governments, in the idle conception, that 
their governors, and not their own induftry, can, or ought to 
provide their bread ; an imputation which frequently impels 
Government to interfere ; fometimes, perhaps, in the convic- 
tion, though, furely, more often without any conviction, of 
their ability to effect the purpofe. 

It might be an eafy matter, for the elder, or chieftain, of a 
ttibe of American favages, to take an account of the whole 
annual crop of maize, raifed in common by the labour of the 
women, and all collected into one fpace round the Indian town ; 
and to divide the whole in equal proportions among the differ- 
ent families of the tribe. In an extenfive, well-cultivated Eu- 
ropean Hate, where cultivation goes on, not in the languid 
manner of a general concern, but under the keen animation 
of a fenfe of feparate intereft, it is impoflible any government 
can either afcertain the extent of the fupply, or the propor- 
tion to every individual upon a divificn ; or that it can attempt 
the violent feizure, and arbitrary difpofal of private property, 
without giving a check to induftry ; the ruinous confequences 
of which would infinitely more than counterbalance any tem- 
porary advantage that might be conceived to refult from any 
fuch interference. The only proper interference of fuch go- 
vernments, in order to infure plenty, is, not by temporary in- 
termeddling, but, by general laws, protecting the cultivator of 
the foil, and infuring him of reaping the profits of his own in- 
duftry, both againft the oppreffion of his fuperiors, and the 
outrage of popular ferments. 

3B In 



3/0 KOTE H. 

In years of ordinary plenty and cheapnefs, matters arc al- 
lowed to go on quietly in their natural courfe : In dearth, how- 
ever, clamour rifes high ; governments are loudly called upon 
to interfere, and are fometimes forced to interfere, or, at lead, 
to affect a buflling (how of interference, merely to prevent 
popular infurre<£tions-, though under conviction, that fuch in- 
terference, inftead of doing good, often tends to increafe the very 
evil it was intended to remedy. It would certainly be a mat- 
ter of much advantage, were the people at large duly apprifed 
of the effects to be expected from the interference of govern- 
ment ; that it may neither be impelled, from clamour, into 
ruinous meafures, nor blamed for declining interference, 
where it might be productive of harm, and could do no good. 

As it is not in human power to create grain, it is evident, 
that, in cafes of fcarcity, neither government, nor the richer 
clafles of the community, can do any thing to alleviate the 
fcarcity, or to procure greater plenty ; but, by diminifhing 
their own confumpt of grain, to produce a faving ; or by con- 
tributing funds for the purpofe of importing grain ; or enticing 
adventurers, by a bounty, to import it, at their own rifle, from 
other countries — a meafure, which the partial range, to which 
man's benevolence mud be confined, to be adequate to his 
power, will juftify in a nation, though at the expence of other 
nations ; but which will hardly be equally juflifiable in the ad- 
ministrators of a burgh, in attempting to relieve the town, at 
the expence of the provinces •, or in the inhabitants of a pro- 
vince, in attempting to interrupt the free circulation of grain 
for the relief of the town. — Even this interference, the only 
one that can really augment the quantity of grain, and really re- 
lieve the fcarcity, ought to be gone about with great difcretion ; 
left the very idea of government interference mould augment 
the alarm of fcarcity, and, in confequence, lead to mifcalcu- 
lation of the fupply, and increafe (for a time at leaft) the 
dearth *. 

In 

* In the fcarcity of 1 79J-6, the Parliamentary hue and cry about dearth and 
fcarcity (when, from vulgar conception', or the defpicablc attempts at popularity, 

on 



NOTE H. 371 

In the way of internal regulation, Governments may, and 
Jo fometimes interfere, in times of fcarcity and dearth ; though 
this mode of interference, efpecially of that kind to which go- 
vernments are impelled by popular clamour, is always hazard- 
ous in the extreme. 

In all modes of infernal government interference with the fup- 
plies and the price of the market, there is one principle which 
can never be departed from, without expofmg the people at 
large to the moil imminent danger of perifhing through fa- 
mine, viz. that the price ffjould be fo proportioned to the power 
of pur chafing, as that a rate of confumpt /ball be fecit red, which 
fhal/ infure the lafl of the exifing f apply, till the return of ano- 
ther. If the price is fixed at an higher rate, the people are 
pinched more than what is neceflary ; if fixed at a lower rate, 
famine muft neceilarily enfue. 

Were governments never to interfere, but from decided 
views of public utility ; in that cafe, we would often fee an- 
xiety difcovered to fix a minimum price, lefs than which fhould 
never be accepted, under fevere penalties, in order to infure 
that moderate rate of confumpt, which would prevent the crop 
from being eaten up before the return of another, the confe- 
quence of which would be irremediable famine. .As, how- 
ever, no government ever did, in the annals of hiftory, nor 
ever will interfere, to fix a minimum price •, it feems pretty e- 
vident, that views of public utility never did, nor ever will, 
fuggelt the propriety of any interference at all. 

The 



vn the eve of a general eledV.on, many fpeeches were delivered, which might have 
fuited the ringleaders of meal mobs) mod certainly led to great miscalculation of 
the fuppiy ; to confequent withholding from market, in a greater proportion than 
the due one : Of courfe, the dearth rapidly increafed, till Parliament were impelled 
to entice adventurers to import, at a mod extravagant bounty. The dearth, 
however, proved, in end, to have been fo egre^ioufly miscalculated, that it was 
found, that dearer vicinal was imported, to compete with cheaper in the home 
market. The adventurers fuflaincd great lofs ; and though application was made 
to Parliament for relief, none was afforded; which, all things confidered 
rather a hard meafure, 



3)2 NOTE H. 

The only interference of Government, of which we have* 
or {hall ever have an account, is, in the fixing of a maximum 
price *. 

The fixing of a maximum price can only be done (if public 
good is confulted) to prevent the dearth from being over-cal- 
culated. Wherever there is dearth, however, it is ov. J r-ealcul- 
r.tcd in the imagination of the people at large. If Govern- 
ment ever is impelled, therefore, to the fixing of a maximum 
price, it may be efteemed certain, that this price will be fixed 
at a lower rate than the exifting one •, and (if it were in the 
power of any Government, which fortunately it is not, per- 
fectly to enforce the regulation) the confequences to be appre- 
hended are obvious. 

It may be alleged, that if a maximum price were fixed in 
dearth, even fo low as to be fo proportioned to the univerfu 
power of purchafmg, as to allow every one to purchafe as 
much as he could do in an ufual year of plenty ; that the ef- 
fect would only be, to place the fhort allowance, neceflary in 
order to prevent a famine, upon the footing of option ^ inltead 
of that of necejfity ; and that every one, from conviction of the 
necefhty of the meafure, would voluntarily betake himfelf to 
that fhort allowance, neceflary to make the exifting fupply lafl 
till the return of another. Such a fcheme would appear, how- 
ever, perfectly Utopian. Unlefs every one were fuppofed to 
know, what it is impofiible for him to know, the proportion 
of the exifting fupply to that of an ordinary year, fo as to 
know the proportion of abilinence that fell to his ihare 3 in 
proportion to the deficiency of the exifting fuppjy ; and un- 
lefs 



* When the French Convention (apparent]) under the influence of the Paiis 
rncal mob in the galleries) efrablifhed the law of the maximum, a famine was con- 
fidered as the inevitable confequence, by every perfbn of reflection. Luckily tor 
that people, there are mcafures which tlic molt icrutiniiing tytanny cannot cany 
into full effeft. 

With all the means of information, and ability of cool invifti^ation, poflctled 
by a Britilh Legislature, no mcaliircs of effective interna! interference were h 
ed in 1705-6 : Luckily they were not fo overawed. 



n-oteH. 373 

lei's the good faith of every one could be depended upon, for 
his voluntarily practifing that meafure of felf-denial which was 
necefiary, a famine would be the necefiary refult. How little 
cptior.nl f elf -denial can be depended on, will, it is apprehended, 
be Sufficiently evident to thofe who have a family of fervants 
that eat in the mailer's houfe. It is believed, no mailer, fo 
circumftanced, ever found his fervants willing to be contented 
with lefs victuals in an year of fcarcity, than in an year of 
plenty. Such a propofal was probably never made bv a maf- 
tcr, from the certainty that it would not be liftened to *. 

That 



* Were the practice more prevalent, of giving fervants a certain allowance of 
meal and money in their own houfes, in lieu of victuals in the houfe of the maf- 
ter, the temptation of difpofing of the favings; at an high price, would uniformly 
infure a confiderable degree of faving, in an year of fcarcity and dearth. Self- 
interefr is an energetic principle, in every fituation. In fituations of ebfeurity, 
where the motives of obtaining credit and celebrity are not prefented, it is net to 
be expected that views of public utility fhould have fuch influence. In the fcar- 
city of wheat in 1795-6, it was eafier for our Sovereign to bring himfdf to the 
felf-denial of fubfiituting the meal of barley to the flour of wheat in the Royai 
h nifehold, than to perfuade the mcanefr of his fubjedts in parim work-houfes to 
follow the example. — In fcarcity, the dearth of price places the fllf-denL! of the 
generality upon the certain fecurity of neceffity, iufcead of the precarious one of 
tptitn. Among thofe, however, who are fo rich, as that the dearth does not 
necefFari'y enforce a change in their mode of living, fhort allowance muit remain 
in a great mcafure vpliwal. Sumptuary laws cun have here little effect : they can- 
not be enforced, except at the expence of retaining a fpy or excifeman in every 
houfe. As they admit, therefore, of no fanction, they amount merely to recom- 
mendations. PerfoGS, however, in fuch fituations, are few in number; and as 
they live lefs on bread (everywhere the great article of food among the gene- 
rality) and more upon butcher meat, though their fhort allowance cannot be 
enforced by ntcejpty, it is of the [tfs conf.-qtience, as all their favings of bread 
could have but an imperceptible effect in producing more plenty to the generality. 
Inconfiderable, however, as the amount may be, to which fuch favinus tould a- 
rife, it is certainly the duty of all, in fuch fituations, to practife faving ; for, as 
; 1 .in tannot be created, the only thing remaining to jbe done in fcarcity, is to 
favc, that the fupply may \A\ out the icafon. In iiich cor.fpicuous fituations, 
the credit to be obtained, by I d example, will always injure a confi- 

derable drgice of faving ; particularly, foi inftance, in the pampering of parade 
horfes, where their grcate!* gi . 



5*74 note H. 

That a Legiflature may fix a maximum price in fuch a man- 
ner as to incur no rifk of producing an ablblute famine in an 
vear of fcarcity, it would be indifpenfably neceflary that it 
mould be perfectly apprifed of three things, neither of which 
can probably be afcertained by any Legiflature in a manner hi 
the ieaft degree approaching to precifion : Fir/I; The rate of 
confumption of grain in an year of ordinary plenty : Secondly, 
The proportion which the exifting crop bears to that of an 
year of ordinary plenty : Thirdly, The extent of the power 
of purchasing, in pofTeffion of the whole confumers of grain. 
A maximum cannot, with any degree of fafety, be fixed, un- 
lefs founded upon a perfecl: knowledge of all thefe data ; fo 
that the price may proportion the power of purchafmg fo ex- 
actly to the exifting fupply, as that a rate of confumpt may 
be enfured, which mall enable it to laft till the return of ano- 
ther. 

The Britifh Legiflature, in 1795-6, however flrongly impel- 
led, and notwithstanding of its fuperior means and ability of 
information, durft not hazard a meafure fo evidently fraught 
with the molt imminent danger. 

If matters are left to their ordinary courfe, the intereft of 
dealers in grain would appear evidently to have the efFecT: of 
producing, with certainty, and without danger or violence, 
precifely what any enlightened Legiflature would propofe by 
internal interference of regulation, viz. the fixing of the price 
at fuch a rate, as Jhall fo proportion the poiuer of purchafing to 
the exifiing fupply , that it fijall lafl out the feafon without re- 
mainder or deficiency *. 

In 



■ In the Anti-Jacohin Review, for February iSor, it is, obfervcd — * that a 
. irmer is a (liitintl being from every other fpccies of trader, who have all an abfa- 
lute property in the articles in which they deal ; while he can only have a qualified 
and conditional property in the fruits of the earth, which are neceffary to the exift- 
rnce of man, and were exprefsly given by the Creator for his fuppprt. ' Then 
^llowi a dcduSlio ad abfurdum, if it was allowed that his right was a complete pro- 
perty — as, that he might ftarvc his cuflomcrs by rcfufing to fell, or by dc (troy i 115 
his commodiry, ■?;<:. ?;c. 

! would 



note H. 375 

In regard to individual patriotic interference, for the alle- 
viation of fcarcity, it has been already obferved, that, as grain 
cannot poflibly be created, the only thing remaining to make 
the fupply fuflice, is to fave it, or to import it from other 
countries. In regard to interference, as to the power of pur- 
chafing ; either by diflribution of money to increafe the power ; 
or by reducing the prices, fo as to render the fame money- 
power adequate to a greater extent of purchafe ; it may be ob- 
ferved, that this ought always to be attempted by the rich, in 
regard to thofe, who, from age, from ficknefs and infirmity, 
or from families more than ordinarily numerous, are unable to 
compete in the fcramble of the market with thofe who are not 
weighed down by fuch incumbranced : To increafe indifcri- 
minately the money-power of purchafing to a few in a parti- 
cular diftrict, would only give relief to thofe few, at the ex- 
pence of the generality. An univerfal diftrihution of money, 
would only bring more money into the grain market ; but, as 
it could not augment the fupply of grain, the cfre6t, of the 

competition 



I would juft obferve, that, in fimilar fubjefts, it is the general n:!e that ought 
to be inculcated; — the general tendency is to create exceptions, even long before 
we have arrived at that condition oi necefflty, ivhich hath no law. Thefe gentlemen, 
very properly, inculcate the jus di-v'mum of Monarchy, with the general propriety 
of paffive obedience and non-refiftance; and they would certainly reprobate the 
conduct of fuch as fhould manifefl a propenlity to dwell upon the exceptions. 
Property in the fuhjeel to which induftry is attached, is the only proper excite- 
ment to indultry, in agriculture, as in every thing befide. 



I take the opportunity of flating, here, a fact relative to the operations of the 
foreftaller and producer, rifling betwixt tbem/ilves, as dated pages 565, 366. In 
conference of (what I would conceive) an abfurd deeifion, through which the 
wholesale trade in hay had been condemned under the head of foieftalling ; a firmer 
near Edinburgh refuful to deliver his hay to his merchant who had purchased it, 
affecting a fcrt.ple of confciencc, in encouraging tire aim-; of forestalling. The hay, 
it muft be obferved, had rifen in price from is. 6d. to lid. from the date of the 
fale till the term cf delivery. The merchant, intimidated by the recent deeifion, 
was afraid to have recuurfe to legal modes of enforcing the bargain. What wai 
the confequence ? The horrid guilt of forefhlling was, t> be fure, not in 
but the farmer himfelf, inflead of hi> merchant, Old the hay at %%£, 



376 note H. 

competition would only be, to increafe its money-price j but 
the quantity which each perfon could carry home, would be 
exactly what it was before. Such a meafure would, indeed, 
in fome degree, counteract this direct effect ; for, as fuch dis- 
tribution muft be at the expence, and tend to the diminution, 
of the funds deftined to fupport ufeful labour, the demand for 
fuch labour mult flacken in proportion ; and, of courfe, the 
money -power of purchafing muft be diminifhed in the one way, 
in the fame ratio in which it is increafed in the other. 

This note was written immediately after the dearth 1795-6. 
I thought it needlefs to alter it, in alluding to more recent ex- 
amples ; as the general principles, laid down, are of univerfal 
application. 

N. B. — In explaining the mode in which the market of grain 
is affected, I have always taken notice, merely, of 
the operations of the merchant. The effect is, 
however, equally the joint refult of the competi- 
tion of purchafers : To have continually noticed 
both, would have led to unfufferable tedioufnefs — 
though, affuredly, a merchant cannot fell, without 
finding others willing to purchafe. 



Appen- 



APPENDIX* M* - 1 



Account of Whim, the Seat of Sir James Montgomery, 
Bart, of Stanhope, Late Lord Chief Baron of his Majefys 
Court of Exchequer : With fome Observations upon the 
Culture of Flow-Moss, and of Ploughable Moss, from 
Information communicated by him. 

T^iie lands of Whim were purchafed about the year 1730, 
■*■ whilft in a ftate of nature, without cultivation or inha- 
bitant, other than perhaps a Gnglc herdfman, by the Earl of 
May, afterwards Duke of Argyle ; who built a fmall houfe, 
with offices (enlarged, fince, by the prefent proprietor), at the 
eail end of a large fow-mofs, confining of about an hundred 
acres of extent * ; the depth of the mofs foil, before it had 
fubiided in confequence of draining, being from twelve to 
twenty feet, and in feveral places more. The houfe ftands 
nearly upon a level with the top of the hill of Arthurs 
Seat, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. The object, it is 
faid, which the Earl had chiefly in view, in the choice of this 
Ctuation, was, the cultivation and improvement of the flow- 
mofs-, and the amufement which he promifed himfelf, in dif- 

3 C playing 



* Mofs foil, which hath formed itfclf upon a flat, or in a hollow, is generally 
the moft deep :' from the almoft total ibgnation of the water, it is kept perpetu- 
ally in a ftate of femi-fluidity, and remains level in the furface, like arly rlui.1 iub- 
fcucc. H:nce, the designation of Jttwmfh « ««<* »»*»• 



3/5 Appendix, Nd. T. 

playing the triumph of the creative power of art, in new- 
modelling the nature of a fub}e£t feemingly fo untoward and 
unpromifing : Hence the name, by wliich he defigned his 
place, The Whim. 

Till his death in 1761, he kept a great number of work- 
men continually employed in draining, planting, and other- 
wife improving : Even after he became Duke of Argyle, he 
was, annually, in ufe of fpending feveral weeks at the Whim, 
in going and returning betwixt London and Inveraray. 

Great expence was incurred by the Duke, in originally 
cutting the main drains through the mofs foil, down to the 
till-bottom, for a paffage to the waters collected in the lefier 
interfe&ing drains ; as, in moft places, from the great depth 
of the mofs foil, it was neceflary to ufe a wooden ftage, or 
fcaffolding, upon which the mofs was thrown from the bot- 
tom of the drain, and from thence to the furface. As the 
mofs, from this drain, was always fpread upon its fides, the 
weight of it caufed the fides to crumble down, and fall into 
the drain, each Winter, in much greater quantity than would 
otherwife have happened : So that every fucceeding Winter 
created a neceffity for a repetition of the fame laborious and 
expenfive work, through the enfuing Summer. 

The Duke's plantations upon the dry land, to the fouth 
and eaft, have fucceeded middling well - r they have, in gene- 
ral, failed upon the flow-mofs, excepting upon that part of it, 
which lies in the immediate vicinity of the houfe, where the 
mofs was effectually drained, and cultivated to a confiderable 
depth, previous to planting. Trees of different kinds had 
been planted, in ftripes, through the flow-mofs, along the 
fides of the main drains : Thefe have not, however, fucceed- 
ed, excepting upon thofe places where the original foil (or till 
below the mofs) had been thrown up from the bottom of the 
drains, and been depofited, to a confiderable thicknefs, upon 
the' mofs furface ; or where the mofs foil had, in its na- 
tural flate, been of a more folid confiflence ; in which date it 
is found, when lying above banks, or knolls, which had ex- 

ifted 



Apfendix, No. I. 379 

Ifted in the fubjacent original foil, previous to the formation 
of the fuperincumbent mofs foil *. 



The prefent proprietor has greatly reduced the expence of 
forming, and keeping in repair, the main drains through the 
flow-mofs, by working at them only in the Summer feafon, 
during the continuance of rainy weather ; when the increafed 
quantity of water, from the fide cuts, occafions a confider- 
able current in the main drains ; of which advantage is taken, 
in flooding away the mofs from the bottom of the drain, and 
thus faving the expence of throwing it out to the furface, by 
the help of fcaffolding : An operation the more eafily execut- 
ed, as the foil of mofs, being of nearly equal fpecific gravity 
with water, is eafily floated in a very inconfiderable current. 
The trees he has planted upon the flow-mofs appear to thrive ; 
care having always been taken to drain the land. fey fide-drains 
communicating with the main ones ; and to meliorate the foil, 
by repeated culture of potato crops in lazy-beds, with lime, 
dung, or allies, before planting the trees. 

The 



* In cutting the main drains entirely through the mofs foil to its bottom, it 
is afcertained, that the original furface of the ground (now covered by the flow* 
mofs) is unequal — rifing, in different places, into knolls or banks. It feems pro- 
bable, that the flow-mofs foil (confifHng of decayed vegetable fubflances) had ori- 
ginated in the pools of ftagnant water, lodged in the hollows betwixt thefe knolls 
or banks ; from the fucceffive growth and decay of their aquatic productions, aid- 
ed, too, in part, by the ^cumulation of fallen leaves and branches from the trees 
or fhrubs which may be fuppofed to have grown upon the more elevated and dry- 
parts of the original foil. As the mofs foil continued to accumulate from thefe 
caufes, it would gradually fwell over the rifings in the original foil; chilling the 
roots of the trees and ihrubs, with which theie rifings might be covered, and at 
Jafl killing them; when, in couife of decay, or by the force of the wind, they 
would fall down, broken over or torn up by the roots, and be gradually fmothered 
up, and fmoothed over by the gradually increafing and femi-fiuid mofs foil. Trees 
are, accordingly, found under the flow-mofs, lying along, with the torn-up roots 
attached to them ; or broken over, with the root and (lump flill (landing in the 
fubfoil. Previous to draining, fiow-mofs produces only thofc aquatics, called pro- 
vincially fog, which are of no ufc as paflure : When fomewhat drained, heath 
firings up fpontaneuully. 



380 Appendix, No. I. 

The Duke's plantations (originally extenfive) have been 
improved and enlarged, fince the property came into poflef- 
fion of the Lord Chief Baron ; and he has, alfo, greatly en- 
larged the houfe ; adding a court of offices, upon a large 
f'cale, and ornamented in front ; extending alfo the lawn. — /The 
place has, upon the whole, an air of magnificence. 

In the pleafure grounds, there are feveral artificial pieces of 
water. Eaft of the houfe (where the foil is dry, and covered 
with fweet graffes), the furface is agreeably diverfified by gen- 
tle fwells, tufted with trees. A wild wildernefs walk, through 
a fmall wood, lands you upon the banks of an artificial lake, 
with iflands, covering an extent of fix or feven acres of fur- 
face. 

What chiefly ftrikes the vifitor at Whim, is the ftrong 
marked contraft betwixt the improvements of human art, and 
nature in her wildeft form, here found in immediate contact : 
Your ears are, at once, faluted with the warblings of the 
blackbird and thrufh, from the plantations; and the wild notes 
of the plover, the curlew, the groufe, and other mofs hird^, 
from the flow-mofs. 



Befides the improvement upon the flow-mofs, by wood 
plantations (which effectually fhut out its haggard appear- 
ance from the houfe and the approaches), it has alfo received 
a furface improvement, converting it into grafs pafture, to the 
extent of a confiderable number of acres, in the immediate 
vicinity of the place , and that, chiefly, by the prefent pro- 
prietor. 

The firft thing neceffary to this fpecies of culture, is the 
formation of roads of communication to the places intended 
to be cultivated, for the conveyance of manure, &c. 

The road is formed by a ditch, of no great depth upon each 
of its fides, to convey the water to fome of the main drains; 
the fluff from the ditches, forming the plane of the road into 
a convex fliape; fo that water may defcend from the middle of 
:t,„to the ditches on each fide : Then, in winter frofts, (when 

the 



Appendix, No. I. 381 

the flow will bear the weight of carriages), binding materials 
are laid upon the road, and covered with gravel. The land is 
now ready to receive its culture, on both fides of the road — 
though at no great diftance from it on each fide, from the dif- 
ficulty of tranfporting manure from the carriages, over a foil 
fo deep, and of fuch foft confidence. 

The mode of cultivating this flow-mofs foil, which Sir 
James (after repeated experience) has found to be the mofi 
fuccefsful, and, at fame time, the mod economical, is the fol- 
lowing : 

The main drains being made effectual for difcharging the 
water (as already defcribed), the portion intended for cultiva- 
tion, is furrounded and properly interfered by open drains, 
of perhaps 3 feet in depth, communicating with the maiu 
ones : it is then divided into ridges of 20 feet in breadth, by 
ft ill more fhallow drains of from 12 to 18 inches in depth, 
communicating with thofe of 3 feet in depth : Ten feet in 
breadth (all along the middle of the 20 feet broad ridge) then 
receives the following furface preparation. All the little pro- 
minences, from little hillock? of fog, fkc. are pared off, and 
thrown into the hollows ; and the foil, from the two Iaft men- 
tioned kinds of drains, is alio fpread over it, fo as to make its 
furface level : A good coat of lime is then fpread above all. 
If this operation can' be effected early in Summer, fo much 
the better — that the furface foil, with the roots of the mofs 
plants, may have time to rot and digeft with the lime, aided 
by the fermentation occafioned by the Summer's heat ; and 
may alfo receive the benefit of the Winter's froft. In Spring, 
the 10 feet in the middle of the ridge, which has been thus 
prepared, is covered with dung ; when potatoes are planted 
upon the dung, and are covered up (in the lazy-bed fafhion) 
from the remaining 5 feet on each fide ; a frefh covering be- 
ing, from thence alfo, given, if neceflary, to earth up the 
ftems of the potatoes during their growth. When this Jityl 
crop of potatoes is raifed, a fufficieucy is left in the beds, as 
feed for the enfuing year's crop ; and immediately the 10 feet 
lidge or bed, is made up anew, with a frefh covering of raw 

mof:> 



382 Appendix, No. I. 

mofs from the 5 feet on each of its fides ; care being taken to 
clear the fmall drains, or to deepen them a little, if needed ; 
it being alfo highly proper to add a frefh liming to the raw 
mofs which has been laid upon the bed. In raifing thxsfecond 
crop of potatoes, the 10 feet broad bed isfpread out upon each 
of the five- feet fides whence the raw mofs had been thrown 
up, fo as to form a ridge of 20 feet, which mutt be kept round- 
ed in the middle. The enfuing Spring, it may be cropped 
with oats, and laid down with grafs feeds; or, if it is judged 
proper to take two crops of oats, it is dug over, immediately 
after the feparation of the firft crop of oats. 

Stable-loft grafs feeds, with a mixture of white clover, are 
apprehended to be the belt fuited to this fpecies of foil. 

Dung, lime, the afhes of mofs, either burnt with an o- 
pen or fmothered fire, feem all of great efficacy in rotting and 
digefting the vegetable matter of mofs foil. 

Flow-mofs, in its natural, undrained, and undigefted flare, 
remains dilated with water, like a wetted fponge : when pro^ 
perly drained and digefled by culture, its dimenfions contract 
in a very great proportion. His Lordfhip is of opinion, that 
every yard in depth of his flow-mofs might, by thefe means, 
be confolidated into perhaps one inch, in depth, of real made 
mould. 

It would appear, then, phyfically poflible, though by no 
means advifedly practicable, by a continued repetition of the 
above mentioned culture, (deepening always the drain as the 
mofs foil fubfided), to reduce, at length, the mofs foil of our 
deeped flows, to a foil of very moderate thicknefs lying upon 
the fubfoil *. 



In enlarging his lawn, the Lord Chief Baron found it ne» 
ceffary to remove the Duke's gardens, which were too near to 
the houfe ; and he adventured to pitch upon a fpot for that 

purpofe 

• Sir James's mode of culture, of which this account was drawn up in 1796; 
to correfpond, in principle, with that lately fallen upon in Ayrfhirc. 



Appendix, No. I. 3 '? J 

purpofe (othersvife lying the mod convenient) upon the eaft- 
ern extremity of the fiow-mofs already mentioned. He was 
thus, in fome meafure, neceffitated to attempt a culture of 
flow-mofs, that fhould reduce it to a garden mould. About 8 
Scots acres are enclofed, by a wall of ftone and lime, from 
9 to 10 feet in height ; it having been, previously, neceffary 
to cut a trench or lane through the mofs (which, on the welt 
fide, was from 8 to 10 feet deep), down to the till bottom, 
of fufficient width to admit of cart accefs for the materials of 
building, as well as to obtain a firm foundation for the wall. 

A contrivance, in the original formation of the wall, faves, 
in a good meafure, the expence, and prevents the damage to 
the wall, from the repeated nailing up of the fruit trees. 
Slates are built into it, at regular diftances, with one end 
projecting about five or fix inches from it : thefe ends are 
perforated, fo as to admit rods, of a finger's thicknefs, for fup- 
porting the branches. 

The foil of the garden hath been made in the following 
manner : 

Fifh ponds have been dug in different places, fo fituated 
that every part of the garden may be drained into one or other 
of them, with proper outlets for difcharging the furplus 
water, when it rifes above a certain level. The mofs foil is 
carted away, or part of it is prepared and burnt, till it is 
taken off to within a foot or eighteen inches of the fubfoil ; 
which laft is of various qualities, though generally inclined to 
clay; when the aflies from the burnt mofs, with lime and 
dung, are fpread upon the mofs foil left remaining. The 
whole of the left foil, with the manure upon it, and as much 
of the fubfoil as can be turned up by the plough, are then well 
mixed and incorporated, by repeated ploughings (in the courfe 
of cropping with turnip or potato) till the foil i3 perfectly made 
fo deep as the plough can reach. 

Subfequent to this plough culture, the land is trenched by 
the fpade, fo as to double the ftaple of the foil. The made 
foil is, by this procefs, placed undermoft ; whilft an equal 
quantity of unmade fubfoil, from the bottom of the trenches, 

is 



384 Appendix, No. I. 

is laid above it, to be afterwards made in its turn. Care is 
taken, in forming the trenches, to keep the fubfoil (left un- 
touched by the fpade) in fuch a declivity, that the water, fink- 
ing through the cultivated foil, may have a clear defcent, un- 
der it, upon the fubfoil. A covered drain of loofe ibones is alfo 
formed, all along the lower fide of the declining fubfoil, into 
which this water falls, and by which it is conveyed into one 
of the ponds. The furface is alfo formed, at fame time, to a 
Hope correfponding to that given to the fubjacent fubfoil -, 
that fo there may, in every fhape, be a proper defcent for the 
water into the covered drain, whether it runs upon the fur- 
face, or finks through the made foil to the till bottom. 

In the trenching procefs, each particular break, into which 
the garden is divided, is thus formed to one equal dope, both 
in upper furface and fubfoil: the different kinds of foils, where 
they vary in quality in the fame field, are alfo fometimes now 
mixed together. The new foil, turned up in the trenching, 
is treated with raw mofs, mofs afhes, lime and dung ; till, 
by tillage with fallow crops, it is alfo made : fo that, at length, 
a foil is formed of from eighteen inches to two feet in depth, 
upon the whole ; producing garden fluffs, and fmall fruits, 
in abundance. 

The garden is furnifhed with a vinery and a peach-houfe, 
the produce of which have hitherto been very great. 

As one encouragement to the cultivation of Flow-Moffes, 
and inhabitation of their vicinity, it may not be improper to 
obferve, that few families in the kingdom have enjoyed more 
uninterrupted health than Sir James's. So falubrious is the 
air of Whim, that (though very many working people, from 
all quarters of the country, have been conftantly employed in 
the improvements there, for now upwards of fixty-five years) 
I am afiured by Sir James, that the ague is a difeafe unknown, 
— (See article Climate, in the Report.) 



Befides the flow-mofs, his Lordfhip has had long experience 
in the cultivation of mofs foil cultivat cable by the plough ; as ob- 
ferved, under the article Soil, in the Report. 

This 



Appendix, No. I. 3S5 

This kind of mofs foil is generally 'found upon the decli- 
vities of hills. Though, from this fituation, it is more difficult 
to account for its original formation, it is, neverthelefs, a foil, 
in every agricultural view, of the fame compofition as flow- 
mofs, only more confolidated, from the more ready paffage of 
the water from it : Like flow-mofs, however, it abforbs, re- 
tains, and is dilated by water, as a fponge, while it remains 
in its natural (late, unrotted and undigefted. 

This foil is, very commonly, more thin at the top of the 
declivity, deeper about the middle of the defcent, (from a dip 
that there often takes place in the fubfoil), and again more 
{hallow at the bottom ; extending, at deepeft, frequently to the 
depth of near four feet. 

His Lordfhip diftinguifhes this foil, as it has occurred to 
him in practice, into two kinds ; as characterized by their 
natural appearance, previous to culture, indicative of their 
different ftates, as to drynefs, and confequent folidity. The 
one kind is covered with bent, and other green herbage, being 
generally full of fprings j the other, more dry and folid, is 
covered with heath. 

As lime is almolt the only attainable manure, for rotting 
fuch foils, and converting the vegetable matter of which they 
are compofed into mould ; and as lime is found to have little 
effect upon land foaked with wet; it would appear necefTary 
to begin the procefs of culture, in the firjl of thefe foils, by 
draining with open ditches and covered drains. The potato 
culture, in lazy-beds, might be ufed, as far as can be accom- 
plithed, in the fame manner as in flow-mofs, mutatis mutandis ; 
which, at the fame time, effects both purpofes of draining 
and of digefting the foil. As this expenfive culture, however, 
cannot, with profit, be carried on upon a large fcale, unlefs 
in the neighbourhood of towns, (where the inhabitants may 
be induced to undertake the culture, for their own profit, and 
at their own rifle ; or where a fufficiency of hands may be 
procured, for hire ; and, at the fame time, a ready market for 
the produce, without long carriage, the expence of which its 
value cannot bear), it would feem necefTary, in other fituations, 

3 D to 



^86 Appendix, No. I. 

« 

to depend upon the lefs expenfive culture of the plough, 
wherever the cultivation is attempted upon a large fcale. If 
the land cannot be laid fufficiently dry, for liming, by drains, 
without incurring a difproportionate expence, a judicious ma- 
nagement of the plough may be made to come in aid of 
draining. It fhould be broken up, as foon as it is rendered 
dry enough to be capable of being ploughed. When, after it 
has lain a fuffkient time for the thorough rotting of the fward, 
it may, by two or three furrows, in the drought of Summer, 
be formed into convex ridges, the lime may be then ap- 
plied ; and, in courfe of culture, as the foil digefts and con- 
iblidates, it will be found more and more eafy to rid it 
of fuperfluous rnoifture, from the convexity of the ridges, 
than while it remained in the fpongy ftate, of raw undigefted 
mofs. 

In regard to the fecond more dry and folid fpecies of mofs 
foil, it would feem proper to apply the lime upon the furface ; 
and to allow the field to lye two years in that ftate, previous to 
ploughing ; when it will give an immediate return, in crops, 
for the culture. 

By liming, ploughing, and repeated liming, or otherwife 
manuring of the frefh mofs foil, as it is turned up (taking crops, 
to pay for the expence, betwixt the repeated fallowings), the 
mofs is gradually digefted and compacted ; when, after the fub- 
foil (generally of a clay confiftence) is reached by the plough, 
and properly mixed, and made to a proper depth of flaple, this 
foil is formed into all that perfection of which it is fufceptible. 
It may thenceforth be treated, in the routine of farming, with 
the dung bred upon the farm as manure, or with compoft of 
mofs and lime, &c. 

All mofs foils feem to poffefs a ftrong vegetative power, in 
the production of graffes, the blade of grains, and the ftems 
of plants cultivated for the root : They fhow themfdves infe- 
rior (in their high fituations in this county, and in our back- 
ward climate) in carrying on their productions to maturity. 
Probably, in lower fituations, and more favourable climates, 
they might prove the moil productive of all foils. Mofs varies 

in 



Appendix, No. I. 387 

in quality, in our climate -, the mod folid being the moil fer- 
tile, and vice verfa. Its qualities may probably be alfo fufcep- 
tible of great variations, from difference of climate. 

One comparative advantage is pollened by the generality of 
ploughable mofs foils, in this county— that, from their high 
elevation, they are little liable to be affected by the Harveft 
froils, noticed in the Report, article Climate. 

Upon the whole, when the expence of cultivation is com- 
pared to the return of profit, it would appear, that the cultiva- 
tion oi jlow-mofi, in this county, is an undertaking unfuitable 
to a farmer, upon any length of leafe •, unfuitable even to a 
proprietor, except with the indifpenfable view of hiding a nui- 
fance in a policy— unlefs, indeed, a gentleman of fortune (in- 
ftead of fpending his income in thofe enjoyments fuited to his 
rank, which perilh in the ufe) mould choofe to employ what 
he faves from thefe, in thus eftablifliing a permanent value, 
which may remain, as his mark behind him, when he takes 
leave of this world. As to ploughable mofs foils, their culture 
may be undertaken, with great propriety, by the landholder, 
with the probable profpeft of being compenfated, in the return, 
for the expence of outlay : Their culture could fcarcely fuit a 
farmer, except upon a leafe of confiderable endurance, or in the 
near vicinity of lime. 



APfen- 



APPENDIX, N°- II, 



Essay on the Diseases of Sheep : Drawn up from Com- 
munications fumiJJied by Dr Gillespie, Phyfcian in E~ 
dinburgh ; together with Hints by Dr Coventry, Profefibr 
of Agriculture in the Univer/ity. With Notes, fuggefed from 
Obfervations in 'Tiveeddale, CSV. 

Tt is fuppofed by thofe who have beft accefs to information 
on the fubject, that the ifland of Great Britain contains 
about thirty millions of (beep ; and that of thefe, from three 
to four millions annually die of difeafe. Were we to average 
the large fheep of England, with thofe of lefs value in Scot- 
land, the annual lofs, from this caufe, would not be lefs than 
from two to three millions Sterling : A lofs which is certain- 
ly of very ferious concern to the nation at large, as well as 
to individuals. The mortality of fheep, by difeafe, is more 
than double that of the human race — if we abftra£t, from the 
latter, the wafte occafioned by wars, and by the accidents in- 
cident to commerce and navigation. It muft therefore appear 
to be an object of great national importance, to invefligate 
the means of preventing, or curing, the difeafes to which 
fheep are expofed. 

In the following Eflay, we do not pretend to offer a per- 
fect treatife upon the fubjecl. All we aim ar, is to give a fhort 
catalogue of the various difeafes, and to fuggeft, under each 
article, the mod obvious means either of prevention, or of 
cure. On a fubjedl which has never been fcientifkally in- 

veftigatcdj 



Appendix, No. It. 383 

veftlgated, miftakes are unavoidable ; and thefe we leave to 
be corrected by the candour of the reader. Mod authors 
who have treated of the difeafes of brute animals, have fiufi- 
ed their books with a long feries of noftrums and prefcrip- 
tions, where the ingredients are exceflively complex, and 
which either do not mix, or deftroy each other's effect. We 
{hall endeavour to avoid this error j and leave all doubtful 
cafes to future inveftigation. 

Some difeafes are peculiar to lambs, and others to flieep 
at a more advanced period of life. 

Lambs are fubje£r. to 

I. Diarrhceciy or Loofenefs. 

This diforder is commonly called, by the fhepherds, pin- 
ning ,' becaufe, when the purging has advanced a certain 
length, a glutinous matter flows from the anus, which faftens' 
down the tail to the hips, and prevents any farther paflage. 
When fhepherds obferve this, they commonly feize the lamb, 
and having warned and difengaged the tail, they rub the parts 
with the earth of a mole-hill, or other powdery matter, to 
prevent the tail from (ticking in future. Hogs lard, or fweet 
oil, would anfwer much better for dm purpofe. The difeafe 
is caufed by wet and cold in Spring, together with the ewes 
eating too greedily of foft moid, grafs. Removing them to 
heathy, or poorer paftures, where altringent or aromatic 
plants abound, prevents, or cures the diforder *. 

II. CioUc, 



* Among lambs, fed with their dams, upon the rich improved pafture ol 
ian parks, pinning never occurs ; whence, it is probable that it originates 
milk, concodted from poorer pafture, which gives more curd than cream to the 
milk, rendering the excrements of the lamb more viicid. When the mothers 
have little milk, the lambs are very rarely pinned. Pinning is therefore considered 
as a favourable fympton of the lamb's being well nurfed. It is not confidercd as a 
difeafe, in Tweeddale ; though, if not redrefled, it would be productive of difcalc. 
It is conlidered as an accident to be guarded againft ; and which, like other accU 
dents to which fheep arc liable, requites the fhepherd to be coaftantly waiki;:- 
through his flock. No Tweeddale farmer would, on this account, remove h:s 
ewes and lambs to poorer pafture., where the hmb* would be work qui fed ; 



3<p Appendix, No. II. 

II. Cholic, or Burjling. 

This diieafe is incident to lambs, from forfeiting them- 
felves with an excefs of milk. Shepherds call the difeafe, 
burjling ; becaufe the milk, apparently, ferments in the fto- 
mach ; and, by the difengagement of gafes, the interlines are 
burfl. It feems perfectly analogous to the cholic in cows, a- 
rifing from an exceflive feed of red clover in a wet ftate. 
The ewes acquire this fatal excefs of milk, by feeding too 
freely upon foft fucculent grafs in Spring. The evil may be 
prevented or cured, by removing them, for fome time, to a 
poorer paflure. 

III. — Vermin. 

There are three fpecies of infects which are very hurtful to 
fheep. i. TheJJjeep-Jly, which abounds chiefly in the fouthern 
parts of the ifland, and is molt troublefome to lambs. Smear- 
ing with rancid oil of any kind, feems the moil effectual reme- 
dy againft its attacks. 2. Maggots, die osjlrum ovis. Thefe 
are flies in their chryfolite ftate, and arife from eggs which 
flies have depofited, probably in fome fmall boil, or difeafed 
part of the animal's (kin. They eat into the parts where they 

are 



know;, that if the finned Iamb is timeoufly noticed, and relieved by pulling up the 
tail, all danger is removed. 

Falling a-wald, is another accident which muft, in like manner, be guarded againft. 
When ewes heavy with lamb, or lheep that are fat, or even merely full fleeced, 
fall, or lye down upon their backs, in a hollow, or even upon flat ground, they 
will often lye in this pofition, if not diflurbed, or fet upon their legs, till (in con- 
fl-qucnce of the fwelling of the belly, which fpeedily takes place, if the weather is 
hot, the belly full, and the pofition be with the head down hill) death enlues : 
If not raifed, they foon become incapable of railing themfelves, and will often die 
jn the fpace of half an hour ; the contents of the fwelled abdomen probably ob- 
fhucting the motion of the lungs, or the brain being apoplectically comprcfled by 
the over-diftcnfion or rupture of the blood-vefiels of the head. The fell, ever- 
watchful, and far-feeing raven, is always ready to attack them in this helplefs fi- 
tuation; tearing out, in a few moments, both their eyes and their tongue, even 
before they are dead* When let on their lees before the belly has fwolA 
much, no harm cniues. C. F. 



Appendix, No. II. 391 

are fattened, produce ulcers, teaze, and at la ft: deftroy the life 
of the animal. The parts infefted fhould be clipped bare, and 
warned repeatedly with black foap and warm water. Laftly, 
the parts may be covered over with the common fmearing oint- 
ment. If this does not operate a perfect cure, recourfe may- 
be had to the means juft now to be mentioned. 3. Ticks, or 
keds, the hypobefca ovhia. The fmearing ointment generally 
prevents, or kills this in feci:. But if this fhould not happen, or 
if the fheep are not fmeared, infects of every kind may be ef- 
fectually killed, by (lightly rubbing the parts affected with 
mercurial ointment, compofed of three ounces of hogs lard, 
rubbed up with half a dram of finely-powdered corrofive fub- 
limate. To this ointment, may be added a little of the fpirit 
of turpentine. Coal-oil is powerfully deftruetive to infects of 
every kind •, but whether it may not prove injurious to the 
health or fleece of a fheep, has not yet been afcertained by ex- 
periment. A decoction or diftillation from the gall-plant, 
which abounds in many moffes and muirs, is known to be very 
fatal to infects of every kind ; and a fheep may be fafely warn- 
ed with this juice. The juice of tobacco is alfo much recom- 
mended as a poifon for thofe infects which infeft fheep. 

The two laft fpecies of infects are chiefly hurtful to fheep of 
a vear old, or more ; and the difeafes which follow, are chiefly 
confined to fheep of this defcription. 

XV.—STV&, or Itch. 

This difeafe is incident to fheep in fome particular paftures, 
fituations, and feafons, more (nan to others. The prediipoflng 
caufe, feems to be a relaxed habit 01 body, produced by pover- 
ty, or lcannefs : though fome fheep are fubject to it that are 
fat, and otherwife in good condition. The difeafe feldom 
feems to originate with fuch fheep, but to be conveyed to 
them by infection. Sheep tliat are regularly tarred, or fmear- 
ed, we believe, are feldom infected with this difeafe. If the 
difeafe be partial, perhaps the heft remedy would be, to clip 
the affected parts as bare as poflible, and rub them occafionally 

with 



392 Appendix, No. II. 

with the common fmearing ointment, to which may be added 
a little Venice turpentine. They fhould alfo be wafhed, once 
or twice a week, with black foap and water. But if this prove 
ineffectual, or if the difeafe has gone to a great extremity, the 
animal fhould firft be wafhed as clean as poffible, in a pond or 
rill of water, to purge away all the accumulated virus, or in- 
fecting matter, from the wool. A little black foap may be of 
great ufe in warning. Then the whole body may be fmeared 
with juice of tobacco; and, after the animal becomes dry, may 
be rubbed with butter mixed with powdered brimftone : — or 
brimftone, mixed with the fmearing ointment, would anfwer 
better. A little of the fulphur may, meanwhile, be thrown 
down its throat. If this treatment, being twice or thrice re- 
peated, after an interval of feveral days, fhould prove ineffec- 
tual, recourfe muft be had to the mercurial ointment formerly 
defcribed, compofed of three ounces of hogs lard, well rubbed 
in a mortar with half a drachm of finely-powdered corrofive 
fublimate : — or the fame proportion of corrofive fublimate, well 
mixed with three ounces of the common fmearing ointment, 
will anfwer equally well. The animal being fmeared. with 
this ointment, will foon be effectually cured. Meanwhile, the 
difeafed animal mould b? invigorated, by being put upon fub^ 
flantial food *, 

V. 



* John Loch Efq. of Rachan, obferves, that it would be proper to add to 

this account of the fcab, that the matter difcharged, mixing with the wool, and 

-"tying, forms a hard, impenetrable cruft, which he has observed of half an inch 

in thicknefs ; that it is vain to think of curing it by any external application, 

*.':il this is removed ; and that you might as well attempt to cure a man of the 

igch, by rubbing butter and brimftone upon his coat, inftead of his naked lkin. 

the fcurf, thus formed, muft be removed, by iuaking and walhing it with 

lime-water and foap, and icraping it clean to the quick with a blunt knife. 

i , then be fucccfsfully cured by the ointment mentioned in this Eil'ay ; or 

ch is a more cleanly and eafier-formed remedy) by diflblving half a drachm of 

the corn/live fublimate of mercury in a chopin bottle of whiiky and water, and 

unfiling the parts repeatedly with the iblution, which he has always found effectual, 

ppon two or three application; 

Ykcc?' 



Appendix, No. II. 393 



V. — Braxy, or Sichiefs. 

This difeafe Is of an inflammatory nature; and there are 
three fpecies of it, which are very different from each other, 
Thefe are, 

1. Inflammation of the bowels, commonly called dry-bfaxy. 
This difeafe is moft fatal to young and robuft fheep, about 
fix or feven months old, called, in many parts of the ifland, 
hogs. It is more deftructive upon fome farms, than others ; 
and, even upon thefe, in one feafon more than another. In 
a hog-fence, or pafture, capable of keeping thirty fcore of hogsf, 
there is, fome years, a lofs of from three to four fcore. This 
is a very ferious matter, as each of thefe would fell, in the 
Spring, or beginning of Summer, for half a guinea, or eleven 
(hillings. This difeafe begins at thofe times when inflamma- 
tory 



Except the brealjbaiv, or dyfentery, (Article VIII. of this Eflay), the fcab is 
the only difeafe from which communication by infection is dreaded in Tweeddale; 
and here, the danger of general infection of the whole flock is greatly to be (eared. 
It feems not a very deadly difeafe ; but, from the conftant difquietude in which 
it keeps the animal, from the perpetual itching, it effectually prevents its fatten- 
ing, befides making it lofe its wool. When it has thoroughly pervaded a flock, 
it is very difficultly eradicated. The ground itfeif becomes infected ; and it com- 
municates the infection even to a found ftock brought upon it. Every broken 
piece of ground upon the hill fides, prefenting a perpendicular or overhanging face, 
againft which the infected animals can rub their backs or fides, becomes charged 
with the infecting matter, which readily communicates the difeafe to the found 
fheep, who delight alfo in rubbing themfelves. Befides curing rhe infected ani- 
mals, care fhould alfo be taken to beat down the infected furface of thefe rubbing 
places, elfe the animal is only cured to be infected anew If the ground abounds 
with projecting rocks, the furfaces againft which the fheep rub themfelves, fhould 
be carefully wafhed. After all, the fafeft courfe is to fell off the infected ftock to 
the butcher, and replenish with black cattle for a feafon ; when, if the inucting 
matter confifts of animalcules, as is fnppofed of the human itch, a Winter's froll 
would probably deflroy them. 

A fort of itch, though feemingly noway inveterate, almoft always attacks 
fheep, when firft fet to feed upon turnips. It is cafily cured, by immediately an- 
ointing the infected parts with a liquor compofed of turpentine, with decoction of 
tobacco, and afhts of broom, Icing tint commonly ufed in this county. 

3 e c r 



394 Appendix, No. II. 

tory diforders are mod apt to prevail, in the months of Octo- 
ber and November, and is produced by the common caufes of 
inflammation, cold, dxertion, external injury, &c. During 
thefe months, flight frofts fct in ; and the ground, in the 
morning, is often covered with hoar frofl, or what is called, 
in fome parts of Scotland, rhime. It is probable, that eating 
.grafs covered with hoar frofl:, may be one caufe of the difor- 
der. If fo, moving the animals about, and preventing them 
from eating, until the froft is melted by the fun, may tend to 
prevent the difeafe. 

This difeafe runs its courfe very rapidly. When the fhep- 
herd leaves his flock at night upon their layers, he fometimes 
obfcrves a hog look dull, loitering behind, and reftlefs •, fome- 
times lying down, and fuddenly getting up again : and, in 
the morning, he will often find it dead, or nearly fo. At 
other times, he will difcover no apparent ailment among his 
flock ; and, in the morning, he may find one or two dead, or 
dying. From this it appears, that the difeafe is very acute, 
and of the inflammatory kind. 

This is farther evinced by the appearances after death* 
when the carcafes are opened. Their bellies are exceflively 
fwelled, and diflended with a putrid gas : the whole intef- 
tines being red and inflamed, gangrenous, and in fome degree 
mortified. This putrid taint feems to be communicated to 
the whole carcafe, as all the mufcular parts, and fat, fmell 
ftrong4y of corruption. The hogs that die of this difeafe, are 
frequently fat and in good order ; which fhews that the dif- 
order is of fhort duration *. 

We 



* John Lock Efq. of Rachan, obfcrves, in general, in regard to the fheep, that 
it k an animal of a very coftive habit, difcharges little urine, and that fo acrid, as 
to burn up grafs like a folution of volatile alkali ; it drinks little, and perfpires 
much of a gleety or greafy nature, as is perhaps the cafe with all fur-bearing ani- 
mals : Hence, all its internal difeafes are highly inflammatory, and run rapidly 
into a ftate cf putrefcence, proving quickly mortal : Hence, its natural cecono- 
my is cafily difturbed by wet feafons, whilft it gets nothing to eat but wet grafs ; 
its body, meanwhile 3 being covered with its woo), drenched like a wet fponge. 

The 



Appendix, No. II. 395 

We have already mentioned the eating of grafs, which is 
covered with hoar frofl, as a very probable immediate caufe 
of this diforder. — But is there any predifpcfing caufe ? 

In anfwer to this queftion, we (hall adduce a facl:, which 
is well authenticated. — Many parts of the Weftern Highlands- 
of Scotland had been for ages occupied by horfes and horned 
cattle. At the introduction of flieep into thofe diftricls, the 
belt grafs was that which had fprung from the tath and excre- 
ments of thefe animals. During many years after thefe dis- 
tricts were converted into fheep farms, braxy remained un- 
known. It crept in at lafl, and the feverity of the difeafe 
was long, in proportion to the length of time the paflures 
had been occupied by fheep. 

From this we would infer, that pasturing upon their own 
tath is a predifpofing caufe of braxy among fheep ; and that a 
frequent alternation of the fpecies of flock, upon every fheep 
paflure, might ferve to prevent the evil. This idea corref- 
ponds with the general laws of the Supreme Being, who cer- 
tainly never intended, that this earth mould be monopolized 
by any particular fpecies of animals ; but has fo ordered mat- 
ters, that the happinefs of individuals fhall refult from the 
happinefs of the whole family of animated beings. 

Hence, it would appear a beneficial practice in (tore farm- 
ers, in place of one hog's fence, to keep two or more enclo- 
fures of this defcription, and change the flock upon them 
every feafon. This we know to be contrary to general prac- 
tice ; and that what is calied the bog's fence, is carefully guard- 
ed againfl the intrufion of every other animal *. 



The comparative health of pet-Jhab, or thoie feeding and houfed with cows, at all 
feafons, he attributes more to covered flicker from the weather, than to fuperiori- 
ty of feeding ; and has therefore refolved to make all his fheep pets, in fo far as 
to provide them with (hades, to retire to in coartc weather. From the catur-jl 
constitution of the flieep, he is of opinion, that more is to be expected from at- 
tending to the rationale of their management, the ju-jantia and Uder.tla, than from 
medicine, which can rarely be timcouily adminiftered. 

* In regard to the quality of paflure, as a caufe of fichneft, T.veeddale farm- 
en feem of opinionj that it aiifcs from the foufnefi .' tie </;.■'." u t':r*et in the 



396 Appendix, No. II. 

Lambs, immediately after they are weaned, are frequently 
fent to poor pafture, which is called blrning them. Now, this 
appears to be a very bad practice ; for the confequence is, 
that they fall off considerably, before they get at the rich grafs 
in the hog's fence, of which ihey eat too freely ; and thus be- 
come difpcfed to the difeafe treated of. Children, and all 
doinefticated animals, are carefully fed with nourifhing food, 
for a confiderable time after they are weaned •, and yet they 
fall off for fome time. It would certainly be better to give 
the lambs the hog's fence at once, and ufe every precaution to 
prevent them from falling off. 

As the difeafe is generally advanced to a dangerous height 
before it is obferved, we fear that medicine affords but a very 
faint hope of cure. The difeafe being inflammatory, the fhep- 
herd fhould attempt to bleed the diftreffed creature as foon as 
poflible j which he can eafily do, by cutting off part of the 

tail, 



hog- fences, which are never eaten bare. Some, therefore, take care to have the 
land, to be faved for the hog-fence, oDce eaten as bare as poflible early in Sum- 
mer, by the black cattle upon the farm, or by old fheep. 

It feems afcertained, in Tweeddale, that land winch has been in ufe to be pas- 
tured by older fheep, when converted into a hog-fence, is not liable for fome 
time to produce ficknefs. Two accidental experiments occurring, in which this 
practice took place, in confequence of new arrangements, in the farms of Hare- 
haup, in Eddlefbne parilh, and of Lyne, in Lyne parifh, confirm this conclulion. 
It is farther confirmed, by an experiment of Mr Murray, tenant in Flemington 
mill. — About 20 years ago, he bought in different parcels of lambs for hogs, and 
laid them upon the hog-fence, of his hog-farm of Broughtonhaup, in Broughton 
parilh : In one of the parcels, of much higher condition than the reft, the ficknefs 
broke out to fuch extent, that they were dying at the rate of two or three daily ; 
fa that the whole parcel feemed in imminent riik : He transferred this whole par- 
cel to the farm of Fingland, in Newlands parifh, where only old fheep were kept, 
putting them on fome of the lower pafture of that farm, which had been hained 
for feeding the crock ewes, and transferring a proportional quantity of thefe ewes 
to Broughtonhaup hqg-fence ; — not one of the lambs died upon Fingland. To 
the fame tffe£t, it deferves attention, that in final 1 farms, not admitting of dif- 
tin<fr hirfeling, where, of courfe, old and young fheep pafture, mixed together, hogs 
are very little liable to ficknefs, though perhaps worfe in other refpetfs. Thefe 
fudts cotrefpond with Mr Gillcfpic of (Jknquich's otfervations. (See Report, 
page 196.) C. F. 



Appendix, No. II. 3 p 7 

tail, or by nicking it underneath, or by cutting off part of the 
ears. The animal mould then be removed to a houfe, or 
flied, and attempts made to produce evacuations. In brute 
animals, it is difficult to produce thefe by medicines admi- 
niftered by the mouth. The fpeedieft and molt effedual me- 
thod is, by injeaions into the reftum, or anus. Such injec- 
tion may confift of a fmall handful of camomile flowers, two 
tea-fpoonfuls of anife feeds, and as much carvey feeds ; to 
be boiled flowly in a Scotifh mutchkin, or Englifh pint, of 
milk and water, until the half is evaporated. The liquor 
mould then be (trained off, and two tea-fpoonfuls of caftor 
oil added : or, if this is not at hand, the fame quantity of 
good fweet oil may be ufed. This mould be adminiftered 
warm, by an injeftion bag and pipe ; or by an elaftic gum 
bottle, with a pipe properly fitted. Nothing can be eafier, 
than to give a fheep a clyfter in this way ; and, in all probabi- 
lity, it will have a happy effect, in evacuating the bowels, and 
procuring relief. 

If this does not operate very foon, it may be repeated an 
hour after, and a large tea-fpoonful of common fait added to 
the former ingredients. If, after all, the animal does not feem 
relieved, another clyfter may be given, confifting of a fmall tea- 
cupful of warm milk and water, to which are added from twen- 
ty to twenty-five drops of laudanum * . 

As 



* When phyfician to the army, I found inflammation of the bowels a very 
common complaint. It was attended with cortivenefs, and a large quantity of air 
was generated in the ftomach and inteftines, which was highly diftreffing to the pa- 
tient. Each of the following clyfters I found of great ufe : 

Warm water, or water gruel, eight or ten ounces; Caftile foap, two or three 
drachms; Glauber's purging falts, half an ounce; fallad oil, one ounce.— Mix, and 
to be thrown up the rectum. 

.If this did not procure a flool in the fpace of an hour or two, it was repeated. 
When the patient had had a flool (within two or three hours after) I ufed the fol- 
lowing : 

Warm water, or water gruel, ten ounces ; nitrous sthcr, two drachms ; fallad 
o,l, one ounce; and if there was pain or uneafinds, I added to it forty, fifty, or 
lixty drops of laudanum. 

Wm. H Matheiv, M.D. 
Ho- 27, Jfabbone Placi, Oxford Root ,j^ 



398 Appendix, No. II. 

As there is a great diftenfion of the ftomach and bowels, 
arifing from gafes, or elaftic vapours, generated in the interlines, 
Mr Walker of Cumberland, in a treatife he wrote upon the dif- 
eafes of brute animals, has fuggefted a remedy for this diforder, 
which has often proved fuccefsful in his diftridfc. It confifls in 
pufhing down their throats a flexible tube, fuch as Dr Monro 
has recommended, and which has proved fuccefsful in relieving 
cows that had over-gorged themfelves with red clover early in 
the feafon. This feerns a probable mean of affording tempora- 
ry relief j and every fhepherd that has the care of the hog flock, 
mould be furnifhed with one of thefe tubes, adapted to the fize 
of fneep, for trying the experiment upon thofe hogs that labour 
under the difeafe. 

2. Watery Braxy. — This differs from the former refpet~ling 
the feat of the diforder, though the effects are nearly the fame. 
It is analogous to the fupprefhon of urine, a difeafe frequent 

among 

(Addition to the preceding Not:.) 
From November, at fmearing time, till the Chriftmas (this year'1797), two 
facts, in regard to the mode of cure, have been flated to me, and which, I am dil- 
pofed to think authentic. — In the farm of Drummelzier, parifli of Drummclzier, 
three hogs (out of four upon which the experiment was Iried) recovered, upon 
bleeding, and having poured down their throats a decoction of tobacco — about a fin- 
ger's length of twill tobacco boiled in water till the water was diminished to a gill, 
bang the dofe for each. — In the farm of Broughton-haup, parifh of Broughton, 
within the fame fpace of time, nine or ten (out of fixteen or feventeen upon whom 
the experiment was made) recovered, upon bleeding, and having an injection of to- 
bacco-fmoke administered from a common tobacco-pipe, by kindling the tobacco, 
infertlng the pipe- (hank into the anus, and blowing : the experiment, however, 
was not fo fuccefsful in fome later inltances. I have, long ago, feen a ewe cured by 
bleeding, and injection of Glauber falts from a common clyfter-bag and pipe.— 
Where braxy breaks out, it might he ufeful, where attainable, to lay the hogs, 
nightly, upon dry ground, if the hog-fencc is wet ; the chillircfs of wet ground 
contributing, no doubt, to the production of inflammation : Clover foggage, or 
turnip, might be good preventatives, from inducing a lax habit. Mr Gillefpie in 
Glenquich obferves, that faltpctre has been fucccfstully nfed in the black fpauld, a 
difeafe of young black cattle, fnppofed analogous to braxy in fhetp, both as a pre- 
ventative and cure. His propofal, of taking the hogs from the hog-fence about 
the beginning of Auguft, and keeping them, from thence till 1 2th September, upon 
coarfc hill-grafs, as a preventative or cure for fickurfs, would not, it is conceived, 
snfwcr in Tweeddabs, as thefe grafies are then faded: It might prevent firknefs, 
L.,l wj- !d induct poverty. & m 



ArPENDix, No. II. 399 

among females of the human fpecies, and caufed by their feden- 
tary habits. Watery braxy confifts in the bladder being over- 
diftended with urine, which raiies violent inflammation in that 
organ, and produces an incapacity to difcharge the urine that is 
accumulated. The confequence is, that the urine regurgitates 
over the fyftem ; fetid gafes taint the whole carcafe, as in the 
former cafe ; the bladder becomes gangrenous, burfls, and the 
animal dies. Young and vigorous fheep are mod liable to this 
fpecies ol braxy, like the former. The immediate caufe of the 
difeafe, is feeding too freely on fucculent diuretic food, and reft- 
ing too long in their layers in the morning. It has been fre- 
quently obferved, that this fpecies of braxy is mod apt to make 
its attacks on Sundays ; becaufe fhepherds generally deep longer 
on Sunday mornings, than other days of the week, and, of 
courfe, allow the hogs to remain too long in their layers. 

This difeafe may be prevented by avoiding too free an ufe 
of fucculent diuretic food, and by moving die animals from their 
layers early in the morning, making them walk about for fome 
time, in order to encourage them to pafs their urine and purl. 

In attempting a cure, it may be known if the bladder is af- 
fected, by a great fulnefs in the lower part of the belly, imme- 
diately above the pubis. The feat of the diforder being difco- 
vered, a female filver catheter, or one of elaflic gum, ought in- 
flantly to be palled through the urethra into the bladder of fe- 
males. This will draw off the urine, and afford inftant relief. 
But this will be more difficult in males, and, if attempted, mult 
be done with a long and properly bent catheter, or bougie. In 
either cafe, when this cannot be effected, a puncture may be 
made into the bladder with a trocar, immediately above the 
pubis, taking care not to wound the inteflines. By either of 
thefe methods the urine may be discharged, and the animal re- 
lieved. 

In other refpects, with a view to allay, or prevent inflamma- 
tion, evacuations fliould be procured by clyfters and warm in- 
jections into the rectum, as already defcribed. If the feveral 
ingredients we have mentioned be not at hand, injections 

fliould 



400 Appendix, No. II. 

fhould be attempted, compofed of warm milk and water, near- 
ly in equal parts. 

3. Coflive Braxy, or Cholic. This is caufed by the faeces 
hardening in, and adhering to the duodenum or rectum, fo 
as to obftruct the paffage, and produce inflammation, and 
confequences fnnilar to thofe already defcribed. The cure 
(hould be attempted by injections and laxative food. 

VI. Sturdy, or Water in the Head. 

This difeafe is particularly incident to hogs of a year or 
18 months old. It confifts of a collection of water generally 
formed upon the external furface of the brain, immediately 
below the cranium j and fometimes, though not often, in the 
centre, or ventricles of the brain. When the water forms in 
the laft mentioned parts, we apprehend it is almoft univerfal- 
ly mortal. 

The diforder is firft difcovered, by the animal not keeping 
up with the reft of the flock, and, by its appearing dull and 
ftupid. It is afterwards obferved to go round in a giddy man* 
ner ; and, at laft, it appears blind, and the pupil of the eye 
feems wide and relaxed. It may continue a long time in this 
way before it dies ; and, we believe, fheep fometimes recover 
of this difeafe without any thing being done for them. They 
are often in good order when they die, as they continue to 
feed tolerably well, until near the laft period. Though fome 
recover, with and without means, perhaps it may be molt ad- 
vifeable to kill them early in the difeafe, provided they be in 
good order ; as this local diftemper does not affect the good- 
nefs of their mutton. 

When the collection of water is on the outfide of the 
brain, it is often cured by thrufting a fharp wire up the ani- 
mals noftrils, until it reaches the water, and opens a paflage 
for it to run off. In other cafes, it is cured by an operation 
which fome fhepherds perform very dexteroufly. The water is 
contained in a bladder, or veficle, generally about the fize of 
a walnut. The part of the fkull, immediately above where it 
is fituated, feels fofter than other parts. This the fhepherd 

difcovers, 



Appendix, No. II. 401 

difcovers, by preffing with his thumb and fingers upon different 
parts of the fore and upper parts of the fkiill. The bone here 
has become thinner, and feels loft ; from which, he is certain 
that the watery collection is formed. After the difeafe has 
gone on a considerable time, and he judges it is ripe for the 
operation, he raifes the fcalp, and lays the bone bare to a fuf- 
ficient breadth, with a (harp knife ; he then difcovers more ac- 
curately the extent of the thin foft part of the bone, and with 
a ftrong and fharp-pointed knife he makes a circular incifion 
in the (kull, raifes up, and takes out the part. He then fees 
the clear thin bladder underneath, which he lays hold of with 
a fmall hook, or the point of a needle, and gently draws it 
out j taking all pollible care that it mould not be broken, or 
the water foilled, which would prove unfavourable to reco- 
very. He finds a considerable hollow in the brain, where the 
bag was fituated, over which he brings the flap of fkin that 
was raifed, fo as to cover it as neatly as pofiible. Over the 
whole he applies a plafter of tar, and leaves the reft to na- 
ture. This operation often proves fuccefsful *. 

VII. Paffy, or Yhorter-iU, or Trembling. ■ 

This difeafe is feated in the nervous fyftem, and is per- 
fectly fimilar to palfy in the human fpecies. It is fometimes 
produced by eating poifonous and ftupifying plants •, and 
fometimes it arifes from weaknefs, or general debility. Fiowers 
of zinc, adminiftered in fmall dofes in bread pills, or the fame 
metal converted into a fait, by union with an acid, is the moll 
powerful known remedy for this diforder. 

VIII. Diarrhoea, cr Cling, or Break/haw, 

Is a loofenefs, or violent purgation, which fometimes 
feizes fheep after a hard winter, when they are too ra'hly put 

3 F upon 

* The operation by a wire, or by the trepan, which are indiscriminately ufed, 
may fucceed in Tweeddale, once in thrice at an average. Of late, a gimlet lias 
been bored twice into the fkull and brain, from the root of the nollril, in a direc- 
tion to the root of the h >rn on the oppofite fide of the head — apparently" with 
equal fjiccefi. however fecmingly mortal tfie wounds. C, l\ 



402 Apendix, No. It. 

upon young fucculent grafs. 'The cure (hould be attempted 
by making them feed upon aftringent plants, fuch as tormen- 
til, bark and leaves of oak an,d willow, or bruifed twi^s of 
thefe plants. If thefe do not foon check the diforder, opiates 
and laudanum may be adminiftered : From 15 to 20 or 25; 
drops of laudanum, thrown upon a piece of wheaten bread," 
which the animal is made to fwallow, will foon check the 
diforder •, and it mould be repeated, if it returns with violence. 
Or, the laudanum may be dropped among a little warm milk, 
and poured down its throat *. 

Another fpecies of diarrhoea frequently occurs in the lad 
ftage of chronic diforders, and is only to be cured by promot- 
ing the ftrength of the animal. 

IX.— Ret. 

The general difcriminating character of this difeafe is, 
that its feat is in the glandular fyftem ; though many different 
diforders are confounded under this name. The diforder is 
either partial, and confined to particular glands ; or general, 
and affecting the whole fyftem. 

1. Tul- 



* John Loch, Efquire, takes notice of what is called breakjba-<v, or breadfhait\ 
in Twceddale, as a difeafe analogous to dyfentery in the human fpecies, occurring 
in the end of wet Summers. The difcharge is thin and greenifh coloured, (he fnp- 
pofts from the wet grafs becoming acid in the ftomach, and turning the gr.ll green) ; 
it is more or lefs mixed with blood, fometimes florid, fometimes gmmous and 
black ; the animal pines for a week or two, and dies ; though fometimes it recovers : 
Warm milk poured down the throat, is the cure ufed by his herd : He propofes, 
when it occurs, to try, in addition, nitre in half-dram dofts, with chalk or other 
abforbent powder, and %o or 30 drops of laudanum, once ox twice a-day, witia fre- 
quent injections of warm milk and water. 



This difeafe (in conformity to Mr Gillt fpie of Glenquich's obftrvations upon 
Cling) is often occafioncd by overheating, when hunted by dogs, in folding thtm, 
&c. or when otherwife feared and terrified. It is confiderably infectious; and, 
probably, the method mentioned by Mr Gillefpic, of tarring part of the flock. 
that the fmell of the tar may prevent the infection, may be of great advantage. 

C. F. 



ArrENDix, No. II. 4°3 

1. Pulmonic Rot, or confumption, moft frequently attacks 
young iheep, efpecially of the more delicate breeds, in unfa- 
vourable fixations and feafons. The moft general caufe is 
cold and wet, efpecially at the end of Winter, or beginning 
of Spring, joined to damp fituations, and fcanty fubfiftence. 
The lungs are found to be tuberculous ; the animal coughs ; 
and, in the progrefs of weaknefs, an cedematous fwelling, 
called in Scotland the pock, ox poah, is formed under the jaw. 
This fwelling is of a dropfical nature, and is merely a fym- 
ptom of weaknefs common to many diforders. It may be 
pierced, and the water it contains drawn out. In this kind 
of rot, the liver is found. 

2. Hepatic Rot has its feat in the liver, and there are feve- 
ral varieties of it. I. Sometimes it appears in the form of 
Jlhlrrus, the liver being hardened and fwoln. This occurs in 

wethers, during a dry year, when their provifions are fcanty, 
and they labour under an over-coftive habit. It may be pre- 
vented by more abundant, and perhaps more fucculent food. 
2. Difordered liver from the fluke-worm, or fafciota hepatica, 
occurring in the biliary duels •, and fometimes, in confequence 
of ulceration, appearing even on the furface of the liver. 
This fpecies of difeafe prevails in fome low, moift grounds, 
more than others ; and, even there, in fome particular animals 
more than others. Its origin is obfeure, and no cure has yet 
been attempted. Mercury is the only remedy that promifes 
to be fuccefsful ; and it may be occafionally adminiftered in 
fmall dofes, in bread pills : or mercurial ointment, fuch as 
we have defcribed, may be rubbed upon the infide of the ani- 
mal's thigh, previoufly laid bare, until the body feems faturat- 
ed. But, when this difeafe is difcovered to be frequent in a flock, 
the whole mould be difpofed of as foon as poffible. 3. Some- 
times the liver is, in fome parts, filled with watery veficjlesj 
and fometimes there is a flight thickening, and apparent in- 
flammation, in particular portions of it. But whether thefe 
fhould be confidered as indications of a primary affection of 
that organ, or only confequences Qi another difordsr, is un- 
certain. 

3. £/- 



404 Apendis, No. II. 

3. General, or true Rot. — This is by far the mod important, 
becaufe the rnoft deftruclive, and, in fome fituations, the molt 
common malady to which fheep are expofed. It arifes from 
deficient, or bad aliment ; whether the food itfelf be bad and 
fcanty, or the animal be incapable of digefting it properly. 
It is mod common from the former caufe, want of food ; 
and the difeafe is much the fame with fcurvy among the hu- 
man race. In addition to thefe caufes, whatever tends to de- 
prefs the fpirits, frequently excites, or at leaft exafperates the 
malady. It is f.iid, that foldiers in a garrifon have been known 
to be feized with the fcurvy on hearing bad news : and I doubt 
not but terrifying fheep with dogs, or other means, may pro- 
duce, or aggravate, this difeafe. We may hence fee what 
mifchief a fox-chafe, or any exhibition of that fort, is calcu- 
lated to bring upon a flock of fheep. The difeafe is alfo faid 
to be produced by feeding upon watered grafs : and hence 
fhepherds, in many parts of Scotland, are careful to keep off 
their fheep from the tender grafs, produced by the occafional 
overflowing of rivulets. Feeding, alfo, in marfhy and damp 
paftures, is known to be a powerful caufe of the rot. 

The only means of cure, are a fupply of good and whole- 
fome food, and invigorating the ftomach, by permitting the 
animal to feed on thofe ftimulating and aromatic herbs which 
are agreeable to its tafte. It is believed, that, on dry fweet 
paftures, where there is a fufficient quantity of furze and 
broom, juniper, and other fhrubs that are palatable to fheep, 
the rot is feldorn heard of. When ground is fown down for 
fheep pafture, parley, thyme, peppermint, and other aroma- 
tic herbs, fhould be fown with the grafs feeds, as thefe plants 
ferve both to prevent and to cure the rot. In addition to 
thefe means of cure, every thing that tends to annoy or deprefs 
the animal, in its weakly ftate, ought to be avoided *. 

X. 



* Shepherds in Tweeddale are generally unable to difHnguifh theft three kinds 
of Rots (as they arc unable alfo to difringuilb the three different kinds of Braxy) 

from 



Appendix, No. If. 405 



X. Foot Rot, 



Is a fuppuration in the glands between and above the hoofs, 
and is precifely the fame with chilblains in the human fpecies. 
The remote caufe of the difeafe is weaknefs, and the imme- 
diate caufe- is cold and wet. Standing, in cold weather, with 
the feet perpetually foaked in water upon wet paftures, pro- 
duces this difeafe ■, and it can only be removed, by procuring 
for the animal warmth and drynefs, while its body is invi- 
gorated by proper food. 



CONCLUSION. 

It is evident, from what has been ftated, that it is much 
eafier to prevent, than to cure, the difeafes of fheep. With a 
view to prevent difeafes, it is unnecefiary here to recapitulate 
what has been fo largely detailed in other works, about drain- 
ing their paftures, and removing its danvpnefs : about fweeten- 
ing the herbage that grows upon thefe paftures : about provid- 
ing proper fhelter, by trees, fod dikes, fowing or planting whins, 
broom, juniper, and other fhrubs : about providing a proper 
fupply of wholefome food during Winter, and efpecially in the 
beginning of Spring, from turnips, and other roots ; or from 
bruifed twigs, where the others cannot be procured. 

We 



from external fymptcms in the live animal. The pouch gives great fnfpicion, 
but is not an infallible fymptom of rot. The old breeding ewes are annually ex- 
amined about Michaelmas. They are judged of as rotten or frefh, by handling; 
the flefh of the rotten being more loofe and flabby : The principal mark is taken 
from the appearance of the eye, in the corner next the nofe, when the eyeball is 
turned to look away from the nofc : in a found fheep, the flefh adhering, in this 
corner, to the eyeball, under the eyelids, is of a florid red colour; in the rotten, 
this flefh is of a dull appearance, and a yellowifh red, fomewhat like the colour 
of a rotten egg when the yolk and white are confounded together. The rotten 
are always fold off among the crocks, no cur; being attempted. ' C. F, 



406 Appendix, No. II. 

We have only one obfervation more to add. In addition to 
the conveniences already exilling upon large (lore farms, we 
conceive it would be an improvement to have what may be 
called an hcfpital park, or enclofure. This mould be fituated 
upon the dryeft and kindlieft: foil in the farm, and mould be 
fown with all the graiTes and aromatic plants which are known 
to be moll friendly to fheep. It may alfo have a convenient 
aflbrtment of thofe fhrubs which are known to be mod palat- 
able to them. It mould alfo be provided with a dry fhed, 
where certain individuals may be confined when neceffary. To 
this afylum the difeafed may be removed ; and, while proper 
means are employed to efFedr. their cure, the infedion will be 
prevented from fpreading among the reft of the flock. 



SUB- 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



Revererd Mr Aitkin, Scone 
Mr William Aitchiion, Newmains 
Mr William Anderfon, Drumbain 
Mr Douglas Ainflie, Cairnbank 
John Anflruther Efq. advocate 
Thomas Adair Efq W. S. Edinburgh 
Mr Adam Anderfon, Traquair 
Mr John Ainflie, landfurveyor, Edin- 
burgh 
John Aiken Efq. Callends 
Mr John Anderfon, Henderland 
Mr Charles Alexander, Eafter Happraw 
Mr Alexander Ainflie 
Samuel Anderfon Efq. banker 
Mr Alexander, furgcon, Dunfermline 



John Box Efq. Wecpingcrofs, Stafford 

AVilliam Brakenbury Efq. Yorkfhire 

Robert Brown Efq. Mavkle, 2 copies 

Mr Alexander Brown, merchant, Linton 

Mr Robert Brown, tenant, Spot 

Mr Hugh Burn, North Berwick 

Captain Robert Bum, do. 

George Bogg Efq. of Broompark, at Bolton 

Mr George Begbie, Queenfrone 

Mr Charles Barclay, Mill of Knockleith, 

Aberdeenfliire 
Mr John Bertram, Montrich, Rofsfhire 
John Bailey Efq. Chillingham, 2 copies 
James Buck Efq. Yorklhire 
Jonathan Binns Efq. M. D. Yorkfhire 
Mr Robert Burton, Haddington 
Wm. Blair Efq. Collinfarm, Perth, 3 cop. 
Mr H. Ballingall, Ledcnurquhart 
Mr Patrick Begbie, Craigindinnis 
Mr Adam Bogg, Linplum 
Mr Andrew Begbie, Baineymains 



Mr Andrew Blair, Tranent 

Mr Peter Brodie, Garvald 

Mr John Brodie, Auldhame 

John Brander Efq. Elgin 

Provoft George Brown, Link wood, Elgin 

D. M. Binning Efq. advocate 

David Boyle Efq. advocate 

C. Brown Efq. of Colfton, advocate 

John Brown Efq. Cultermains 

Mr David Brown, Symington 

Andrew Blane Efq. W. S. 

Mr David Brewfter 

Kiel Ballingall Efq. near Balbirnie 

John Boyle Efq. Wellhall 

Mr David Brown, writer, Edinburgh 

Thomas Bell Efq. Nether Hoifeburgh 

Mr George Blackie, Langhaugh 

Mr Robert Barclay, Haddington 

Mr James Ballantyne, Woodhoufe 

Colonel William Bertram of Carfewtli 

Mr James Bertram, writer, Edinburgh 

Mr Robert Bertram, Waldon 

Mr Roberc Brown, Mufleiburgh 

Mr John Brodie, farmer, Torcraik 

Mi- Adam Brydon, do. Herons 

Mr A. Murray Bertram, Peebles 



Hon. and Rev. James Athole Cochrane 
Mr Alexander Crawford, Rhodes 
Duncan Campbell Efq. Ardgour-houfe 
Mr James Cunningham, Luffnefs-Muir 
William Clutter Efq. fteward to Lord 

Gwydir, Lincolnfliire 
Mr John Campbell 
Mr Richard Collins 
Mr Robert Corry, Brander 
Benjamin Colley Efq. Yorklhire 
Mr Charles Clark, Stafford Green 



4c8 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



Rev. Mr Jofeph Cook, Cliatton 

Mr Andrew Cuthbertfon, Painfton 

Mr James Craig, Traprain 

Mr Thomas Craig, Burmuckcty, Moray 

R.everend Dr Carfrae, Dur.bar 

Thomas Cranftoun Efq W. S. 

Archibald Campbell Efq advocate 

John Clerk Elq advocate 

Archibald Crawl rd Efq. writer, Edin. 

David Cathcart Efq. advocate 

George Ch aimer : Elq. Office for Trade, 

Whitehall, Lon on 
Thomas Currie Efq Bniommuir 
R. N. Campbell Efq. of K.ilzie 
JohnCannichael Efq. of Skirlinj, 1 copies 
Captain Andrew Carmichatl, Weftravv 
Mr James Chalmers, Edinburgh 
General Fletcher Campbell 
Mr James Cunningham, Drem 
Mr John Carnegie, Drylawhill 
Major Spencer Cochrane 
Mr Peter Chalmers, farmer, Redbaogb 
Dr Coventry, ProfciTor of Agriculcure, 

Edinburgh 
Mr James Cairns, Peebles 



D 



Rev. Mr "William Dona'.dfon, Ballantrae 
Mr William Dungeon, Primrofe-hill 
Mr George Dickinfon, Harriotfield 
Mr William Dkkinton, Linton 
Mr Peter Diddcp, Haddington 
Mr Alexander Dudgeon, Ni wmains 
Mr Alexander Dodds, Granton 
Mr Thomas Dodds, WetthaH 
Robert Dundas EJq. Bl 
James Dudgeon Elq. merchant, London 
Henry Davidf»n Efq. Haddington 
Right Honourable the Coilntefs Dowager 

of Dundonald, 3 copies 
Mr James Duncan, Morrifton 
Mr Thomas Duncan, Midlar 
Mr Cofmo Dawfon, Crombic 



Mr Thomas Dickfon, Moufewald 

Colonel William Dickfon, Kilbucho, M.P. 

Colonel Alexander Dickfon, Hartie 

John Dickfon Elq Culter 

Reverend David Dickfon, Pcrfiland 

John Douglas Efq. W. S. 

Mr Alexander Dudgeon, farmer, Humbie 

William Dalgliefh, D. D. Peebles 

C-puin Dickfon, Peebles 

Mr Alexander Daizel, Bardrainey, Port- 

Glr.fgow 
Mr John Darling 
Mr Alexander Dick, Edinburgh 
Mr John Dixon, 4 copies 
Mr Jacob Dixon, a copies 



John Francis Erlkine Efq. of Mar, 3 

copies 
Right Honourable Lord Ellibank 
Right Honourable Lord Elcho, 3 copies 
James Elliot Efq. W S. 
Reverend Mr John Ellerton, Stafford 



Sir William Forbes, Bart, of Pitfligo 
Mr J -mes Finlayfon, Markleinains 
Dr rorbes, phyfician, Inverness 
Captain Frazer, Brackla; , InvemefslLire 
Ms John trazer, Invernefs 
Mr William Fernw, Haddington 
\\ illiam Forbes Efq. 

James Finlayfon L>. D. Profcflbr of Lo- 
gic, Edinburgh 
Reverend John Fleming, Cairnton 
James Ferguflbn Elq. advocate 
Louis H Ferrier Efq. advocate 
Robert Forreftcr Efq. 
Reverend Alexander Forrefler, Linton 
Mr Michael Falcon jun. Largs, Newton- 

Douglas 
Alexander Findlater Efq. Edir. 1 
Mr David Foyer 



STESCRIBERS NAMES. 



409 



Reverend George Goldie, Atholftonford 
Marmaduke Gray Efq. Kyloe 
Reverend William Gordon, Urquhart 
Mr John Geddes, Orton, Moray 
John Grainger Eiq. W. S. 
Mr Thomas Gibfbn, Cardrona 
Alexander Goldie Efq. W. S. 
Alexander Gardiner Efq. Lady kirk 
Mr William Gairns in Stevenfton 
Mr James Grahame, merchant, Edinburgh 
Mr William Gray, Glen 
Dr Andrew Grahame, Dalkeith 
Alexander SincLir Gordon Efq. London 

H 
Right Hon. Earl of Haddington, 3 copies 
Right Hon. Lord Hawke, 3 copies 
Honourable Charles Hope, Lord Advocate 
Honourable Baron Hepburn, Smeaton 
fames Hay Efq. of Hayftown, M. D. 
Captain James Hay, late of the Mac- 

Cartney Eaf\ Ir.diaman 
John Hay Efq. Ranker, 2 copies 
Sir John Henderfon of Fordel, Bart. 
Robert Hay Efq-. Drummelzier 
Robert Hay Efq. of Spot 
l)r Hunter, phyfician, York 
Mr David Hepburn, Pleafance 
Mr William Hunter, Knows 
Mr Robert Howden, Chappie 
Mr John Hepburn, BcarstoorJ 
Godfrey Higgins Efq. Yoiklhire 
Mr Michael Harding, Walton, Stafford 
Mr John Howden, Cardiff, Wales 
Mr John Hogg, Dunbar 
Mr James Howden, E^ll Fortune 
Mr Jnhn Howden, Congalton-Mains 
Mr Andrew Howden, Law head 
William Henderfon Efq. Comlongon 
Francis Horner Efq. advocate 
Charles Hay Efq. advocate 
Mr A. Iknderfon, feedfman 



Andrew Hamilton Efq. Spittlehaugh 
Mjf-.ir Thomas Hart 
Mr Charles Howden, Atholflonford 
Mr John Handifule, farmer, Wariti 
Robert Hamilton Efq. advoca 
Colonel Hutton, Peebles 



Mr Janus Johnftone, Gleghornte 
John Jamiefon Efq. Alloa 
Mr William Jobfon, Turvielaws, Nor- 
thumberland 
Mr Alexander Johnftone jnn. Elgin 
Alexander living Efq. advocate 
Mr James Johnfton, merchant, Dalkeith 
Mr William Jamiefon, Alloa 

k 

The Right Honourable Earl of Kellie 
Sir Alexander Kinloch Bart. Gilmerton 
Mr Lockart Kinloch, Invernefs 
Archibald Knox Efq. Sunnyfide 
Jofeph King Efq. Newmill, Elgin 
Mr Andrew Keir, Newton 
Reverend George Skene Keith, Keithhall 
Mr Thomas Kerr, Whitekirk 
Mrs Murray Keith, Murraythall 
Mrs Ann Keith, George Street, Edinburgh 
John Kennedy Efq. Underwood 
Adam Kennedy Efq. Romano 
Wiiiiam Kerr Eiq. Kerfield 

t. 

Ri^ht Honourable Earl of Lever. 
James Leflie Efq. of Rothic 
Mr George Leflie of Badenfwoth 
Jofeph Ltifts Efq. Low Newton 
Tlev. William Leflie, St Andrews, Moray. 
Mr John Lawfon, Old Mills 
James Laidlaw Efq. W. S. 2 copies 
\\ iiiiam Laidlaw Efq. of Allerton 
Gilbert Lning Efq. Edinburgh 
Mr Charles Lawfon, mifon, Newlands' 
n Lawfon, Efq. Cairn m 1:1 , x oopie* 
3G 



4io 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



John Loch Efq. Rachan 
William Loch Efq. younger of Rachan 
Mr John Lamb, writer, Lanark 
Walter Laidlavv Efq. Hyndhope 
Mr John Laing, Blythfbank 

M 
Sir Jame* Montgomery, Bart. Stanhope, 

3 copies 
Sir George Montgomery, Bart, of Mag- 

biehill, 3 copies 
James Montgomery Efq. M P. 
Angus M'Donald Efq. jeweller, Glafgow, 

6 copies 
Neil M' Gibbon Efq. Inveraray 
Alexander M'Donald Efq. Glencoe 
Adam M'Donald Efq. Achtrighton 
James Maxwell Efq. Aros Mill 
Mr John Mein, Haddington 
Mr John Murray, Kii klandhill 
George Mylne Efq. Sydferf 
James Maync Efq. Powis Logie 
Mr Alexander MacKenzie, Thomafton 
Alexander MacKenzie Efq. Hilton, 

Rofsihire 
Captain Monro, Teanenich, Rofsfnire 
Rev. Mr M'Kenzie, Foddeity, ditto 

Marfhall Efq. Yorklhire 
Mr William Mitten, Bav.dfworth, ditto 
Mr William MacKie, Maokie-Ormifton 
Kenneth M'Kenzie Efq. Dunaiu 
Mr John Mathcw, Rome 
Mr Peter Mat hew, Sheriiiion 
Rev. Mr Macqueen, Prefton 
Robert Macbain Efq. NairnGde" 
William M'Intolh Efq. Balnerkirk 
Colin Monro Efq. Invernefs 
Mr Maitland of Freugh 
Mr John M'Chlery, Mount-Pkafant, 

Galloway 
George Mole Efq. Aberdeen 
Mr Robert Murray, Clerkington 
Mr George Murray, Pinkerton 
Rev. Mr Moor, Oldhamftocks 



John Meek Efq. Campfield 
J. Wolfe Murray Efq advocator 
Hugh Mofman Efq. i copies 
Thomas M' Knight Efq. Ratho 
David Monypenny Efq. advocate 
Donald M'Laughlan of M'Laughlan Efq. 

advocate 
Alexander Macconochie Efq. advocate 
William Murray Efq of Henderland 
John A. Murray Efq. advocate 
Colonel Macdowal of Logan 
Archibald Menzies Efq. Edinburgh 
Eneas Mackay Efq. Scotftown, a copies 
Kenneth M'Kenzie Efq. Dolphington, 

% copies 
Kenneth M'Kenzie Efq. W. S. Edinburgh 
Rev. George Mark, Carnwath 
Mr James Murray, Flemington Mill 
Mr James M'Dougal, Linton 
Mr John Murray of Hartftone 
Mr William Murray, Kedmuir 
Mr James Milne, Whitelaw 
Stewart Moodie Efq. advocate 
Mr John Mathefen, Skirling 
Major Moodie of Melfetter 
Hugh Montgomery Efq. Port-GIafgow 
Captain Macdowall 
Mr Charles Macfarlan 
Mr Humphry Macfarlane 
Mr Robert Macfarlane 
George Menzies Efq. Culler 
Mr Duncan Macfarlane, Colnefc 
Mr John Mitchell, Arochmore 
Mr John Malcolm 
Mr Robert Miller 

N 
Reverend Francis Nicol, Strathmartin 
Reverend James Nichol, Traquair 
Mr James Noble 



William Ogle Wallis Ogle Efq, Gaufej- 
Paik, Northumberland 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



411 



Alexander Ofborn Efq. Solicitor of the Mr William Rennie, Oxwcllmains, Dunbav 
Cuftoms Mr Andrew Richardfon 



j. Parkinfon Efq. Afgarby, Lincolnfhire 
W. Payne Efq. Frickley, Yorkfhire, 6 cop. 
Richard Parkinfon Efq. Slanes-Caftie, 

Ireland 
Mr Park, Caterick, near Beverly, York- 
fliire 
Mr John Proctor, Calcoats, Murray 
Mr Peter Philip, Longbridgemuir 
Reverend William Porteous, Kilhucho 
Reverend Charles Paton, Ettrick 
Mr David Pearfon 
Mr Henry Park, Inverleithao 



William Rofs Efq. Stranraer 

George Rennie Efq. Fantaffie, a copies 

Mr George Rennie, Waughton 

Mr James Reid, Brownrigg 

David Roughead Efq. Haddington 

Mr William Ritchie, ftudent of Divinity 

Jofeph Richardfon Efq. Newfield, near 

Annan, a copies 
James Roughead Efq. Haddington, 3 

copies 
Dr Robcrtfon, phyfician, Invernefs 
Allan Robertfon Efq. Invernefs 
Mr Colin Ritchie, Culmore, Galloway 
Mr Alexander RufTell, Aikenhead 
James Rofe Efq. Fewfide 
Mr William Rhind, Inveilachty 
George Robinfon Efq. W. S. 
Charles Rofs Efq. advocate 
George Robertfon Efq. Arbuthnot-mains 
Colonel Renton of Symington 
Dr Henry Robertfon, Edinburgh 
Reverend J. M. Robertfon, Livingflon 
Reverend Charles Ritchie, Kirklifton 
James Reid Efq. furgcon, Provoft of 

Peebles 
Mr John Rammadsc, Whitehaugh 



Sir John Sinclair of Ulbfter, Bart. M. P. 

3 copies 
Lady Sinclair of Ulbfter 
Sir James Stewart of Coltnefs, Baronet, 

2 copies 
Mr Richard Sommer 1 ;, Townhead 
Mr John Shirrcff, Mungoswells 
Mr John Shirreff, Captainhead 
Mr Richard Shirreff, Luggate 
Mr Francis Shirreff, Dnmhills 
Mr James Shirreff, Edinburgh 
Mr Peter Shirreff, Drem 
Mr James Shirreff, Greenhead 
David Shirreff Efq. Kinmylees 
Reverend Dr Stewart, Newburgh 
Mr John Salmon, Mordunmills 
Benjamin Sayle Efq. of Wentbridge, 

Yorkfhire 
Mr Jofeph Storrs, Yorkfhire 
John Smart Efq. Trewhitt, Northum- 
berland 
Mathew Sandilands Efq. W. S. 
Mr Robert Stevenfon, Caftle-Hadingham, 

EfTex 
Mi Donald Smith, Gcrdonftown 
Charles Stewart Efq. M. D. Edinburgh 
Thomas Smith Efq. W. S. 
Mr James S'ruihtrs, writer, Edinburgh 
Reverend William Strachan, Culter 
Robert Stark, Efq. 
Dugald Stewart, Efq. Profeffor of Moral 

Puilofophy, Edinburgh, a copies 
Mr Thomas Saunderfon, merchant, K- 

dinburgh 
Henry Shettlewood Efq. 
Mr Waiter Skirving, merchant, Dalkeith 
Mr Walter Simpfon, Drummehier 
Mr John Scott 

Mr Alexander Stewart, Efhields 
Mr DaviJ Skirving, Gail 

3 G 2 



4i : 



SUBSCRIBERS NAMES. 



Mr Andrew Somrru 
Robert Sommerville Efq. Haddington 
igton of Edflone 



Right Horn I I-larl cf Traquair 

John Trotter Efq- Mortonhall, 2 ( 
Mr Andrew Taylor, Linton 
Mr Adam Tutnbull, Newbigging 
J. D. Thorn Ton Efq. Lcith 

Thorburn, Hol'iice 
Mi William Turnbuii, Blackhatigh 
1 komas Tweecic Efq. of Oliver 



Eobert Veitch E(q. Hawthornbank 

W 

Mr John Walker, Monkridge 
Mr Francis Walker, Tunderlanc 
Mr Peter Weir, Ferrygate 
William Wight Efq. Edinburgh 
R. R. Wood Efq. Lincolnshire 

rn Wilkie Efq. Haddington 
Mr William Watfon, North Miduleton, 

humberjand 
John Wilfon Efq. Morpfth 
Richard Wr.it. .ward Efquire, E.ickacre, 

Stafl 
Mi .-. :. , R hnfca!?, Stafl 



Mr Charles Woadly, Cardiff 
Mr Francis Walker, Whitelaw 
Mr William Walker, Halyards 

Wilkie Efq. Haddington 
Mr-John Wilfon', Prefton, nearDunfe 
Mr Malcolm Wright 
David Williamfon Efq. advocate 
Mr Samn I Wood, writer, Jedburgh 
R.cvercnd William Watfon, Eiggar 
James Walker Efq W. S. 
Mr Jime? Wright, Haugh of Newlifton 
■ Williamfon Efq. Cardrona 

itthew Wilkie, Bonnington 
A. S. Weddcrburn Efq. of Wedderhum 

iJexander Wellh, Hurtftaii2 
Mr Watfon, Whitflade 
Mr Alex. Williamfon, writer, Peebles 
Mr Adam Whyte 
Mr William Wallace 



Mr WiHiam Yule, Gifford 

Mr John Young, Inverness 

William Young Efq. Inchhrcom, Elgin 

Mr Robert Young, Coxtovvn 

Mr Alexander Young, Elgin 

Mr Archibald Campbell Younger 

Mr Charles Young, infnrauce broker, E- 

dinburgh 
The Reverend Waltei Young, Erskinc 



ADDITIOl 



nes Allardyce, Boynes Mill 

• . Fdinbhrgh 
Mr William Drown, Dunfyre 

• . 1 Crai (Ion lion 
Rev. .Mr ( . 

R.cv. Dr Douglas, Galafhiels 
JVIr James Deans, Coulter-park 
Humphry Dcnholm Efq. of Birl 
■ scat 



Mi Hugh Gilbert, Wall 

xander Graham, Kerlewell 
Mr Al N.itidcr Gray, Lyne 
Rev. Mr Haining, Dunfyre 
Rev. Mr Handy fide, Lyne 
Mi Richard Jamiefon, Wandlemill 
Mr James Kerr, Peebles, 2 copies 
Mr Robert Laidlaw, Kingledores, 2 cop 
1 Ir Lundic, ( lordon 



ADDITIONAL NAMES. 



4^3 



©ideon Ncedham Efq. 

Mr Jolin Nimmo, Newliolm 

Mr William Newbigging, Pettynatn 

Mr John Rofe 

Mr David Stodhart, Eafton 

Mr Thomas Stodhart, Biggarfhiels 

Mr James Stodhart, Walftone 



Mr James Stodhart, Covington 

Laurence Tweedie Efq jnn of Oliver 

Mr Robert Tweedie, Longhangh, % cop. 

Mr Thorburn, Holly lee 

Mr William White, Todholes 

Mr William White, Howburn 

Mr William Watfon, Weftown 



£j* Several Subfcription Papers not having reached the PublifJjer 
in time for inferticn in the above Lift, 'will account, he 
trufis, for furidry Names being omitted ; and he is mofl 
earnefly folicitous and hopeful, that eviry mi/lake, whether 
relative to names or defgnations, will be excufed by thofe 
Gentlemen whofe names may have been either erroneoufy 
copied, or altogether omitted — the former of thefe circum- 
flances being often almojl totally unavoidable, from the ve- 
ry indiflincl manner in which many of the names in the 
Lifls returned were written out. 



FINIS. 



Printed by D. Willison, Craig's Clofe, Edinburgh. 



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LIBERTY AND EQUALITY, 

A SERMON, or ESSAY : 

BEING THE SUBSTANCE OF WHAT WAS DELIVERED FROM THE PULFIT 
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To which is subjoined, 

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CONTAINING AN ANAYLSIS OF, AND SOME OBSERVATIONS ON, GODWIn'-S 
SYSTEM OF SOCIETY IN HIS POLITICAL JUSTICE. 

By the Rev. CHARLES FINDLATER, 

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FORM No. 310 



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